Presentation is loading. Please wait.

Presentation is loading. Please wait.

1/2/20141 National Center for Photovoltaic Research and Education (NCPRE) Indian Institute of Technology Bombay CMIA Energy Conclave, 2013.

Similar presentations


Presentation on theme: "1/2/20141 National Center for Photovoltaic Research and Education (NCPRE) Indian Institute of Technology Bombay CMIA Energy Conclave, 2013."— Presentation transcript:

1 1/2/20141 National Center for Photovoltaic Research and Education (NCPRE) Indian Institute of Technology Bombay CMIA Energy Conclave, 2013

2 2 IIIIIIVVVI BC(6) AlSi(14)PS ZnGaGe(32)AsSe CdInSbTe Elemental semiconductors: Si, Ge Compound semiconductors: GaAs, InP, CdTe Ternary semiconductors: AlGaAs, HgCdTe, CIS Quaternary semiconductors: CIGS, InGaAsP, InGaAlP 1/2/2014 National Center for Photovoltaic Research and Education (NCPRE)

3 3 A solar cell should convert light into electricity with high efficiency It requires - Absorption of a photon - Separation of a electron-hole pair - Collection of the charges at electrodes Different solar cell technologies strives to maximize the efficiency of the above three operations in different way P-N J n –separation force Metal contact

4 c-Si Solar Cells Mono- crystalline Multi Crystalline Companies Material Type Sanyo, SunPower, SunTech, Trina, Sharp, Kyocera EverGreen Csun, Qcells, Trina, Canadian Solar, Sharp, Kyocera Ribbon Si All these technologies are commercially available 1/2/2014 © IIT Bombay, C.S. Solanki4National Center for Photovoltaic Research and Education (NCPRE)

5 Thin film Solar Cells Silicon Based Non Silicon Based Amorphous Silicon Other thin film CdTe CIGS Organic/DSC Flexible Rigid Flexible Rigid Flexible Rigid Flexible Companies Substrate Absorber Layer Material Type Unisolar, Flexcell Kaneka, Sharp, EPV Innovalight CSG Solar, Nanogram First Solar, AVA Tech Nanosolar, Global Solar, Miasole Wuerth Solar, Honda, Showa Shell G24i, Konarka 1/2/20145National Center for Photovoltaic Research and Education (NCPRE)

6 N-type P-type Eg: c-Si cell N-type P-type Eg: CdTe, CIGS cell Cell 1, E g1 Cell 2, E g2 Cell 3, E g3 E g1 > E g2 > E g3 N-type P-type Intrinsic, i, layer Eg: a-Si:H cells 1/2/2014 © IIT Bombay, C.S. Solanki6 National Center for Photovoltaic Research and Education (NCPRE) Homo-junction Hetro-junction P-i-N junction Multi-junction Junction is required to facilitate charge separation for PV operation Eg: GaAs, a-Si cells

7 7 Metallurgic al grade Si (MGS) Initial Reaction Cholorosilanes Separation and purification Pure SiHCl 3 Deposi t solid Si H2H2 Pure poly -EGS EGS ingot Grow single crystal Si wafers HCl Solid Gas Solid Liquid Solid Quarzite Coal + Liquid Melting Solid Pure poly -EGS Size of the c-Si cell is determined by the size of the ingot Shape of the c-Si is determined by the shape of ingot

8 1/2/2014 © IIT Bombay, C.S. Solanki8 Blocks can be manufactured easily in square shape Fits well in modules Low eff. of multi-crystalline material disappears at module level

9 1/2/2014 © IIT Bombay, C.S. SolankiNational Center for Photovoltaic Research and Education (NCPRE)9 Mono-crystalline and Multi-crystalline Si substrates are grown The substrate acts as absorber (of light) material In thin film solar cells, the absorber layer is deposited Since the films are thin, a supporting substrate is required Starting Wafer c-Si process Supporting substrate Thin film process

10 Wafer Cutting Wet Acidic Isotropic texturing POCl 3 Diffusion Parasitic Junction Removal PECVD SiNx:H ARC layer Co-firing Screen Printed Metallisation Standard process Solar cell performance: %

