5Internal ConflictAny struggle or problem that is going on within the character.Man v. Self
6External ConflictAny struggle or problem that involves the character and any other person, thing or unknown force.Man v. ManMan v. NatureMan v. SocietyMan v. God (Fate)
7Plot The action or sequence of events in a story. It is usually a series of related events that build up on one another as the story develops.
8(Crisis, turning point, point of no return) Plot LineExpositionClimax(Crisis, turning point, point of no return)Falling ActionRising Action(complication)Resolution
9Exposition – The background or situation surrounding the story. Rising action - the series of struggles that builds a story toward a climax.Climax – the most intense point in a story.Falling action – part of the story that works out decisions reached during the climax.Resolution – is part of the story in which the problem is solved.
10Antagonist and Protagonist Protagonist - Main characterAntagonist - The person or thing working against the protagonist
12Theme, Irony, Suspense, Allusion Characterization, etc. Literary Devices Part 2Theme, Irony, Suspense, Allusion Characterization, etc.
13ThemeThe statement about life the author is trying to get across in a story.In most cases the theme will be implied rather than directly told.In The Most Dangerous Game by Richard Connell, the theme was “the hunter becomes the hunted.”
14AllusionA reference to a literary, mythological, or historical person, place, or thing. -- Martin Luther King Jr. alluded to the Gettysburg address in starting his “I have a dream” speech by saying “Five score years ago…”. --This referenced Abraham Lincoln’s “Four score and seven years ago.” (Gettysburg address.)
15ForeshadowingThe use in a literary work of clues that suggest events that will happen later in a story.--In Romeo and Juliet, both main characters state early on that they would rather die than live apart.
16EpiphanyAn event in which the essential nature of something-a person, situation, object- is suddenly understood in a new way.--Think of an “ah ha!” moment, or visually, a light bulb going above your head going on.
17DetailFacts revealed by the author or that support the attitude or tone of the work.--A detail gives more information. For example, a detail about Killeen is that it is the location of Fort Hood.
18ArchetypeA type of character, action, or situation that occurs over and over in literature.--An archetype can at times be considered a generalization or stereotype. “The princess must always be rescued by a prince.”
19MotifA main idea in a literary work. A pattern or strand of imagery or symbolism in literature.--A motif is different from a theme in that it happens over and over in a story.
20ImageryThe words used to represent persons, objects, feelings, by appealing to the five senses.--Ex. Her face is a garden.--He laughed like a hyena.
21Point of view The view or perspective from which a story is told. The author is not the one telling the story, but the narrator. This can be 1st, 2nd, 3rd person point of view.
22Setting The time and place the story. --The setting of Batman is Gotham City in the future.--The setting can change throughout the story.
23IronyIs using a word or phrase to mean the exact opposite of its literal or normal meaning.There are three kinds of irony:
24Dramatic irony, in which the reader or the audience sees a character’s mistakes, but the character does not.Verbal irony, in which the writer says one thing and means another: “The best substitute for experience is being thirteen”Situational irony, in which there is a great difference between the purpose of an action and the result.
25SuspenseThe uncertainty or anxiety we feel about what is going to happen next in a story.
26The Grip of SuspenseWhen we feel suspense, we feel as if we are hanging in midair, like those characters in a movie who cling by their fingertips to cliffs, their feet kicking out into space. That’s suspense – and that’s why stories like The Interlopers by Saki are called cliffhangers.
27CharacterizationIs the method an author uses to reveal characters and their personalities.There are two types of characterization
28Direct Characterization – In which a writer tells us directly what a character is like or what their motives are.Indirect Characterization – In which a writer shows us a character but allows us to interpret for ourselves the kind of person we are meeting.SpeechAppearancePrivate thoughtsActions andHow others in the story feel about them.
29Symbolism, Tone, and Mood Literary Elements Part 3Symbolism, Tone, and Mood
30SymbolismPerson, place, thing, or event that stands both for itself and for something beyond itself.A form of figurative language that is identified with something elsePublic symbols are symbols that are widely recognized and accepted
34SymbolismWhy would the eagle be chosen as a symbol of the United States?What metaphors exist within the symbol of the eagle when comparing it to a nation?
35Symbolism Strength of an eagle’s wings… Sharp eyes… Largeness of the bird…Why do you think our forefathers chose the eagle over Benjamin Franklin’s proposed turkey?
36ToneTone is the attitude that an author takes toward the audience, the subject, or the character. Tone is conveyed through the author's words and details.
37MoodMood is the emotions that you feel while you are reading. Some literature makes you feel sad, others joyful, still others, angry.How does the following passage from O. Henry's short story, After Twenty Years, make you feel?
39SimileA comparison of two different things or ideas through the use of the words LIKE or AS.--He was as tall as a tree.--She was sick like a dog.
40Metaphor A comparison of two unlike things NOT using like or as. -- This homework is a breeze.--He showered her with gifts.
41PersonificationA personification is when non-human objects are given human characteristics.--The sun winked at me.
42PunA play on words that are identical or similar in sound but mean two completely different things.Shakespeare used puns often in his work.Mercutio: “Nay, gentle Romeo, we must have you dance.”Romeo: “Not I, believe me. You have dancing shoes with nimble soles; I have a soul of lead so stakes me to the ground I cannot move.”
43More examples of punsEvery oven in the restaurant was broken. The patrons got a raw deal.Did you hear about the guy whose whole left side was cut off? He's all right now.There was a sign on the lawn at a drug re-hab center that said 'Keep off the Grass.’
44ParadoxWhen two elements of a statement contradict one another. It seems impossible, but may show hidden truths.An Italian man told me, “All Italians are liars.”
45OxymoronA form of paradox that combines a pair of opposite terms into one single unusual expression.---Pretty ugly.----Freezer burn.----Great depression.
46IdiomA phrase or expression that has a different meaning that its literal meaning.-- Call it a day: stop work for the day."It's late and you've accomplished a lot. Why don't you call it a day?
47Hyperbole An outrageous exaggeration. ---This is the best day ever!!! ---My sister wears so much makeup, she weighs 50 pounds more after she puts it on.--- My teacher is so old, she taught cave men how to start a fire.