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After-School Programs and its Effects on Academic Achievement Jennie Kwok Ed 703.22 Spring 2009.

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Presentation on theme: "After-School Programs and its Effects on Academic Achievement Jennie Kwok Ed 703.22 Spring 2009."— Presentation transcript:

1 After-School Programs and its Effects on Academic Achievement Jennie Kwok Ed Spring 2009

2 Table of Contents Introduction Statement of the Problem Review of Related Literature Statement of Hypothesis Method Participants Instruments Research Design Test Results (Academic After- school Program) Correlations

3 Theorists Jean Lave Theory of situated learning learning occurs in the function of the activity, context, and culture. Lev Vygotsky Social interactions plays a role in cognitive development. Urie Bronfenbrenner Ecological Systems Perspective development occurs through a complex process of interactions within and between the individual and the environment contexts in which he or she is involved with over time.

4 Statement of the Problem Due to an increase number of parents entering the work force, there is a great need to place children in after-school programs that enrich their academic and social development. After-school programs can focus on academics or recreational. However, it is not clear which after- school program promotes academic achievement. This study will focus on the following question: Which type of after-school program is beneficial to students academic achievement?

5 Review of Related Literature Participation in after-school programs are associated with higher grades and test scores. (Coie & Krehbiel, 1984; Posner & Lowe, 1994; Dryfoos, 1999; Larner et al., 1999; Pierce, Hamm, & Vandell, 1999; Posner & Vandell, 1999; Vandell & Shumow, 1999; Cosden et al., 2001; Miller, 2001; Munoz, 2002; Valentine, Cooper, & Bettencourt, 2002; Junge et al., 2003; Miller, 2003; Cosden et al., 2004; Mahoney et al., 2005; AfterSchoolAlliance, 2007; Jenner, E. & Jenner, L.W., 2007; Viadero, 2007) Low-income students gain the most from after-school programs. (Posner & Lowe, 1994; Larner et al., 1999; Posner & Vandell, 1999; Vandell & Shumow, 1999; Miller, 2001; Miller, 2003; Mahoney et al., 2005) Participation in after-school programs gave students greater confidence in their academic abilities and provides an opportunity to develop positive, school-related, adult attachments. ( Posner & Lowe, 1994; Pierce, Hamm, & Vandell, 1999; Cosden, Morrison, Alabanese, & Macias, 2001; Miller, 2001; Miller, 2003; Cosden et al., 2004; Viadero, 2007)

6 Review of Related Literature After-school participation is also linked with lower involvement in risky behaviors like violence, drugs, sex, etc. (Larner et al., 1999; Cosden et al., 2001; Miller, 2001; Jenner, E. & Jenner, L.W., 2007) Research concludes the following regarding after-school programs: youth benefit from consistent participation in quality after-school programs, after- school programs can increase engagement in learning, can also increase educational equity (which provides disadvantaged youth opportunities and experiences that are available to middle and upper class students), and after-school programs build key skills (teamwork, problem solving, communication) necessary for success in today's world. (Miller, 2003)

7 Review of Related Literature However, after-school programs can interfere with a childs commitment to their family and community. It can also reduce parental involvement in their childs academic process. (Cosden, Morrison, Alabanese, & Macias, 2001; Cosden, Morrison, Gutierrez, & Brown, 2004) A study by Vandell & Corasaniti reported middle class children who attended after-school had poorer grades and test scores and were more likely to be rejected by their classmates. (Pierce, Hamm, & Vandell, 1999 ) Another study reported that children in after-school showed more problems socially, emotionally, and academically when compared to those in mother care or self-care after-school. (Posner & Lowe, 1994)

8 Review of Related Literature After-school programs can restrict their opportunity to participate in enrichment activities like scouts, music lessons, organized sports that are available to middle- class children. (Posner & Lowe, 1994). Common challenges facing after-school programs: facilities, staffing, and financing. (Dryfoos, 1999; Halpern, 1999; Larner et al., 1999)

9 Review of Related Literature The Gevirtz Homework Project (2001) that provided homework assistance had a positive impact on 4 th grade English Language Learners. (Cosden et al., 2001; Cosden et al., 2004) Homework completion plays an important role in supporting academic achievement. It develops good work habits and job management skills. (Corno & Xu, 2004)

10 Review of Related Literature The Ecological Study of After-school Care found 3 rd graders who spent time in enrichment activities (music, organized sports, dance, etc.) had better work habits, better relationships with peers, and better emotional adjustment. (Vandell & Shumow, 1999) Physical activity and sport participation are linked directly and indirectly with better cognitive functioning, higher academic achievement, reduced school dropout and greater odds of going to college full time. (Coatsworth & Conroy, 2007)

11 Statement of Hypothesis In comparing academic and recreational after-school programs, 3 rd graders attending an academic after- school program will yield better reading results than those attending a recreational after-school program.

12 Participants 18 – 3 rd graders attending an academic after-school program in P.S. X 15 – 3 rd graders attending a recreational after-school program in P.S. X

13 Instruments Reading Comprehension Exams Consent Forms Surveys I like going to after-school Strongly DisagreeAgreeStrongly DisagreeAgree I spend time doing homework. A.Less than 30 minutes. B.30 minutes C.1 hour D.1½ hours

14 Research Design Pre-Experimental Design Static-Group Comparison Individuals are not randomly assigned. They are in pre-existing groups. Two Groups: Control Group (X 1 ) experience one treatment (academic after-school program) and Experimental Group (X 2 ) experience a different treatment (recreational after-school program). Both groups (X 1 and X 2 ) are posttested (O) and their results are compared. Symbolic Design: X 1 O X 2 O

15 Threats to Internal Validity History – Classroom teacher comes into his/her classroom can distract students from their exams and questionnaires. Likelihood of a fire drill in after-school is possible. Instrumentation – Questionnaires were self-created by researcher. Selection-Maturation Interaction – Participants may mature differently than others.

16 Threats to External Validity Selection-Treatment Interaction – Participants werent individually selected. Experimenter Effects (Passive Elements) – Participants may be intimidated by researcher because she is not their daily after-school counselor. Hawthorne Effect – Participants respond differently because they know they are in an experiment.

17 Test Results (Academic After-school Program)

18 Correlation Rxy = There is no correlation between the amount of time spent reading and students average reading comprehension test scores.

19 Correlation Rxy = There is no correlation between homework completion and students average reading comprehension test scores.


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