2 Lesson B Grammar UNIT 5: DESCRIBING THINGS Conditional SentencesA conditional sentence is a proposition expressinga result expected from a condition, proviso, orrequirement.There are many ways of construction for aconditional sentence. Each condition is stated in aclause beginning with the word “if”.We can talk about general facts or things that arealways true or we believe that the proposition ispossible or is likely to be fulfilled. We will use an if-clause. This kind of sentence has the present tense inboth parts.
3 Lesson B Grammar UNIT 5: DESCRIBING THINGS Pattern 1 : real, present Condition Result If + Present Tense, Present Tense a. If interest rates fall, company profits rise. b. If the manager asks you tell him the truth.Notice that the verb in the result may be present, future or imperative.If + Present Tense will + bare infinitiveIf the meeting finishes late, I will spend the night in the café.If the government raises the VAT, consumer spending will fall.If you hear from Suda today, tell her to ring me.
4 Lesson B Grammar UNIT 5: DESCRIBING THINGS Conditional SentencesNote : We don’t use “will” in the “if” part of thesentence. Example:Wrong : If the product will arrive tomorrow, I willinform you by return of post.Right : If the product arrives tomorrow, I will inform you by return of post.In a sentence with an if-clause we can also use theimperative, or other modal verbs, instead of “will +infinitive”
5 Lesson B Grammar UNIT 5: DESCRIBING THINGS Examples:If you meet Somsak today, give him this ring.If the traffic is congested, I may get home late.If the director comes, you must ask himto sign this contract.
6 Lesson B Grammar UNIT 5: DESCRIBING THINGS If and Unless Unless means the same as if…not. It always refers to the conditional part of the sentence and not the result part of the sentence.Condition ResultIf nothing goes wrong. We will sign the deal tomorrow= We will sign the deal tomorrow unless something goes wrong.We often use “not + unless”, which means “only…if” when wewant to emphasize a condition. We can also use “provided that,providing, as long as” and “so long as” when we want to emphasizea condition. Examples:I will agree to work here provided that you increase my salary by 10%.The work will be successful as long as we all join hands together.
7 Lesson B Grammar UNIT 5: DESCRIBING THINGS Pattern 2 : unreal, presentCondition ResultIf the fridge was not so expensive. I would buy it.b. If I were rich I would travel around the world.We can use the pattern 2 or the second conditional to refer to an action or state we imagine. In other words, we use this pattern when we feel that the preposition is not possible or is not likely to be fulfilled. We make it clear that we do not think it will happen.- Notice that “would” is used in the result and the simple-pastverb form is used in the if-clause.It is also possible to use “might” and “could” instead of “would”.Example:- If we had a chance, we could make fortune from this company.- If he worked harder, he might pass the exam.
8 Lesson B Grammar UNIT 5: DESCRIBING THINGS Pattern 3 : unreal, pastCondition ResultIf + had + V would have + V.3a. If we had had the right figures, we could have avoided a costly error.b. If they had offered a 15% pay rise, they could have prevented the strike.When we use the third conditional we want to express a proposition that was not real in the past. When the pattern 3 is used, we are imagining the opposite situation.We can used “could” or “might” instead of “would”. Example:- If we had followed his advice, we could have lost a great deal of money.- If you had treated her well, you might have won her heart.
9 Lesson B Grammar UNIT 5: DESCRIBING THINGS Practice Complete the following sentences.What would this woman (do) ____ if she (know) ______ the boy was there?If I (have) ____ a lot of money, I (travel) _______ around the world.If we (run) _____ out of oil, we (need) _______ other kinds of energy.If pollution (increase) _________ more and more trees (die) ______ .You can go now if you (finish) ___________ your assignment.The climate (change) ________ if more trees (die) ____ .If she (know)______ he was there, she (tell) _________ him to go away.Perhaps he (run) ____away if he (see) _____ them.If the weather (be) _________nice yesterday, I (go) _____________ to the beach.If you hadn’t missed your bus, you (be) ________________ late for school.doknewhad‘d travelrun‘ll needincreases‘ll diehave finished‘ll changedieknewwould tellransawhad beenwould have gonewouldn’t have been
10 Lesson B Grammar UNIT 5: DESCRIBING THINGS If I (not help) ____________you, what would you have done?If I’d studied hard, I (pass) _________________ the exam.If you (take) _________ the exam, you might have passed it.I (can repair) _________________ the car, if I’d had the right tools.She would have spoken to you if she (see) ________ you.If he had been more careful, he (not have) ________________ an accident.If I’d had time, I (go) _______________ shopping.I’d be better-looking, if I (not have) ___________ such a big nose.If you can get a ticket, I (go) _______ to the concert next week.If it hadn’t rained all morning, we (go)_______________ out.hadn’t helpedwould have passedhad takencould have repairedhad seenwouldn’t have hadwould have gonedidn’t havewill gowould have gone
11 Lesson B Grammar UNIT 5: DESCRIBING THINGS If I have a big lunch, it (make) _______ me sleepy.If I (get) _____ a headache, I usually take some paracetamal .If I (be) _____ you, I’d apply for the job.If I (win) _____ a lot of money, I might stop working.Provided that you (promise) ________ to do my homework, I will go.If he (be) _____ a bird, he’d (fly) ___ all over the world.Unless you are dishonest, we (not keep) ___________ you long.Only phone me if it is an emergency. Please don’t phone me. (Rewrite the sentence using unless) ___________________________She will accept the job if we (give) _____ her the salary she wants.If we (pay) ____ them immediately, they (not take) ___________ legal action.makesgetwerewonpromisewereflywon’t keepunless it’s an emergencygivepaywill not take
12 Lesson B Grammar UNIT 5: DESCRIBING THINGS Unless sales (improve) ________ dramatically, we will make a loss this year.I (send) __________ her a fax if I knew her number.If we had the finance, we (expand)_____________ much more rapidly.If the terms of the contract (be) ____ different, we might accept it.If the investment grows at 6% a year, it (be) _______ worth B 2 million in ten years.improvewould sendcould expandwerewill be
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