Presentation on theme: "what is a verb? traditionally: verbs are doing words"— Presentation transcript:
1what is a verb? traditionally: verbs are doing words updated: verbs are words that name ways of doing, sensing, saying and being
2kinds of verbfullprimary*auxiliarymodal*may be main verb
3kinds of verb full verb = the lexical verb; primary auxiliary verbs be, have, do;modal auxiliary verbs express ability, possibility or obligation, e.g. can, might, mustThe children played happilyThe children were enjoying themselvesThe children must hurry home
4WARNING: used as the FULL verb be, have and do may also be The children were late;they had their dinner,then they did their teeth
5full verb names ways of doing, sensing, saying and being e.g. doing She opened the doorsensing They saw the accident.saying He asked a questionbeing The child was hungry
6some verbs of sensing cognition e.g. believe, know, think, reaction e.g. like, love, hate, fear, admireperceptione.g. hear, feel, see, notice, smell
7saying some verbs of stating commanding e.g. say, tell, talk, assert enquiringe.g. ask, question,commandinge.g. order, instruct
8some verbs of doing doing acting e.g. throw, walk, cook happening e.g. fall,behaving e.g. smile, sleep, yawn
9some verbs of being describing e.g. is, feel, seem possessing e.g. have, own, belong,Obviously, these are full (lexical) verb usages of the above formsidentifying e.g. represent, mean,
10full verb may be regular or irregular in form regular verbs have 4 different forms:the base form (also called the infinitive) e.g. jumpthe -s form - jumpsthe -ing form - jumpingthe -ed form – jumped (past tense or past participle)
11irregularverb formsirregular verbs have a different form for the past tense and the past participle:base-s-ing-ed pastpast participlejumpjumpsjumpingjumpedspeakspeaksspeakingspokespokentaketakestakingtooktakenswimswimsswimmingswamswum
12primary auxiliariesbe, have, dowhen used as auxiliaries, be, have or do are followed by a full verb, e.g.He is running fast.She has forgotten her books.Please do sit down.
13primary auxiliariesWhen used as full verbs be, have or do occur alone, e.g.He is a fast runner.She has her own booksI do my homework regularly.
14forms of be, have and do base -s -ing -ed past -ed participle have has havinghaddodoesdoingdiddonebeamisarebeingwaswerebeen
15central modals cannot be used as full verbs; modal auxiliariescentral can, could; may, might; will, would;shall, should; mustmarginal need; dare; ought tocentral modals cannot be used as full verbs;marginal modals can.
16modal auxiliaries possibility obligation/ necessity permission volition/predictionability° of certaintyis required tois allowed tois willing tois able tomustcan/couldshall/shouldmay/mightshouldwill/wouldcouldneed toought tohave to
17using modalsmodals can be used in combination with different sentence forms to express different degrees of politeness in getting people to do things
18sentence forms and functions imperative Open the doordeclarative I’ll open the doorinterrogative Shall I open the door?commandexhortativestatementassertivequestionconsultative
19using modals When used with an interrogative form, the modals express politeness in getting people to do things,e.g. Could you help me (please)?less polite: You must help me (declarative form).least polite: Help me! (imperative form)
20Ways of getting people to do things exhortative(imperative)Do itleast politeassertive(declarative)You could do itYou will do itYou must do itless politeconsultative(interrogative)Could you do it?Will you do it?Shouldn’t you do it?most polite(possibility)(inclination)(obligation)
21using modalsQ: When can the modals of obligation be used without giving offense?A: i) when giving advice, e.g.You should see a doctor about thatfever.ii) when offering your services, e.g.You must have some tea.
22using modals may/might/could express tentativeness modals of possibility are also used to express how certain we when we assert some state of affairs.may/might/could express tentativenesse.g. She might be hungry.must expresses certaintye.g She must be hungry.
23auxiliaries and full verbs whenever a negative is present in a sentence it is closely coupled with the auxiliary verb so that when the negative is contracted it becomes fused with the auxiliary, e.g.The boy could not work hardThe boy couldn’t work hardHe has been ill, hasn’t he?1
24auxiliaries and full verbs the auxiliary is portable:it moves to the front of the sentence in order to make a question, e.g.The boy could work hardCould the boy work hard?Couldn’t he work harder?the main verb is not portable
25It is often called gerund when functioning in these ways. the participle and the gerunda present participle and a gerund have the same form -ing. The –ing form functions in a sentence in a number of ways:in the same way that a noun does, i.e.as subject of the verb e.g. Reading bores him.object of the verb, e.g. His hobby is swimming.after a preposition, e.g. He is good at runningas a classifier in a noun phrase, e.g. a walking stick.It is often called gerund when functioning in these ways.
26to see: It’s nice to see you the infinitiveto see: It’s nice to see youthe bare infinitive (i.e. without ‘to’) e.g. go: What I did yesterday was go to the movies.the negative infinitive, e.g.not to go: We decided not to go to the movies
27common errors with verbs agreement of subject and verb, e.g.They was early They were early leaving out the direct object of a transitive verb, e.g.This is to inform that.. This is to inform you thatWe enjoyed very much. We enjoyed it very much
28useful references A Student’s Grammar… Greenbaum & Quirk pp.25-69 Rediscover Grammar by David Crystal London: Longman. (nd.) pp.52-65
29just joking can, can’t; could, couldn’t A: My father …lift a pig with one hand. …your father do that?B: I’m not sure. Where do you get a pig with one hand?
30re-order the words in brackets to complete the joke: A: Can I have a pair of crocodile shoes please?B: Sure. (size take crocodile what your does)
31A:. Waiter, can you get me some. undercooked potatoes, some cold beans A: Waiter, can you get me some undercooked potatoes, some cold beans and a cold fried egg covered in fat?B: I’m sorry, sir but we couldn’t give you anything like that.A: Why not? (me gave what yesterday that’s you)