5 Clinical feature Puffiness of face Pedal edema(pitting/non-pitting) Abdominal wall edema(by pressing with palm)Sacral edema
6 STARLING FORCES IN SHIFTING THE FLUID IN DIFFERENT COMPARTMENTS The hydrostatic pressure within the vascular system and the colloid oncotic pressure in the interstitial fluid tend to promote movement of fluid from the vascular to the extravascular space.By contrast, the colloid oncotic pressure contributed by plasma proteins and the hydrostatic pressure within the interstitial fluid promote the movement of fluid into the vascular compartment.
19 INVESTIGATIONS Serum protein & albumin Urine analysis -protein, sugar -castKidney function test-s.urea-s.creatinine
20 Liver function test-SGOT/SGPT-ALP-S.bilirubinFecal fat estimation-to rule out malabsorptionThyroid function testECG and echocardiography-LVEF-Valvular lesion-Regional wall motion abnormality
21 TreatmentTreatment of the underlying cause(cardiac, renal, hepatic, thyroid abnormality)Stop and replace the drug causing edemaDiureticsRestricting salt and fluid intake and monitoring input-outputProtein rich diet (in hypoalbuminemic state)