11 1/2/2014 © IIT Bombay, C.S. SolankiNational Center for Photovoltaic Research and Education (NCPRE)11 EVA Glass substrate TCO Absorber layer Back metal EVA (a) Glass substrate with TCO (b) Laser cut in TCO layer (c) Deposition of absorber layer (d) Laser cut in absorber layer (e) Deposition of back metal contact (f) Laser cut through metal and absorber layer (g) Encapsulation with EVA Monolithic interconnection of cells in modules Laser cuts are used to define cell area

12 Chetan S Solanki, IIT BombayITM Expo, 7 th March, Efficiency is defined as the ratio of energy output from the solar cell to input energy from the sun. I sc I VmVm ImIm PmPm X V oc Power Production cost Efficiency Raw material cost, cell and module processing Quality of material, technology understanding, cell size

13 Chetan S Solanki © Education Park, The annual production in 2012 was over 30,000 MW The cost per Watt has come down to almost 1 $/Wp level PV module product and cost

14 C-Si solar cell technology is dominant since its inception Thin film technologies likely to improve their share

15 Chetan S Solanki © Education Park, Typical PV Wattage1 MW to 100 MW Electricity generated4000 kWh to 40,000 kWh per day 1.5 Million units to 150 Million unit per year Where it can be used?Powering the grid, captive power plants, supplying peak load Barrier for large scale implementation Initial high cost, lack of bank funding Suitability of grid, appropriate arrangement to sell electricity to govt.

16 Chetan S Solanki © Education Park, Typical PV Wattage1 kW to 100 kW Electricity generated4 kWh to 400 kWh per day 1500 unit to 150,000 unit per year Where it can be used?Household electricity needs, industrial electricity, water pumping, academic campuses Barrier for large scale implementation Initial high cost, lack of awareness about Govt. policies, Bankers lack of awareness, Availability of product, local services

17 Chetan S Solanki © Education Park, Typical PV Wattage1 W to 10 W Electricity generated4 Wh to 40 Wh per day 1.5 unit to 15 unit per year Where it can be used?Solar lamps, home lighting system, mobile charger Barrier for large scale implementation Initial high cost, lack of awareness Availability of product, local services

18 Chetan S Solanki © Education Park, Typical PV Wattage10mW to 1000 mW Electricity generated40 mWh to 4 Wh per day 0.01 unit to 1.5 unit per year Where it can be used?Calculators, toys, mobile charger A study solar lamp Barrier for large scale implementation No issue with calculators, toys Solar study lamp - Availability of product, local services

19 JNNSM launched in January 2010 NCPRE set up in October 2010 by MNRE as part of JNNSM 5 year Project Strong Education + Research thrust NCPRE Education Research Si Solar Cells New Materials & Devices Solar PV Systems & Modules Characterization, Modeling & Simulation

20 C-Si Lab Facilities Plasma Enhanced CVD (PECVD) Edge Isolation Tool Diffusion Furnace Quantum Efficiency Measurement System Screen Printer UV-Vis-NIR spectrometer Corescan Laser Doping System Four Probe System Carrier Lifetime Tester RTP system Solar IV characterization System

21 c-Si Solar Cell Fab Lab Full fledged crystalline silicon solar cell fab pilot line of area 1800 sq feet was commissioned as part of NCPRE Base line cell process is being developed

22 Solar Photovoltaics Fundamentals, Technologies and Applications Second Edition Chetan Singh Solanki Solar Photovoltaic Technology and Systems A manual for Techicians, Trainers and Engineers Chetan Singh Solanki SOLAR PHOTOVOLTAICS A LAB TRAINING MANUAL Chetan S Solanki Brij M Arora Juzer Vasi Mahesh B Patil


Download ppt "1/2/20141 National Center for Photovoltaic Research and Education (NCPRE) Indian Institute of Technology Bombay CMIA Energy Conclave, 2013."

Similar presentations


Ads by Google