Presentation on theme: "After-School Programs and its Effects on Academic Achievement Jennie Kwok Ed 703.22 Spring 2009."— Presentation transcript:
After-School Programs and its Effects on Academic Achievement Jennie Kwok Ed Spring 2009
Table of Contents Introduction Statement of the Problem Review of Related Literature Statement of Hypothesis Method Participants Instruments Research Design Test Results (Academic After- school Program) Correlations
Theorists Jean Lave Theory of situated learning learning occurs in the function of the activity, context, and culture. Lev Vygotsky Social interactions plays a role in cognitive development. Urie Bronfenbrenner Ecological Systems Perspective development occurs through a complex process of interactions within and between the individual and the environment contexts in which he or she is involved with over time.
Statement of the Problem Due to an increase number of parents entering the work force, there is a great need to place children in after-school programs that enrich their academic and social development. After-school programs can focus on academics or recreational. However, it is not clear which after- school program promotes academic achievement. This study will focus on the following question: Which type of after-school program is beneficial to students academic achievement?
Review of Related Literature Participation in after-school programs are associated with higher grades and test scores. (Coie & Krehbiel, 1984; Posner & Lowe, 1994; Dryfoos, 1999; Larner et al., 1999; Pierce, Hamm, & Vandell, 1999; Posner & Vandell, 1999; Vandell & Shumow, 1999; Cosden et al., 2001; Miller, 2001; Munoz, 2002; Valentine, Cooper, & Bettencourt, 2002; Junge et al., 2003; Miller, 2003; Cosden et al., 2004; Mahoney et al., 2005; AfterSchoolAlliance, 2007; Jenner, E. & Jenner, L.W., 2007; Viadero, 2007) Low-income students gain the most from after-school programs. (Posner & Lowe, 1994; Larner et al., 1999; Posner & Vandell, 1999; Vandell & Shumow, 1999; Miller, 2001; Miller, 2003; Mahoney et al., 2005) Participation in after-school programs gave students greater confidence in their academic abilities and provides an opportunity to develop positive, school-related, adult attachments. ( Posner & Lowe, 1994; Pierce, Hamm, & Vandell, 1999; Cosden, Morrison, Alabanese, & Macias, 2001; Miller, 2001; Miller, 2003; Cosden et al., 2004; Viadero, 2007)
Review of Related Literature After-school participation is also linked with lower involvement in risky behaviors like violence, drugs, sex, etc. (Larner et al., 1999; Cosden et al., 2001; Miller, 2001; Jenner, E. & Jenner, L.W., 2007) Research concludes the following regarding after-school programs: youth benefit from consistent participation in quality after-school programs, after- school programs can increase engagement in learning, can also increase educational equity (which provides disadvantaged youth opportunities and experiences that are available to middle and upper class students), and after-school programs build key skills (teamwork, problem solving, communication) necessary for success in today's world. (Miller, 2003)
Review of Related Literature However, after-school programs can interfere with a childs commitment to their family and community. It can also reduce parental involvement in their childs academic process. (Cosden, Morrison, Alabanese, & Macias, 2001; Cosden, Morrison, Gutierrez, & Brown, 2004) A study by Vandell & Corasaniti reported middle class children who attended after-school had poorer grades and test scores and were more likely to be rejected by their classmates. (Pierce, Hamm, & Vandell, 1999 ) Another study reported that children in after-school showed more problems socially, emotionally, and academically when compared to those in mother care or self-care after-school. (Posner & Lowe, 1994)
Review of Related Literature After-school programs can restrict their opportunity to participate in enrichment activities like scouts, music lessons, organized sports that are available to middle- class children. (Posner & Lowe, 1994). Common challenges facing after-school programs: facilities, staffing, and financing. (Dryfoos, 1999; Halpern, 1999; Larner et al., 1999)
Review of Related Literature The Gevirtz Homework Project (2001) that provided homework assistance had a positive impact on 4 th grade English Language Learners. (Cosden et al., 2001; Cosden et al., 2004) Homework completion plays an important role in supporting academic achievement. It develops good work habits and job management skills. (Corno & Xu, 2004)
Review of Related Literature The Ecological Study of After-school Care found 3 rd graders who spent time in enrichment activities (music, organized sports, dance, etc.) had better work habits, better relationships with peers, and better emotional adjustment. (Vandell & Shumow, 1999) Physical activity and sport participation are linked directly and indirectly with better cognitive functioning, higher academic achievement, reduced school dropout and greater odds of going to college full time. (Coatsworth & Conroy, 2007)
Statement of Hypothesis In comparing academic and recreational after-school programs, 3 rd graders attending an academic after- school program will yield better reading results than those attending a recreational after-school program.
Participants 18 – 3 rd graders attending an academic after-school program in P.S. X 15 – 3 rd graders attending a recreational after-school program in P.S. X
Instruments Reading Comprehension Exams Consent Forms Surveys I like going to after-school Strongly DisagreeAgreeStrongly DisagreeAgree I spend time doing homework. A.Less than 30 minutes. B.30 minutes C.1 hour D.1½ hours
Research Design Pre-Experimental Design Static-Group Comparison Individuals are not randomly assigned. They are in pre-existing groups. Two Groups: Control Group (X 1 ) experience one treatment (academic after-school program) and Experimental Group (X 2 ) experience a different treatment (recreational after-school program). Both groups (X 1 and X 2 ) are posttested (O) and their results are compared. Symbolic Design: X 1 O X 2 O
Threats to Internal Validity History – Classroom teacher comes into his/her classroom can distract students from their exams and questionnaires. Likelihood of a fire drill in after-school is possible. Instrumentation – Questionnaires were self-created by researcher. Selection-Maturation Interaction – Participants may mature differently than others.
Threats to External Validity Selection-Treatment Interaction – Participants werent individually selected. Experimenter Effects (Passive Elements) – Participants may be intimidated by researcher because she is not their daily after-school counselor. Hawthorne Effect – Participants respond differently because they know they are in an experiment.
Test Results (Academic After-school Program)
Correlation Rxy = There is no correlation between the amount of time spent reading and students average reading comprehension test scores.
Correlation Rxy = There is no correlation between homework completion and students average reading comprehension test scores.