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E8 / PPA Solar PV Design Implementation O&M Marshall Islands March 31-April 11, 2008 1 1. Solar Photovoltaic Theory 1-1. Basic principles of PV.

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Presentation on theme: "E8 / PPA Solar PV Design Implementation O&M Marshall Islands March 31-April 11, 2008 1 1. Solar Photovoltaic Theory 1-1. Basic principles of PV."— Presentation transcript:

1 e8 / PPA Solar PV Design Implementation O&M Marshall Islands March 31-April 11, Solar Photovoltaic Theory 1-1. Basic principles of PV

2 e8 / PPA Solar PV Design Implementation O&M Marshall Islands March 31-April 11, Basic principle of PV 1-1. Basic principles of PV Mechanism of generation Various type of PV cell Installation example Basic characteristic Case sturdy Contents

3 e8 / PPA Solar PV Design Implementation O&M Marshall Islands March 31-April 11, Photo Voltaic cell Electrode P-Type Semiconductor N-Type Semiconductor Reflect-Proof Film Electrode Solar Energy Load Electric Current Mechanism of generation Mechanism of generation The solar cell is composed of a P-type semiconductor and an N-type semiconductor. Solar light hitting the cell produces two types of electrons, negatively and positively charged electrons in the semiconductors. Negatively charged (-) electrons gather around the N-type semiconductor while positively charged (+) electrons gather around the P-type semiconductor. When you connect loads such as a light bulb, electric current flows between the two electrodes.

4 e8 / PPA Solar PV Design Implementation O&M Marshall Islands March 31-April 11, Mechanism of generation Direction of current inside PV cell P N Current appears to be in the reverse direction ? Inside current of PV cell looks like “Reverse direction.” Why? ? By Solar Energy, current is pumped up from N-pole to P-pole. In generation, current appears reverse. It is the same as for battery. P N Looks like reverse

5 e8 / PPA Solar PV Design Implementation O&M Marshall Islands March 31-April 11, Mechanism of generation Voltage and Current of PV cell ( I-V Curve ) (V) (A) Voltage(V) Current(I) P N A Short Circuit Open Circuit P N V about 0.5V (Silicon) High insolation Voltage on normal operation point 0.5V (in case of Silicon PV) Current depend on - Intensity of insolation - Size of cell Voltage on normal operation point 0.5V (in case of Silicon PV) Current depend on - Intensity of insolation - Size of cell Low insolation Normal operation point (Maximum Power point) I x V = W

6 e8 / PPA Solar PV Design Implementation O&M Marshall Islands March 31-April 11, Mechanism of generation Typical I-V Curve (V) (A) Voltage(V) Current(I) 0.49 V Standard insolation 1.0 kWh/m V 4.95A 5.55A Depend on type of cell or cell-material ( Si = 0.5V ) Depend on cell-size Depend on Solar insolation

7 e8 / PPA Solar PV Design Implementation O&M Marshall Islands March 31-April 11, Crystalline Non-crystalline Single crystal Poly crystalline Amorphous Gallium Arsenide (GaAs) Conversion Efficiency of Module % % % % Conversion Efficiency = Electric Energy Output Energy of Insolation on cell x 100% Dye-sensitized Type Organic Thin Layer Type 7 - 8% 2 - 3% Various type of PV cell Types and Conversion Efficiency of Solar Cell Silicon Semiconductor Compound Semiconductor Compound Semiconductor Solar Cell Solar Cell Organic Semiconductor Organic Semiconductor

8 e8 / PPA Solar PV Design Implementation O&M Marshall Islands March 31-April 11, Crystal cell (Single crystal and Poly crystalline Silicon) Single crystalPoly crystalline Various type of PV cell Formed by melting high purity silicon like as Integrated Circuit For mass production, cell is sliced from roughly crystallized ingot.

9 e8 / PPA Solar PV Design Implementation O&M Marshall Islands March 31-April 11, Surface of PV cell Various type of PV cell Front Surface (N-Type side) Aluminum Electrode (Silver colored wire) To avoid shading, electrode is very fine. Anti reflection film (Blue colored film) Back surface is P- type. All back surface is aluminum electrode with full reflection. Example of Poly Crystalline PV

10 e8 / PPA Solar PV Design Implementation O&M Marshall Islands March 31-April 11, Single crystalPoly crystalline 120W (25.7V, 4.7A) 1200mm 800mm 1200mm Various type of PV cell PV Module (Single crystal, Poly crystalline Silicon) (3.93ft) ( 2.62ft ) ( 3.93ft ) (2.62ft) 128W (26.5V, 4.8A) Efficiency is higher Efficiency is lower Same size

