Presentation on theme: "expressions which: add to the meaning of verbs e.g. He drives fast. verb word modify the meaning of words belonging to other word classes, e.g. The rice."— Presentation transcript:
expressions which: add to the meaning of verbs e.g. He drives fast. verb word modify the meaning of words belonging to other word classes, e.g. The rice is almost ready. and
may be: words (adverbs), e.g. angrily clauses, e.g. because it was hot phrases, e.g. in the afternoon
How? He went out angrily. When? He went out in the afternoon. Why? He went out because it was hot. Where? He went out to the shops. For how long?He went out for a long time. modify the verb by specifying:
location manner how; what with; cause how; why; what for; who for accompaniment who with; what with role as what; into what matter what about angle who says place where time when probes
forever (duration) kindly (manner) nowhere (place) now (time) usually (frequency) almost degree (degree) why? (interrogative adverb) Obviously, (sentence adverb)
He walked very carefully. They made him chairman last year. She studied at a large university. She died of pneumonia. etc (how) (when) (where) (why)
Manner (how): as softly as he could. Place (where): where the boat landed. Time (when): as soon as I came. Frequency (how often): as often as he could. Duration (how long): as long as he was there. Reason (why): because he wanted to. Result (so what): so she left. He spoke
adverbs can be formed from adjectives, e.g. adjectiveadverb regularneatneatly gentlegently irregularfast goodwell
positivecomparativesuperlative -er; -estsoonsoonersoonest more; most less; least firmlymore firmly; less firmly most firmly; least firmly
It was really awful rather wonderful extremely lovely too sad so exciting modify the meaning of an adjective in some way, e.g.
My students spell atrociously! They must be good spellers. I cant spell that.
A small cat was taking her kittens for a walk when a large aggressive cat approached them. Woof! Woof! shouted the small cat, and the large cat ran away. See how important it is to speak another language fluently, the cat said to her kittens.
Where can you __________ find happiness? In a dictionary.
Bills dad sent him to buy 3 kilos of mangoes, but he only had two kilos when he got home. The dad phoned the shop and said, I sent my son for 3 kilos of mangoes, but he only brought home 2. Did you weigh the fruit _________? Yes, we did replied the shop clerk. But have you weighed your son?
Why do you __________ answer a question with a question? Why not?
I didnt come here for you to insult me. Really? Where do you ________ go?
Grammar with Laughter 1999, George Woolard, Language Teaching Publications, Hove, England Fax: 44-1-273-775-361
Rediscover Grammar by David Crystal London: Longman. (nd.) pp.150-155
complete summary sheet (p.8) complete Unit 6 (p.28ff)
errors in expressing adverbial meanings commonly involve prepositions: wrong preposition, e.g. He lay down on the tree At the afternoon I do some drawing. omission of necessary preposition, e.g. We walked the zoo five hours She came my house to play. addition of unnecessary preposition, e.g. We brought the things to there At the next day I told my friends the news.
at they leftbeforetwo oclock after To relate two elements in a sentence e.g. on the book wasunderthe table by
meaningsimplecomplex placeat, on, in, by directiontowards, alongaway from timeat, on, during causefor, to,on account of supportfor, with possessionwith, of
Position of pre-positions in the sentence Im sorry for him. He lay on the beach He left it behind the clock Its all been paid for Shes nice to be with. but
Shes nice to be with. Its nice to be with her The object of the proposition takes the objective case form – unless it is the Subject of the sentence Subject non-Subject only the pronouns change form in the objective case
some problem prepositions different to? from? e.g. This book is different - to yours? from yours? Consider the verb differ: This book differs from yours This book is different from yours so
Prepositional phrases adjectival usage – qualifying the noun: The man with long hair; adverbial usage – modifying the verb: The announcement came at six oclock.
Phrasal verbs Turn on the light. (Turn it on) Turn off the light. (Turn it off) Win over the others. (Win them over) Stand up. Sit down. Do you give in? transitive: intransitive:
3 kinds of phrasal verb: i)verb + adverb, e.g. look out (=retrieve) e.g. Ill look out a good reference book for you ii)verb + preposition, e.g. look for (=seek) e.g. He looked for a new hat. iii)verb + adverb + preposition, e.g. look out for (=watch for the presence of) e.g. Ill look out for you at the concert. Phrasal verbs
testing for phrasal verbs If the adverb or preposition is not attached to the verb then it can be put first, e.g. 1. Ill see Jim here Here Ill see Jim. therefore the verb in 2 is see off - a phrasal verb 2. Ill see Jim offOff Ill see Jim
go for an expedition go on an expedition hand over homework hand in homework? divorce with divorce from get up the bus get on the bus
Can I go toilet? (omission) Close the light / tap (substituting for phrasal verb) Raise up your hand (insertion) We were near to the police station The man put off the fire (wrong prep.)
complete summary sheet (p.8) complete Unit 8 (p.32ff)
Rediscover Grammar by David Crystal London: Longman. (nd.) pp.164-171
Mr Tan, can you explain to the court why you pushed one of your friends __________ a steamroller? I needed a new flatmate, your honour.
Havent I seen your face somewhere else before? No, I dont think so. My face has always been __________ my ears.
Youve written a cheque for $500. Yes, Im sending it my sister her birthday. But you havent signed it. I know. Its a surprise and I dont want her to know who sent it.
I went to the doctor about my bad memory. What did he do about it? He made me pay ____ advance.
Stan. Singapore EnglishStan. Int. English to consider about somethingto consider something to cope up with somethingto cope with something to demand for somethingto demand something to discuss /on about somethingto discuss something to emphasise on somethingto emphasise something to list out itemsto list items to lower down the volumeto lower the volume to mention about somethingto mention something to page for someoneto page someone to regret for somethingto regret something to request for somethingto request something to sell something awayto sell something to tolerate with someoneto tolerate someone verb + prepositionverb + 0
to demand somethingto make a demand for something to discuss somethingto have a discussion about something to emphasise somethingto put emphasis on something to list itemsto make out a list to lower the volumeto put the volume down lower to mention somethingto make mention about something to regret somethingto express regret about something to request somethingto make a request for something to tolerate someoneto be tolerant with/of someone verb + 0noun + preposition