Presentation on theme: "Chapter 6 (pg.148-190) Federalism, Government, and Politics."— Presentation transcript:
Chapter 6 (pg.148-190) Federalism, Government, and Politics
Federalism: The Canadian Experience (pg.148) The system of Federalism is divided by the division of powers between the federal Parliament and the nation’s several provincial governments.
Federalism: The Canadian Experience Unitary government —a country with only one government, a central administration Federal - a country in which separate and distinct national and provincial governments exist
Federalism: The Canadian Experience The core of the BNA Act (1867) was to establish a strong national government that would legislate on behalf of all Canadians The organization of Canada’s government is based upon American and British models From the British model, Canada adopted the idea of a Constitutional Monarchy – Canada would be governed by a monarch and elected representatives
Federalism: The Canadian Experience Also, there would be one Parliament made up of a Monarch, the Senate and the House of Commons each serving a different function in government The idea of responsible government was also implemented after 1848 – government was to be democratic made up of a Prime Minister, a cabinet and political parties
Federalism: The Canadian Experience The political party not elected would make up the official opposition and their role was to hole the ruling party accountable American influences came in the form of a federal system – national government, provincial governments, and municipal governments Learning from the American experience, Macdonald ensured the national government was more powerful that the provincial administrations
Federalism: The Canadian Experience According to the Federal System, powers were to be divided between the different levels of government At the federal level, government was thought to be for building and shaping the nation Ex. Law and order, defense, create a climate for people to work and make money, help finance public works and to allow the nation to prosper
Federalism: The Canadian Experience Section 91 of the BNA Act listed 28 specific federal powers Ex. Post Office, banks, defense, trade, criminal law, taxation, pass laws for any subject not specifically giver to the provinces in section 92 Section 92 gave the provinces 16 provincial powers Ex. Education, medical, property rights, taverns, justice and civil rights
Levels of Government Federal Provincial Territorial Municipal
Federal Government At the federal level, the government consists of the Prime Minister and Cabinet Ministers. The PM and the cabinet are always members of the same political party, usually the one with the most members of the H of C (House of Commons), unless a Minority Government is currently in power.
Federal Government In the parliamentary system at the federal level, the government is part of the institution called____________. Parliament consists of: The Governor General (represents the Queen) Two houses (upper and lower) Senate (upper house) House of Commons (lower house)
What power did the “peace, order and good government” clause give to the federal government? Residual Power: refers to the fact that the federal government can make laws about any issue that is not specifically given to the provinces (Section 92).
House of Commons and The Senate H of C consists of all MP’S who are elected while the Senate is made up of Senators appointed by the Prime Minister. Parliament’s Responsibilities (Federal): Citizenship, foreign policy, national defence, currency, banking, and the postal service.
Provincial Government Consists of the Premier and cabinet ministers. The Premier and ministers are almost always from the same political party, the one with the most elected members in the Legislative Assembly. The Premier and all other elected members make up the LEGISLATIVE ASSEMBLY. These people are called Members of the Legislative assembly or MLA’S.
Provinces Responsibilities Provinces Responsibilities (defined in the Constitution Act, 1867: Health, child welfare, municipal government, highways, labour, property and civil rights, and education.
Provincial Discontent (page 159) They were limited by lack of money. Grants from the federal government were not very generous. The only way they could raise revenue was through taxation of property, which, as now, was very unpopular. Provincial governments hesitated to raise money in this way.
More Tensions The federal government could veto any legislation within a year of passage if they felt that it was contrary to federal interests. The federal government had the right to take action to protect Catholic or Protestant schools, even though education is a provincial field. Catholics were a minority in Ontario and Protestants were a minority in Quebec.
Legislative Assembly of Manitoba The legislative arm of the Government of Manitoba. consists of the 57 Members elected to represent the people of Manitoba
Territorial The official head of a territorial government is the federally appointed Commissioner. Over the years the commissioner has become like our Lt. Governor General. The Commissioner gives final approval to legislation passed by elected members, but leaves the major decisions up to the elected members.
Territorial Vs. Provincial Territorial differs from Provincial governments. For example, the leader of the cabinet is called the Government Leader, although the job is similar to that of the Premier. In the NWT, all candidates run as independents. Elections are not won by parties, but are elected by the Legislative Assembly for the Government Leader position. Territories Responsibilities: Similar to that of the provincial government.
Municipal Government Made up of citizens of counties, towns, and cities elect representatives to be responsible for municipal or local government. Elected representatives of counties, such as improvement districts, are called REEVES (the heads) and councilors. People elected to run towns and cities are called MAYORS.
Municipal Governments…. Each Provincial Legislature decides what local governments are responsible for. Municipal Responsibilities: Local fire and police services, libraries, transportation within the municipality or county, local health issues, pest control, etc. Note: These governments may pass laws governing these areas, which are called Bylaws.