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Presentation on theme: "DEEP VEIN THROMBOSIS."— Presentation transcript:


2 Definitions Deep-vein thrombosis (also known as deep-venous thrombosis or DVT) is the formation of a blood clot ("thrombus") in a deep vein. Pulmonary embolism (PE) is a condition that occurs when an artery in your lung becomes blocked.

3 Thrombosis

4 Virchow’s Triad It is the result of 1 of 3 factors known as Virchow’s Triad. Endothelial damage Venous blood stasis Hypercoagulability

5 Signs & Symptoms Pain in the leg
Tenderness in the calf (one of the most important signs) Leg tenderness Swelling of the leg Increased warmth of the leg Redness in the leg Bluish skin discoloration

6 DIAGNOSIS OF DVT Clinical examination Investigations

7 CLINICAL EXAMINATION Homan’s sign Moses’ sign
Phlegmasia alba dolens (white leg) Phlegmasia cerulea dolens (blue leg)

8 Diagnosis of DVT Duplex Ultra sonography - Projected sound waves bounce off structures in the leg and create images that reveal abnormalities. The addition of color Doppler imaging improves accuracy. Venography – An x-ray of leg and pelvis will show the calf and thigh veins and reveal any blockages.

9 places in the leg to identify possible blockages.
Diagnosis of DVT MRI - particularly effective in diagnosing DVT in the pelvis, and as effective as venography in diagnosing DVT in the thigh. Cuff-impedance plethysmography - uses blood pressure checks at different places in the leg to identify possible blockages.

10 Potential Complications
Pulmonary emboli- most serious complication of DVT Chronic venous insufficiency - Long-term DVT can degenerate the venous valves. Post- phlebotic syndrome - long-term complication of DVT which occurs due to damage and scarring to the veins and is characterized by swelling, discomfort and skin pigmentation in the affected area. Of a dvt

11 DVT Risk Factors Risk Factor= 1 Point Risk Factor= 2 Points
Age years Bedrest COPD CHF (<1 month) Acute MI Pneumonia (< I month) Sepsis (<month) Inflammatory Bowel Disease Minor surgery planned Hx of prior major surgery Obesity (BMI>25) Swollen legs Pregnancy Oral Contraceptives Age years Athroscopic surgery Laparoscopic surgey Malignancy (present or history) Major surgery (>45 Minutes) Patient confined to bed (>72 hours) Immobilizing plaster cast(<1month) Central Venous Access Infection Nephrotic Syndrome

12 DVT Risk Factors Risk Factor= 3 Point Risk Factor =5 Points
Age >75 years Major surgery(>3 hours) Hx of DVT/PE Family hx of Thrombosis Heparin-induced thrombocytopenia Thrombophilia Hx of clotting disorder Elective major lower extremity arthroplasty Hip, pelvis, or leg fracture(<1 month) Stroke(< 1 month) Acute spinal cord injury (paralysis<1 month)

13 RISK LEVEL FOR DVT….. Low Risk- DVT score 1 Moderate Risk- DVT score 2
High Risk- DVT score 3-4 Highest Risk- DVT score 5 or more

14 Prevention DVT/PE Pharmacologic Non-pharmacologic

15 Prevention: Non-pharmacologic
Mechanical methods: Used in combination with drug therapy or as monotherapy in those with lower risk or contraindications to anticoagulation prophylaxis Includes aggressive mobilization, foot pumps, intermittent pneumatic leg pumps, graduated compression stockings These methods MUST be used for most of the day (>21 hours) to be effective

16 Prevention: Pharmacologic
Unfractionated Heparin Low Molecular Weight Heparin (LMWH) daltaparin (Fragmin), enoxaparin (Lovenox) Factor Xa Inhibitor fondaparinux (Arixtra) Warfarin (Coumadin)

17 Contraindications to Pharmacological Prophylaxis
Active GI bleed Recent hemorrhagic stroke or hemorrhage Previous hypersensitivity or significant drug-specific ADR Platelet count <100 X 109/L (varies) Neurosurgical Procedure within last 30 days Varies between institutions, physicians, and particular patient risk/benefit considerations

18 Unfractionated Heparin
Indications: Prophylaxis and treatment of thromboembolic disorders Prophylactic Dose: 5,000 Units SQ q8hrs Monitoring: PTT, Plt, Hgb, Hct, bleeding

19 Unfractionated Heparin
Complications: hemorrhage (most common), thrombocytopenia, hyper-sensitivity Advantages: Cost, DVT prophylaxis of choice in pregnancy

20 Warfarin (Coumadin) Indication: Treatment of venous thrombosis, pulmonary embolis, and thromboembolic disorder Not generally used for DVT/PE prophylaxis (except long term prevention, such as patients with valve replacements) due to delayed onset of action and higher risk of bleeding complications Dose: Typical starting dose is 2.5 to 5 mg Use “bridge therapy” (LMWH or heparin + warfarin) when immediate anticoagulation is warranted

21 Bridge Therapy The anticoagulant effects of warfarin (Coumadin) are not immediate It takes several days (~ 5 days) to a week to deplete existing Vitamin K dependent clotting factors in the body During this lag time, the patient must be protected against DVT/PE with Heparin, enoxaparin (Lovenox), daltaparin (Fragmin) or fondaparinux (Arixtra) until the therapeutic INR is achieved

22 Bridge Therapy Concurrent therapy with warfarin (Coumadin) MUST be continued for a minimum of 5 days, AND 2 consecutive INR values must be seen before the discontinuation of LMWH or heparin may occur


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