Presentation on theme: "Jennie Kwok Ed 703.22 Spring 2009. Table of Contents Introduction Statement of the Problem Review of Related Literature Statement of Hypothesis Method."— Presentation transcript:
Table of Contents Introduction Statement of the Problem Review of Related Literature Statement of Hypothesis Method Participants Instruments Experimental Design Procedure Results Discussion Implications
Statement of the Problem Due to an increase number of parents entering the work force, there is a great need to place children in after-school programs that enrich their academic and social development. After- school programs can focus on academics or recreational. However, it is not clear which after-school program promotes academic achievement. This study will focus on the following question: Which type of after-school program is beneficial to students academic achievement?
Review of Related Literature Participation in after-school programs are associated with higher grades and test scores. (Coie & Krehbiel, 1984; Posner & Lowe, 1994; Dryfoos, 1999; Larner et al., 1999; Pierce, Hamm, & Vandell, 1999; Posner & Vandell, 1999; Vandell & Shumow, 1999; Cosden et al., 2001; Miller, 2001; Munoz, 2002; Valentine, Cooper, & Bettencourt, 2002; Junge et al., 2003; Miller, 2003; Cosden et al., 2004; Mahoney et al., 2005; AfterSchoolAlliance, 2007; Jenner, E. & Jenner, L.W., 2007; Viadero, 2007) Low-income students gain the most from after-school programs. (Posner & Lowe, 1994; Larner et al., 1999; Posner & Vandell, 1999; Vandell & Shumow, 1999; Miller, 2001; Miller, 2003; Mahoney et al., 2005) Participation in after-school programs gave students greater confidence in their academic abilities and provides an opportunity to develop positive, school-related, adult attachments. ( Posner & Lowe, 1994; Pierce, Hamm, & Vandell, 1999; Cosden, Morrison, Alabanese, & Macias, 2001; Miller, 2001; Miller, 2003; Cosden et al., 2004; Viadero, 2007) After-school participation is also linked with lower involvement in risky behaviors like violence, drugs, sex, etc. (Larner et al., 1999; Cosden et al., 2001; Miller, 2001; Jenner, E. & Jenner, L.W., 2007) Research concludes the following regarding after-school programs: youth benefit from consistent participation in quality after-school programs, after-school programs can increase engagement in learning, can also increase educational equity (which provides disadvantaged youth opportunities and experiences that are available to middle and upper class students), and after-school programs build key skills (teamwork, problem solving, communication) necessary for success in today's world. (Miller, 2003) Pros of After-school Programs
Review of Related Literature However, after-school programs can interfere with a childs commitment to their family and community. It can also reduce parental involvement in their childs academic process. (Cosden, Morrison, Alabanese, & Macias, 2001; Cosden, Morrison, Gutierrez, & Brown, 2004) A study by Vandell & Corasaniti reported middle class children who attended after-school had poorer grades and test scores and were more likely to be rejected by their classmates. (Pierce, Hamm, & Vandell, 1999 ) Another study reported that children in after-school showed more problems socially, emotionally, and academically when compared to those in mother care or self-care after-school. (Posner & Lowe, 1994) Cons of After-school Programs
Review of Related Literature The Gevirtz Homework Project (2001) that provided homework assistance had a positive impact on 4 th grade English Language Learners. (Cosden et al., 2001; Cosden et al., 2004) Homework completion plays an important role in supporting academic achievement. It develops good work habits and job management skills. (Corno & Xu, 2004) The Ecological Study of After-school Care found 3 rd graders who spent time in enrichment activities (music, organized sports, dance, etc.) had better work habits, better relationships with peers, and better emotional adjustment. (Vandell & Shumow, 1999) Physical activity and sport participation are linked directly and indirectly with better cognitive functioning, higher academic achievement, reduced school dropout and greater odds of going to college full time. (Coatsworth & Conroy, 2007) Pros of Academic After-school Programs Pros of Recreational After-school Programs
Statement of Hypothesis (HR1) In comparing academic and recreational after-school programs, 17 third-graders attending an academic after- school program in Brooklyn, N.Y. will yield better reading results than 17 third-graders attending a recreational after-school program in Brooklyn, N.Y.
