Presentation on theme: "1 traditionally: verbs are doing words updated: verbs are words that name ways of doing, sensing, saying and being."— Presentation transcript:
1 traditionally: verbs are doing words updated: verbs are words that name ways of doing, sensing, saying and being
2 full primary* auxiliary modal *may be main verb
3 full verb = the lexical verb;full primary auxiliary verbs be, have, do;primary modal auxiliary verbs express ability, possibility or obligation, e.g. can, might, mustmodal The children played happily The children were enjoying themselves The children must hurry home
4 WARNING: be, have and do may also be used as the FULL verb The children were late; they had their dinner, then they did their teeth
5 doing She opened the door sensing They saw the accident. saying He asked a question being The child was hungry e.g. names ways of doing, sensing, saying and being
6 some verbs of cognition reaction perception e.g. believe, know, think, e.g. hear, feel, see, notice, smell e.g. like, love, hate, fear, admire
7 some verbs of stating e.g. say, tell, talk, assert enquiring e.g. ask, question, commanding e.g. order, instruct
8 some verbs of doing acting e.g. throw, walk, cook happening e.g. fall, behaving e.g. smile, sleep, yawn
9 some verbs of describing e.g. is, feel, seem possessing e.g. have, own, belong, identifying e.g. represent, mean,
10 may be regular or irregular in form regular verbs have 4 different forms: the base form (also called the infinitive) e.g. jump the -s form - jumps the -ing form - jumping the -ed form – jumped (past tense or past participle)
11 irregular verbs have a different form for the past tense and the past participle: base-s-ing-ed pastpast participle jumpjumpsjumpingjumped speakspeaksspeakingspokespoken taketakestakingtooktaken swimswimsswimmingswamswum verb forms
12 when used as auxiliaries, be, have or do are followed by a full verb, e.g. He is running fast. She has forgotten her books. Please do sit down. be, have, do
13 When used as full verbs be, have or do occur alone, e.g. He is a fast runner. She has her own books I do my homework regularly.
14 forms of be, have and do base-s-ing-ed past-ed participle havehashavinghad dodoesdoingdiddone beamisarebeingwaswerebeen
15 central can, could; may, might; will, would; shall, should; must marginal need; dare; ought to central modals cannot be used as full verbs; marginal modals can.
16 possibilityobligation/ necessity permissionvolition/ prediction ability ° of certaintyis required tois allowed tois willing tois able to must can/could shall/should can/could may/might should may/might will/would could need to ought to have to
17 modals can be used in combination with different sentence forms to express different degrees of politeness in getting people to do things
18 imperative Open the door declarative Ill open the door interrogative Shall I open the door? exhortative assertive consultative command statement question
19 When used with an interrogative form, the modals express politeness in getting people to do things, e.g. Could you help me (please)? less polite: You must help me (declarative form). least polite: Help me! (imperative form)
20 exhortative (imperative) Do it least polite assertive (declarative) You could do it You will do itYou must do it less polite consultative (interrogative) Could you do it? Will you do it?Shouldnt you do it? most polite (possibility)(inclination)(obligation) Ways of getting people to do things
21 Q:When can the modals of obligation be used without giving offense? A:i) when giving advice, e.g. You should see a doctor about that fever. ii) when offering your services, e.g. You must have some tea.
22 modals of possibility are also used to express how certain we when we assert some state of affairs. may/might/could express tentativeness e.g. She might be hungry. must expresses certainty e.g She must be hungry.
23 whenever a negative is present in a sentence it is closely coupled with the auxiliary verb so that when the negative is contracted it becomes fused with the auxiliary, e.g. The boy could not work hard The boy couldnt work hard He has been ill, hasnt he?
24 the auxiliary is portable: it moves to the front of the sentence in order to make a question, e.g. The boy could work hard Could the boy work hard? Couldnt he work harder? the main verb is not portable
25 a present participle and a gerund have the same form - ing. The –ing form functions in a sentence in a number of ways: in the same way that a noun does, i.e. as subject of the verb e.g. Reading bores him. object of the verb, e.g. His hobby is swimming. after a preposition, e.g. He is good at running as a classifier in a noun phrase, e.g. a walking stick. It is often called gerund when functioning in these ways.
26 the negative infinitive, e.g. not to go: We decided not to go to the movies to see: Its nice to see you the bare infinitive (i.e. without to) e.g. go: What I did yesterday was go to the movies.
27 agreement of subject and verb, e.g. They was early They were early leaving out the direct object of a transitive verb, e.g. This is to inform that.. This is to inform you that We enjoyed very much. We enjoyed it very much
28 A Students Grammar… Greenbaum & Quirk pp Rediscover Grammar by David Crystal London: Longman. (nd.) pp.52-65
29 can, cant; could, couldnt A: My father …lift a pig with one hand. …your father do that? B: Im not sure. Where do you get a pig with one hand?
30 A:Can I have a pair of crocodile shoes please? B:Sure. (size take crocodile what your does) re-order the words in brackets to complete the joke:
31 A:Waiter, can you get me some undercooked potatoes, some cold beans and a cold fried egg covered in fat? B:Im sorry, sir but we couldnt give you anything like that. A: Why not? (me gave what yesterday thats you)