2 Activator 1. What do you think of our textbook? How much did you read?What did you like?What did you not like so much?What did you find difficult?2. How many pages do you anticipate reading tonight?
3 Agenda Activator, agenda, and objective (10 minutes) First Americans Lecture / Chapter Outline (20 minutes)Columbus and De Las Casas reading (15 minutes)European’s View of Native Americans – observing primary sources (20-30 minutes)“Voices of Freedom” primary source analysis (30-45 minutes)APPARTS primary source strategy (10 minutes)Exit ticket and homework (5 minutes)
4 Objective You all will… Examine the transatlanic encounters between Europeans and American Indians, focusing on Spain’s empire and the Pueblo Revolt.(From CollegeBoard’s AP topic #2).Analyze primary sources and record your observations in writing.
5 Give Me Liberty!Ch. 1 Presentation(20-30 minutes)
6 I. First Americans A. Arrival of Native Americans - Gradual settlement across Americas- Environmental change and rise of agricultureB. Aztec and Inca Empires
7 I. First Americans (cont’d) D. North American IndiansDistinguishing factors among Indian societiesPolitical organizationReligious beliefsLanguageAbsence of shared identityCommon characteristics among Indian societiesSpiritual outlookPlace of ritualViews on natural and supernaturalViews on secular and religiousConceptions of propertyRelative lack of material inequalitySystems of gender relationsEuropean disdain for Indian customs and valuesNorth American IndiansWide-ranging and evolving societiesMississippi ValleyOhio River ValleySouthwestWest CoastGreat PlainsSoutheastNortheastInterrelations among Indian societiesTradeDiplomacyWar
8 II. Indian freedom, European freedom Indian conceptions of freedomBasis in collective belonging, self-determination, mutualityAbsence of basis in individual autonomy, private propertyEuropean incomprehension ofEuropean conceptions of freedomChristian libertyFreedom from sinNo freedom of religious choiceFreedom and inequality in early modern EnglandEmphasis on ordered, hierarchical societyGender hierarchiesClass hierarchiesUnequal distribution of freedoms
9 III. Start of European expansion Initial aimsCommercial sea route to AsiaCircumvention of Islamic middlemenEastward expansionPortugal’s exploration, extension of trading empireWest AfricaCape of Good HopeIndiaFar EastPortugal’s colonization of Atlantic islandsSugar plantationsSlaves from AfricaSlavery and AfricaTraditional patterns of African slaveryAcceleration of slave trade following European arrivalWestward expansionVoyages of Christopher ColumbusQuest for westward route to AsiaSponsorship of SpainFirst Spanish presence in New WorldSettlements at HispaniolaExplorations by Amerigo VespucciFirst English and Portuguese presence in New WorldJohn Cabot (Newfoundland)Pedro Cabral (Brazil)
10 IV. Spanish conquest of New World MotivationsAcquisition of wealthNational glorySpread of CatholicismThe ConquistadoresVasco Núňez de Balboa’s expedition to Panama, the PacificFerdinand Magellan’s expedition around the worldHernán Cortés’s conquest of the AztecsBackground on Aztec empireDefeat, devastation, subjugation of the AztecsFrancisco Pizarro’s conquest of the IncasBackground on Inca empireDefeat, devastation, subjugation of the IncasDemographic consequences“Columbian exchange” of goods and peopleDevastation of Indian populationBreadth and magnitudeCausesWarEnslavementDisease
11 Spanish conquistadores murdering Indians at Cuzco, in modern-day Peru Spanish conquistadores murdering Indians at Cuzco, in modern-day Peru. The Dutch-born engraver Theodor de Bry and his sons illustrated ten volumes about New World exploration published between 1590 and A Protestant, de Bry created vivid images that helped to spread the Black Legend of Spain as a uniquely cruel colonizer.
12 VI. The Spanish Empire Spain and the Indians Dual agenda of saving souls and exploiting laborExternal restraints on brutalization of IndiansPope Paul III’s ban on Indian enslavementBartolomé de las Casas’s Destruction of the IndiesSpanish reforms of colonist-Indian relationsAbolition of Indian enslavementAbolition of encomienda systemImplementation of repartimiento systemContinuing abuse of IndiansColonial labor system at end of sixteenth centuryInvoluntary wage labor by IndiansSlave labor by AfricansEmergence of Black Legend image of Spanish colonizersSpanish explorations of North AmericaMotivationsRichesStrategic basesReligious conversion
13 Spanish explorations of North America VI. The Spanish EmpireSpanish explorations of North AmericaExploratory expeditionsJuan Ponce de LéonJuan Rodriguez CabrilloHernando de SotoCabeza de VacaFrancisco Vásquez de CoronadoDevastation of Indian communitiesEstablishment of Spanish settlementsIn present-day SoutheastIn present-day Southwest
14 VI. The Spanish Empire Pueblo Revolt Pueblo Revolt Sources of Pueblo resentment of colonial authoritiesLabor exploitationPressure to convert to CatholicismAssault on Pueblo religious traditionsFailure to protect Pueblos from drought, external attacksThe 1680 RevoltPopéBackgroundLeadershipUnity of Pueblo rebelsDefeat and ouster of Spanish colonizersPueblo RevoltAftermath of revoltEradication of Spanish cultural presenceCollapse of Pueblo unityReturn of Spanish colonial ruleEasing of colonial practices toward Pueblos
15 VII. The French and Dutch empires Overall significanceAs part of Atlantic rivalry with SpainModesty of, compared to Spanish empireThe French empireInitial aimsInitial obstaclesEstablishment and scope ofRelations with IndiansSocial and economic arrangementsLimits of growthThe Dutch empireEstablishment and scope ofPlace within Dutch commercial empireConceptions of liberty and tolerationSocial and economic arrangementsLimits of growthRelations with Indians
16 European’s Thinking about Indigenous Peoples Christopher Columbus:Rethinking Schools, ppLies My Teacher Told Me, ppDe Las CasasHistory of the Indies
17 European’s View of Native Americans What do you see?(Write down only observations based on the document).
19 Voices of Freedom Turn to pp.38-39 in Give Me Liberty! In groups examine either Bartolome de Las Casas’ History of the Indies or Josephe’s “Declaration of Joseph.”Answer the following questions:1. Observation: What kind of document is it? What is the title? Who is the author? When was it written? For what audience was it written?2. Expression: What do you find interesting or important about this document? Is there a particular phrase or section you find particularly meaningful or surprising?3. Connection: What does this document tell us about life at the time it was written? What ideas of freedom are apparent in the document?