Presentation on theme: "Are Ohio’s most valuable products grown, manufactured, or mined?"— Presentation transcript:
1Are Ohio’s most valuable products grown, manufactured, or mined? Introduction to Petroleum4/5/2017
2Introduction to Petroleum 4/5/2017Introduction toPetroleum!We will learn…How oil and natural gas are formedWhere they are foundHow they are extracted from the groundWhat products we use every day are made from petroleumIn this series of lessons, we are going to use the ‘Oil and Natural Gas’ book along with fun experiments to learn about where oil and natural gas comes from and how oil is made into products we use every day.
3Fossil Fuels – Nature’s Batteries Introduction to Petroleum4/5/2017Fossil Fuels – Nature’s Batteries80% of the world’s energy comes from fossil fuelsOilNatural gasCoalSpeaker notes: Fossil fuels are “nature’s batteries.” They have stored the sun’s energy from millennia past, and we draw on them today.Oil is used for transportation.Coal and natural gas are used for power plants.
4Fossil fuels were forming before dinosaurs lived Introduction to Petroleum4/5/2017Fossil fuels were forming before dinosaurs livedSpeaker notes: Oil was formed from the remains of sea plants and animals that lived millions of years ago – even before the dinosaurs! The sea plants and animals died and were buried on the ocean floor under layers and layers of mud (sand). Over millions of years, their remains were buried deeper and deeper. Enormous heat and pressure from these layers helped turn the dead sea plants and animals into oil and gas. That’s why oil and gas are called “fossil” fuels!Speaker notes: Even though fossil fuels were used thousands of years ago, mass consumption of oil and gas began only “recently.”Energy Timeline3000 B.C. Mesopotamians used “rock oil” in architectural adhesives, ship caulks, medicines and roads2000 B.C. Chinese refined crude oil for use in lamps and to heat their homes1701 Coal discovered near Richmond, Va.Mid-1800s Kerosene replaced whale oil as lamp fuel.1859 “Colonel” Edwin Drake drilled the first commercial well and discovers oil and natural gas near Titusville, Penn., 69 feet below the Earth’s surface.1882 First coal-fired electric generating station began operating in New York City to supply electricity for household lights.Pre Wood was the primary source for cooking, warmth, light, trains and steamboats.1890 Cars were mass produced, creating gasoline demand.1910 Most rural homes still heated with wood. In towns, coal was displacing wood in homes.1940s –1960s A massive expansion of the U.S. pipeline network began, which led to rapid growth of natural gas markets. Today, this interstate pipeline network, laid end-to-end, would stretch almost 12 times around the earth.1950 – present Oil became most-used energy source because of automobiles.1957 The first commercial nuclear power plant began operating.1993 – present The U.S. imported more oil and refined products from other countries than it produced. More and more imports have been needed because of growing petroleum demand and declining U.S. production.2001 Of every 10 barrels of petroleum consumed in the United States, more than 4 barrels were consumed in the form of gasoline. Transportation needs accounted for two-thirds of all petroleum used in the United States.2007 World uses about 86 million barrels of oil per day – 40,000 gallons every second
6How do oil and gas get from the ground into products we use? Introduction to Petroleum4/5/2017How do oil and gas get from the ground into products we use?12345ExplorationDrilling and ProductionExtractionRefiningTransportation
8Oils and Gas Are Often Found Together Introduction to Petroleum4/5/2017Oils and Gas Are Often Found TogetherOil is a liquidGas is in a gaseous (invisible) state – like airOil and gas move through sand as a team
9Where Do Oil and Gas Come From? Introduction to Petroleum4/5/2017Where Do Oil and Gas Come From?Oil drops in grains of sandGasOilWaterSource Rock (Fossils)Speaker notes: Oil and gas aren’t found in a big underground lake! Engineers drill down through layers of sand and rock to reach the rock formations that contain oil and gas.Exercise: Put glass beads or marbles into a clear glass. Ask students if the beaker is full. Pour water into the glass to cover the beads or marbles. Point out that the space between the beads/marbles (or rocks) is where oil and gas are found.Microscopic View
10Oil and Gas Are Found On Land and under Water Introduction to Petroleum4/5/2017Oil and Gas Are Found On Land and under Water
12Tools used to find oilInitially oil and natural gas exploration was as simple as locating surface seeps or places where oil and gas had been discovered accidentally while digging or drilling for water.
13Tools used to find oilSeismology, like echolocation, uses vibration and reflection to locate the seams between geographic layers.vibroseistrucks
20How do oil and gas get from the ground into products we use? Introduction to Petroleum4/5/2017How do oil and gas get from the ground into products we use?12345ExplorationDrilling and ProductionExtractionRefiningTransportation
212. Drilling and Production Engineers use the geology map to drill a well under the Earth’s surface using a “rig”If successful, the well will bring a steady flow of oil and gas to the surface
222. Drilling and Production The only way to know for sure is to drill…
24Extraction of Gas and Oil After the rig is removed, a pump is placed on the well head.An electric motor drives a gear box that moves a lever.The lever pushes and pulls, forcing the pump up and down, and creates a suction that draws up the oil.
26Production of Coal http://www.worldcoal.org/coal/
274. TransportationCrude oil, coal and refined products are transported across the water in barges and tankers.On land crude oil and products are moved using pipelines, trucks, and trains.Photo above courtesy of BP
285. RefiningCrude oil is a mixture. Remember mixtures? Refining is separating the components of the mixture.
32Where Would We Be Without Petroleum? You can kiss lipstick good-bye. Introduction to Petroleum4/5/2017Where Would We Be Without Petroleum? You can kiss lipstick good-bye.MP3 PlayersPantyhosePatio ScreensPerfumesPhotographic FilmPhotographsPiano KeysRoller BladesRoofingShampooShaving CreamSoft Contact LensesSurfboardsTelephonesTentsToothpasteToysUmbrellasArtificial HeartsAspirinBalloonsBandagesBlendersCamerasCandlesCD PlayersClothingCompact Discs/DVDsComputersContainersCrayonsCredit CardsDenturesDeodorantDigital ClocksDyesFertilizersFood PreservativesFootballsFurnitureGarbage BagsGlassesGlueGolf BallsHair DryersHang GlidersHouse PaintInkInsecticidesLife JacketsLipstickLuggageMedical EquipmentMedicinesThe speaker can set the scene. Ask the students to point out additional items that are made from petroleum products that they use every day.