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Presentation on theme: "EVALUATION OF LOWER EXTREMITY SWELLING"— Presentation transcript:

David Southwick DO Medical Director Wound Healing Center Union Hospital Terre Haute Indiana

2 Evaluation of lower extremity can be straight forward or fraught with difficulty

3 Evaluation is largely one of establishing a differential diagnosis

4 OBJECTIVES 1) Identify the most common causes of lower extremity swelling 2)Establish a differential diagnosis for less common causes of lower extremity swelling 3)Explain the pathophysiology of lower extremity swelling 4)Explain the work up of the most common causes of lower extremity swelling 5) Explain the work up of less common causes of lower extremity swelling

5 From a practical sense most causes of lower extremity swelling is due to edema

6 edema is defined as a palpable swelling caused by an increase in interstitial fluid volume

7 Etiology of edema Increase in intravascular pressure
Increase in vessel wall permeability Decrease in the intravascular osmotic pressure Excess bodily fluids Lymphatic obstruction Local injury Infection Medication effect

8 Pathophysiology of edema
1) Alteration in capillary hemodynamics favoring the movement of fluid from the intravascular to the interstitial space 2) Retention of dietary or intravenously administered sodium and water by the kidneys Rose, Burton MD Pathophysiology and etiology of edema I and II Aug

9 Edema, other than localized edema, does not become clinically apparent until the interstitial volume has increased by 2.5 to 3 liters. The reason this is not due to intravascular causes but is due to renal function.

10 Renal compensation Initial movement of fluid from the vascular space into the interstitium results in reduction of plasma volume and hence tissue perfusion Decreased tissue perfusion results in renal retention of sodium and water Some of this fluid stays within the vascular space returning the plasma volume toward normal while most of the fluid enters the interstitium Net effect is a marked expansion of total extracelluar volume- EDEMA Rose Burton MD Pathophysiology and etiology of edema I and II Aug 6, 2000

11 Renal sodium and water retention in most edematous states is an APPROPIATE compensation in that it restores the intravascular space and hence perfusion

12 Workup of Lower Extremity edema

13 Basically there are two reasons for lower extremity edema
1) Venous origin 2) Lymphatic origin

14 Differential diagnosis of lower extremity edema
Venous obstruction Venous insufficiency Deep venous thrombosis Right sides heart failure Pericardial effusion Cor pulmonale Tricuspid stenosis Pulmonary stenosis Tricuspid regurgitation Pericarditis Congenitial heart disease

15 Differential diagnosis continued
Premenstrual fluid accumulation Preeclapsia-eclampsia Pregnancy Idiopathic edema Myxedema Liver diease- cirrhosis Low albumin states

16 Differential diagnosis continued
Fluid overload Lipedema Cellulitis Compartment syndrome Baker’s cyst Malignancy Lymphatic obstruction intralumenal and extralumenal Medication effect Limb dependency in wheelchair bound or patients with contractures Oedema of the lower extremity- Right Dolmatch B, Lower Extremity Venous Thrombosis and Leg Swelling: The Role of CT Venography; Stanford Radiology 10th Annual Multidetector CT Symposium: May 15, 2008 Arumilli,B et al, Painful Swollen leg- Think Beyond DVT and Baker’s Cyst: World Journal of Oncology. V

17 Approach to Patient with Edematous Lower Extremity Caveats
The most common cause of lower extremity edema is Chronic Venous Insufficiency- The most common cause of leg edema in females between menarche and menopause is Idiopathic Edema Common, yet unrecognized, cause of lower extremity edema is Pulmonary Hypertension often associated with Sleep Apnea Ely, J et al Approach to Leg Edema of Un clear Etiology J. of the American Board of Family Practice MAR- Apr 2006 vol 19 no Blankfield R et al Bilateral Leg Edema, Obesity, Pulmonary Hypertension and Obstrctive Sleep Apnea: Arch Intern Med/ vol. 160 Aug 14/

18 Caveats continued For patients greater than 50 years of age CVI is most common cause of leg edema- CVI affects 30% of the population whereas Heart Failure affects only 1%. Unless otherwise suspected by History and Physical assume one of the above to be true. Exception to the rule is EARLY heart failure or pulmonary hypertension can cause leg edema before clinically obvious.

19 HISTORY Duration of edema: acute vs chronic
Previous history lower extremity edema: if positive- response to therapy Overnight improvement Other symptoms Pain: onset, degree and nature Drug History History of pelvic or abdominal neoplasia History cardiac or renal disease History Sleep Apnea History Radiation therapy Travel history/ Country of origin

20 Medications associated with edema
Antihypertensive drugs Calcium channel blockers Beta blockers Clonidine Hydralazine Minoxidil methyldopa Hormones Corticosteroids Estrogen Progesterone Testosterone Other NSAID’s Monoamine oxidase inhibitors Rosiglitazone, Piogliatazone docetaxel

21 Painful swollen legs Pain to palpation: DVT, RSD lipedema, ruptured Baker’s cyst or gastrocnemius tear Acute onset: less then 72 hours duration: DVT Consider when : history cancer, recent surgery, bed ridden, limb immobilization, hypercoagulable state Work up DVT: Unilateral painful swollen leg with history: D-dimer: if greater than 500 ng/ml then Doppler: if positive treat Work up for DVT: Unilateral painful swollen leg without history: D-dimer: if less then 500ng/mg and PE consistent for musculoskeletal etiol then pain control and elevation; if PE etiol still questionable the Venogram. Also consider getting abd/pelvic CT to R/O malgnancy.