11 e8 / PPA Solar PV Design Implementation O&M Marshall Islands March 31-April 11, Various type of PV cell Hierarchy of PV 2 – 3 W W kW Cell Array Module,Panel VoltAmpereWattSize Cell0.5V5-6A2-3Wabout 10cm Module20-30V5-6A Wabout 1m Array V50A-200A10-50kWabout 30m 6x9=54 (cells) (modules)

12 e8 / PPA Solar PV Design Implementation O&M Marshall Islands March 31-April 11, Various type of PV cell Roughly size of PV Power Station. How much PV can we install in this conference room ? 1 kw PV need 10 m 2 Please remember 10m(33feet) 20m(66feet) Conference Room (We are now) Our room has about 200 m 2 We can install about 20 kW PV in this room (108 feet 2 ) (2,178 feet 2 )

13 e8 / PPA Solar PV Design Implementation O&M Marshall Islands March 31-April 11, Installation example Roof top of residence ( Grid connected ) Most popular installation style in Japan. (Almost 85% PV in Japan ) Owner can sell excess power to power utility.

14 e8 / PPA Solar PV Design Implementation O&M Marshall Islands March 31-April 11, Installation example Roof top of school,community-center building. (For education and emergency power)

15 e8 / PPA Solar PV Design Implementation O&M Marshall Islands March 31-April 11, Installation example Distant and independent power supply ( Off grid ) Relay station on top of mountain Advertising sign beside highway

16 e8 / PPA Solar PV Design Implementation O&M Marshall Islands March 31-April 11, Installation example Mountain lodge ( Off grid ) 1.2kW system Inverter and controller

17 e8 / PPA Solar PV Design Implementation O&M Marshall Islands March 31-April 11, Installation example Stationary power station (Grid connected ) Site:Funafuti Tuvalu Installation:Feb. in 2008 Capacity:40kW Purpose:Grid connected power supply for fuel conservation and CO2 reduction. e8 & PPA project in Tuvalu 30kW array10kW array

18 e8 / PPA Solar PV Design Implementation O&M Marshall Islands March 31-April 11, Installation example Stationary power station (Off grid or mini grid ) Solar cell capacity: 3.4kW Wind Power capacity: 1.8kW Inverter capacity: 5kVA Site:Mongolia Installation:May & June in 1999 Purpose: For lighting, refrigerator and outlet in a hospital.

19 e8 / PPA Solar PV Design Implementation O&M Marshall Islands March 31-April 11, Installation example Solar Home System (SHS) Solar array Controller Light Storage battery

20 e8 / PPA Solar PV Design Implementation O&M Marshall Islands March 31-April 11, Basic Characteristic I / V curve and P-Max control P N A V To obtain maximum power, current control (or voltage control) is very important. (V) (A) Voltage(V) Current(I) I x V = W P2 P MAX P1 V pmax I pmax I/V curve P- Max control “Power conditioner” (mentioned later) will adjusts to be most suitable voltage and current automatically. Power curve

21 e8 / PPA Solar PV Design Implementation O&M Marshall Islands March 31-April 11, Basic Characteristic Estimate obtained power by I / V curve (V) (A) Voltage(V) Current(I) P N A PV character ( I/V curve ) If the load has 0.05 ohm resistance, cross point of resistance character and PV-Character will be following point. Then power is 10x0.5=5 W Resistance character Ohm’s theory

22 e8 / PPA Solar PV Design Implementation O&M Marshall Islands March 31-April 11, Basic Characteristic I / V curve vs. Insolation intensity P N P N Mismatch 5A5A 1A P N P N Bypass Diode 5A5A 1A4A (V) (A) Current(I) High intensity insolation Low intensity insolation I x V = W 5A5A 1A Current is affected largely by change of insolation intensity. Partially shaded serial cell will produce current mismatch. Bypass Diode

23 e8 / PPA Solar PV Design Implementation O&M Marshall Islands March 31-April 11, Basic Characteristic Temperature and efficiency Module Temperature (deg.C) Efficiency (%) Crystalline cell Amorphous cell 0.25 (%/deg) Typical (25C) Summer time on roof top (65C) 2% down 0.4 – 0.5 (%/deg) When module temperature rises up, efficiency decreases. The module must be cooled by natural ventilation, etc.

24 e8 / PPA Solar PV Design Implementation O&M Marshall Islands March 31-April 11, Case sturdy 1.Maximum power control P N P N P N Q : Calculate how much power you can get by following three resistance. ( I / V curve is next page)

25 e8 / PPA Solar PV Design Implementation O&M Marshall Islands March 31-April 11, Case sturdy 1.Maximum power control (V) (A) Voltage(V) Current(I) I/V curve of current insolation.

26 e8 / PPA Solar PV Design Implementation O&M Marshall Islands March 31-April 11, Case sturdy 2.Temperature vs. Efficiency Q: There is 50 kW Crystalline PV system. If surface temperature rises from 25 ºC to 65ºC, How much the capacity will be?


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