Participants 17 – 3 rd graders attending an academic after-school program in P.S. X 17 – 3 rd graders attending a recreational after-school program in P.S. X
Instruments Reading Comprehension Exams (3) Consent Forms o Principal o After-school Coordinators o Parents Surveys o I like going to after-school. 1 2 3 4 Strongly DisagreeAgreeStrongly DisagreeAgree o I spend time doing homework. 1. Less than 30 minutes. 2.30 minutes 3. 1 hour 4. 1½ hours
Research Design Pre-Experimental Design Static-Group Comparison Individuals are not randomly assigned. They are in pre-existing groups. Two Groups: Control Group (X 1 ) experience one treatment (academic after-school program) and Experimental Group (X 2 ) experience a different treatment (recreational after-school program). Both groups (X 1 and X 2 ) are posttested (O) and their results are compared. Symbolic Design: X 1 O X 2 O
Threats to Internal/External Validity Threats to Internal Validity History – Classroom teacher came into the room and the phone rang when participants were filling out their attitude survey. Instrumentation – Questionnaires were self-created by researcher. Selection-Maturation Interaction – Participants may mature differently than others. Threats to External Validity Selection-Treatment Interaction – Participants werent individually selected. Experimenter Effects (Passive Elements) – Participants were intimidated by researcher because she is not their daily after-school counselor. Hawthorne Effect – Participants respond differently because they know they are in an experiment.
Procedure Study implemented between March 2009 – April 2009. Prior to the study, participants have been exposed to academic assistance (homework help/tutoring) and recreational activities (dancing, organized sports, arts & crafts) for five months in their after-school programs. Parental consent forms distributed in March 2009 and April 2009. Three different sets of reading comprehension exams were distributed for three consecutive days (one for each day). Attitude and demographic survey distributed on the fourth day. Exams and surveys were graded and analyzed.
Test Results (Academic and Recreational ) The mean of all three exams of 17 third-grade students in the academic after-school program is 71. The mean of all three exams of 17 third-grade students in the recreational after-school program is 74. StudentTest #1Test #2Test #3 Mean of all 3 tests A95897987 B10089 92 C956379 D 683761 E74795368 F58631144 G63685863 H79 7477 I84796375 J89687477 K95685372 L74587468 M79845873 N100897487 O68472145 P53423744 Q95 Mean81726071 Mode95687487 Median79686373 StudentTest #1Test #2Test #3 Mean of all 3 tests A749584 B95 5883 C74846374 D58534753 E84796375 F100958493 G79587972 H846810084 I 635367 J89583360 K95899593 L95 8993 M897984 N951007490 O84471147 P33172224 Q89748482 Mean82746674 Mode95 8493 Median84797482
Correlation Rxy = 0.05 There is no correlation between the amount of time spent reading and test scores in the academic after-school program. Average time spent reading = 37 minutes Rxy = 0.6 There is a correlation between the amount of time spent reading and test scores in the recreational after-school program. Average time spent reading = 47 minutes. Note: The question regarding the amount of time a student spent on reading was specified to a specific setting, whether it was during after-school, school hours, or at home.
Correlation Attitude of HW completion recorded to numerical value: 1 = Strongly Disagree 2 = Disagree 3 = Agree 4 = Strongly Agree Rxy = 0.4 There is no correlation between homework completion and reading test scores. Average amount of time spent on HW = 42 minutes out of total 3 hr span in after- school StudentMeanFinish HW after-schoolX amt of time on HW A88415 mins B93460 mins C79330 mins D61215 mins E69315 mins F44115 mins G63130 mins H77360 mins I75290 mins J77390 mins K72330 mins L69460 mins M74460 mins N88315 mins O45490 mins P44315 mins Q95330 mins
Correlation StudentMeanHave fun in after-school A844 B834 C744 D534 E751 F934 G724 H844 I673 J602 K934 L 4 M844 N904 O473 P241 Q823 Rxy = 0.6 There is a correlation between having fun in recreational after- school and reading test scores. Students who have fun in after- school will produce better reading scores. Attitude of having fun in after-school recorded to numerical value: 1 = Strongly Disagree 2 = Disagree 3 = Agree 4 = Strongly Agree
Discussion The results of this study does not support the original hypothesis: 17 third- graders attending an academic after-school program in Brooklyn, N.Y. will yield better reading results than 17 third-graders attending a recreational after-school program in Brooklyn, N.Y. Results consistent with the following viewpoints and findings: After-school programs that focus on recreational activities will promote academic achievement (Dryfoos, 1999; Vandell & Shumow, 1999; Valentine, Cooper, & Bettencourt, 2002; Coatsworth & Conry, 2007) Too much emphasis on work is negatively related to achievement (Warren, LePore, & Mare, 2000) Results inconsistent with the following viewpoints and findings: After-school programs that focus primarily on academics provide higher academic performance (Cosden, Morrison, Albanese, & Macias, 2001; Corno & Xu, 2004; Cosden, Morrison, Gutierrez, & Brown, 2004) Homework plays an important role in supporting academic achievement (Corno & Xu, 2004)
Implications Results of this study cannot be generalized to the general population since 100% of the participants in this study were Asian. Need for a larger sample size Need for long-term study More research is needed especially regarding recreational after-school programs and their effects on academic achievement.