22 Travel History or country of origin
Recent travel to tropics or tropical country of origin think parasitic etiology Elephantiasis: Lymphatic filariasis: wucheria bancrofti, bruga malayi, bruga timori or protozoal: leischmania Nonfilarial elephantiasis: volcanic ash residue chemical absorption via bare feet causing irritation and blockage of lymph vessels Repeated streptococcal infection Surgical removal lymph nodes Hereditary birth defect

23 Physical Examination BMI: Elevated think sleep apnea
Distribution of edema: unilateral, bilateral or generalized Pain on palpation Pitting vs Nonpitting edema Varicosities, telangectasia Kaposi- Stemmer sign Skin changes; waxy texture, papillomatosis, hemosiderin deposition, Systemic signs: JVD, lung crackles, ascites spider hemangiomas jaundice

24 Phlegmasia alba dolens right leg

25 Phegmasia alba dolens

26 Phlegmasia cerulea dolens right leg

27 Unilateral right leg swelling: DVT

28 May Thurner syndrome Compression Left greater saphenous vein by crossing Right common iliac artery

29 Pitting Edema

30 Ruptured Baker’s cyst Right leg

31 Ruptured right gastrocnemius muscle

32 Varicose veins

33 Elephantiasis Left leg

34 Laboratory testing few helpful
CBC UA Electrolytes BUN/ Creatinine Blood sugar Thyroid stimulating hormone Serum albumin

35 If known cardiac history or if suspect cardiac disease
EKG Echocardiogram: patient greater than 45 y.o. with edema uncertain etiology, suspect other cardiac disease Chest Xray Brain natriuretic peptide in dyspneic patient

36 Other testing: base on diagnosis
D-dimer: R/O DVT Serum lipids: nephrotic syndrome Lymphosintography: lymphedema Directed Plain films , MRI : if suspect tumor Venous doppler: if suspect DVT or Chronic Venous Insufficiency- be specific when ordering test; if suspect CVI specify reflux and perforator evaluation Arterial doppler with ABI: if suspect CVI – 30% have unsuspected PAD, also compressive therapy requires verification of adequate arterial flow Ely J, et al: Approach to Leg Edema of Unclear Etiology JABFM MAR-Apr 2006 vol19 no 2, Arumilli B, et al; Painful swollen leg – think beyond deep vein thrombosis or Baker’s cyst- World J Surg Oncol :6

37 Pleomorphic sarcoma post compartment
Arumilli: Painful swollen leg- World J Surg Oncol 2008: 6:6

38 Chronic venous insufficiency
Requirements for venous return are: Competent bicuspid venous valves Effective calf muscle contraction: “ankle-calf pump” Normal respiration

39 Venous pressure deep venous system 80 mm Hg when horizontal Venous pressure superficial venous system is mm Hg when horizontal

40 Chronic venous Insufficiency
Characterized by: Chronic pitting edema Often has associated with hemosiderin deposition Ulceration over the “gaiter area” of shins- especially over medial malleolus : shallow ulcers with irregular margins Common findings of varicose veins, retinacular veins, ankle flaring Atrope blanche Stasis dermatitis Lipodermatosclerosis

41 Venous hemosiderin deposition

42 Venous ulceration Shallow with irregular margins, reddish base with granulation tissue

43 Idiopathic edema Most common in women in 20-30 year old range
Cyclical edema but may persist throughout menstrual cycle Pathologic fluid retention in upright position Weight gain due to fluid retention can be greater than 1.4 kg over 24 hours Diagnosis by exclusion in young females

44 Summary

45 Unilateral Acute Chronic
Deep venous thrombosis Ruptured Baker’s cyst Ruptured medial head gastrocnemius muscle Compartment syndrome Chronic venous insufficiency Secondary lympedema Pelvic tumor or lymphoma causing external pressure on veins Reflex sympathetic dystrophy May-Thurner syndrome

46 Bilateral Acute Chronic Bilateral DVT
Acute exacerbation of systemic etiology ie; heart failure or renal disease CVI Pulmonary hypertension Heart failure Idiopathic edema Lymphedema Drug effect Premenstrual edema Pregnancy Obesity Renal disease

47 Bilateral Acute Chronic Liver disease
Secondary lymphedema (tumor, radiation, bacterial infection, filariasis) Pelvic tumor or lymphoma causing external pressure Dependent edema- prolonged sitting, wheel chair bound Diuretic –induced edema Preeclampsia Lipedema

48 Bilateral Acute Chronic Primary lymphedema
Protein losing enteropathy, malnutrition, malabsorption Restrictive pericarditis Restrictive cardiomyopathy Beri beri Myxedema

49 Zebras Portal hypertension with a patent paraumbilical vein connection to the leg: Sivo J:J Ultrasound Med 21: , 2002 Bilateral peroneal compartment syndrome after horseback riding: Naidu, et al: Am J Emerg Med Sep:27(7): 901.e3-5 Painful leg: a very unusual presentation of renal cell carcinoma. Case report and review of the literature: Gozen et al; Urol Int. 2009;82:472-6

50 Recommendations Go with the odds but keep an open mind: remember CVI comprises 30% of population while heart failure comprises only 1% If condition is chronic you usually have time to work up and assess response to your therapy There are only a few causes of acute unilateral or bilateral lower extremity edema: all of them are generally bad- time is of the essence for treatment especially if due to DVT or compartment syndrone

51 Recommendations continued
If premenopausal woman without systemic disease think Idiopathic edema. If edema is chronic and of unclear etiology think Lipedema Use your history and physical to guide you, supplement with lab and imaging studies; remember the differential is long so can’t use a shotgun approach

52 Recommendations continued
For cases of chronic bilateral lower extremity edema use your H&P to ascertain if Cardiac, Renal ,Liver or Gut ; supplement with labs, imaging as directed. Think outside the box for more obscure etiologies: sleep apnea, anatomic anomalies

53 Questions?


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