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How Does Local Government Work?

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Presentation on theme: "How Does Local Government Work?"— Presentation transcript:

1 How Does Local Government Work?
Chapter 5

2 Why Do We Have Local Government?
Purpose of Local Government Provides Services Collects Taxes Makes Laws Gives People a Voice

3 Local Government Provides Services
Every community has needs that must be met and a local government is developed so those needs can be met. Local Government Seniors’ Facilities Public Transportation Fire Protection Waste Disposal Parks and Recreation Animal Control Libraries Streets and Roads

4 Local Government Collects Taxes
Money is raised, through the collection of taxes, in order to pay for many of these services provided by the local government.   If you own land, house, business or other forms of property, in Edmonton, you will receive a notice once a year of what you owe the government in taxes. Revenue is the total income received. This income may come from different sources. Expenditures are expenses.

5 As a member of our local community, what are your responsibilities around the paying of tax?

6 Local Government Makes Laws
Bylaws: Are laws that are passed by a local government. Are created to help people stay safe, help the community run smoothly and to let people know how they are suppose to behave.   It is our responsibility to know what these bylaws are and to obey them.   Steps in making a law Discussion is generated on a topic of concern either by a councilor or a citizen in the community A councilor makes a motion to pass a bylaw  The motion must be considered three times before it can be voted on.  This allows time for open discussion and gives people the opportunity to voice their opinion on the topic. The motion is put to vote and if a majority of the councilors are in favor, the bylaw is passed.

7 Local Government Gives People a Voice
Would it be possible for federal and provincial governments to provide local services, collect the taxes to pay for them, and make laws? Then, why do we have a local government? People who live in our community have a better understanding of what our local needs are. Having a local government gives all citizens a better opportunity to participate in the democratic process either through running for office or by taking part in town hall meetings.

8 How are Local Governments Organized?
Municipal Area - a region that has its own local government Municipal District - rural area (outside cities and towns) that has its own local government

9 Organization of Local Government
 Top Elected Official  Council  Urban [Urban local governments include cities towns and villages.]  Mayor elected by citizens  Councillors elected by citizens   Rural [Rural local governments are those areas which are known as municipal districts or counties.]  Reeve     a councilor elected as the chief electoral officer by the council First Nations [First Nations reserves and Métis settlements have their own local governments as well.]  Chief elected by members of the community  Councillors selected by the community  Métis [First Nations reserves and Métis settlements have their own local governments as well.]  Chairperson selected by council members  Council of 5 selected by community

10 How do Modern Day First Nations Govern Themselves?
Governments on a reserve are called bands.  The head of the band is called the chief.   In conjunction with the council, the election of representatives may be done according to the Indian Act or the way the community always did it.  The band may choose to do it both ways.   When a bylaw has been passed by the council, it is called a Band Council Resolution (BCR).

11 Making Decisions for the Community
Members of the council, reeves and mayors are elected by the community to do the job of attending council meetings, making decisions about programs, services, and bylaws.  The mayor or reeve ensure that meetings are run according to the rules of each municipality.   Committees are organized which assist in helping members of each subcommittee to oversee that section of government.  At some of these subcommittee meetings, discussions are generated that must be taken back to the main council meeting for further discussion.

12 Community Advisory Committee
Advisory Committees Some councilors sit on advisory committees to receive advice from the local people on issues such as the policing, library, arts foundations and many more.  People in each community can apply to sit on any number of these committees, as a way to stay involved in the local government.   Community Advisory Committee Capital Region Waste Minimization Advisory Committee

13 Delivering Services to the Community
It takes a large number of people to help make a community run smoothly.  Each community hires people to be in charge of certain sections of the town/city.  The most important of them is the Chief Administrative Officer (CAO). The CAO’s responsibilities are: to make sure the decisions made by the council are carried out keep the council informed on how the municipality is operating The government is then divided into departments which are separate groups which are in charge of a specific section of the municipality. These departments report to the CAO. Within these departments are civil servants who are hired by the government to run or work in a specific department. Meet the City of Edmonton’s CAO, Simon Farbrother

14 City of Edmonton Organizational Chart

15 How are Local Governments Elected?
Every three years, elections take place in which people vote for representatives to local government. Our last election was in October 2013, where Don Iveson was newly elected as Mayor. People’s votes are recorded on a ballot which is a piece of paper listing the names of the candidates. To be considered in the election, individuals are nominated. Nominated means to identify a person as a possible candidate for an elected position. [Using Page 114, complete the Municipal Election Flow Chart.]

16 How Can You Participate at the Local Level?
DID YOU KNOW? Approximately 150,000 kids live on the streets, in Canada 3.2 million people live in poverty, in Canada A murderer who is mentally ill will always have a possible cause for why they did something Big Question: WHAT WOULD YOU DO? See Page 115.

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