Presentation on theme: "Getting to Know Your Students Presenter: Teresa May CBRSD Autism Specialist."— Presentation transcript:
Getting to Know Your Students Presenter: Teresa May CBRSD Autism Specialist
A developmental disability significantly affecting verbal and nonverbal communication and social interaction. Source: A Guide to Federal and State Education Requirements in Massachusetts, 2000
What is Autism Spectrum Disorder? ASD is a neurological condition that affects a persons ability to effectively communicate and interact with others. It is a Pervasive Developmental Disorder that effects boys four times more often than girls. It is a spectrum disorder that affects individuals differently and to varying degrees
Autism Continuum Measured I.Q. Severe Gifted Social- Emotional Interaction Aloof Passive Active but Odd Communication Non-verbal Verbal Motor Skills Awkward Agile Fine Motor Uncoordinated Coordinated Sensory Hypo Hyper
Asperger Syndrome (AS) First described by Hans Asperger in 1944 (Mildest and highest functioning end of ASD) Abnormalities noted in 3 broad aspects of development Social interaction and emotional relatedness Unusual patterns of narrow interests Behavioral and stylistic characteristics involving repetitive /perseverative features
Asperger Syndrome (cont ) Students more likely found in general education classrooms and often undiagnosed or misdiagnosed as ADD, ED, LD, or just odd Genetic factors more prevalent in AS. Often family history of autism, most often on the fathers side
Characteristics: Higher cognitive abilities (average to superior) Lucid language by 4 years Present with considerable pragmatic language difficulties Speech often stilted and repetitive; conversations revolve around rote, factual topics
Additional Characteristics Often engage in rituals Worry excessively when they do not know what to expect
Core Areas of Deficit Speech and Language Deficits Non-Verbal Echolalic/sterotypical language Hyper-Verbal Social Skill Deficits Range from isolative to indiscriminately social Limited/Repetitive Behavioral Repertoire Self Stimulation Rigidity Perseverative Inflexibility
Communication Deficits Severe delay or complete absence of speech Severe delay or complete absence of speech Immediate or delayed echolalia Immediate or delayed echolalia Poor auditory processing Poor auditory processing Odd voice quality/volume Odd voice quality/volume Understanding of language is literal/concrete Understanding of language is literal/concrete (e.g., listen up. Thats cool. (e.g., listen up. Thats cool. Knock it off.) May repeat sounds/questions/phrases May repeat sounds/questions/phrases
Strategies to address Communication needs Language occurs throughout day and is taught by everyone Use augmentative communication to stimulate verbal language (e.g. PECS) Use visual cues to facilitate understanding of abstract concepts (e.g. pictures, drawings, written words) BE CONCRETE
Communication Strategies (cont) Teach for generalization by teaching in variety of settings, using different materials (e.g., color red: apple, stop sign, shirt, crayon) Auditory processing deficits: allow extra time for student to respond
Deficits in Pragmatic Language Turn-taking skills (within play and conversation) Gestalt processing (seeing the big picture) Perspective-taking Problem solving Organization
Additional Issues with Pragmatics Social Expectations Proximity, eye contact, intonation Conversational skills - Talking too much - Interrupting - Changing topics without transition (From Gail Hallenberg, M.S.,CCC-SLP)
Strategies to Improve Pragmatic Language Teach rules of communication Teach conversational skills step by step, using visual aides and representations Role playing Start with easier tasks and add complexity as the student gains skills and confidence
Work on different contexts and generalization Repetition/practice Always explain why -- Helps students see the perspective of others (From Gail Hallenberg, M.S., CCC-SLP) Strategies to Improve Pragmatic Language
Social Skill Deficits Infants/children irritable and hard to comfort Infants/children irritable and hard to comfort Isolative Isolative Poor/no eye contact; odd eye gaze Poor/no eye contact; odd eye gaze Inappropriate giggling or laughing Inappropriate giggling or laughing No understanding of friendship No understanding of friendship
Social Challenges for Students with AS 1.Self observation/ evaluation of impact on others 2.Perspective taking; empathy 3.Applying problem solving skills 4.Dealing with change/novel stimuli 5.Body awareness/personal space
Additional Social Challenges 6.Coping with change/not getting your own way 7.Understanding subtle/ complex verbal and nonverbal communication 8.Processing and understanding emotion 9.Mastering the increasing complexity of games and rules 10.Learning to enjoy social contact
Strategies for Improving Social Skills Shape desired behaviors Teach and practice appropriate social skills in natural environments Establish a friendship system for community integration Have neurotypical peers or adults prompt/cue appropriate social skills Capitalize on childs strengths in integrated settings
Addressing Social Skills in the School Social Stories Model desired social skill Social skill scripting Social skills discussion Direct teaching of desired social skill
Application to Natural Settings Opportunities to apply new skills in a natural peer context Start with more structured situations and then try with less structures; provide enough support to ensure success Coaching should still be given before and after, as needed Should be practiced across all settings – School clubs, teams, activity groups – Recess, P.E., lunch – Mainstreaming classroom
Academic Challenges Children adapt poorly to others and changes in routines Children adapt poorly to others and changes in routines Do not use toys for intended purpose (e.g., spins, lines up, flips, etc Do not use toys for intended purpose (e.g., spins, lines up, flips, etc.)
Academic Challenges (cont) Uneven development of skills: Uneven development of skills: - Decodes words but unable to comprehend unable to comprehend meaning meaning - Good computation - Good computation skills, but unable to apply skills, but unable to apply - Excellent visual matching skills matching skills - Gross/fine motor skills range from superior range from superior to very poor to very poor
Academic Challenges Verbal abilities higher than performance skills Lack higher level abstract thinking and comprehension skills Impressive vocabularies give false impression that they understand (may be parroting what read or hear)
Academic Challenges (cont) Excellent rote memory skills, but mechanical in nature Exhibit poor problem solving skills Literal and concrete thinkers
Strategies that Address Academic Challenges Avoid surprises Avoid surprises Visual Schedules assist with daily routines and transitions Visual Schedules assist with daily routines and transitions Provide predictable structured, safe, environments Provide predictable structured, safe, environments Use priming techniques Use priming techniques Visual supports Visual supports
Visual Supports Todays Schedule 1.Breakfast 2.Speech – Ms. Jane 3.OCR – Ms. Nelson 4.Written Language 5.Recess 6.Math 7.Social Studies 8.Lunch 9.Reading Comprehension 10.Art or Music 11.Homework Review 12.Dismissal
Strategies that address Academic Challenges Break tasks into smaller parts Teach how to use toys/games appropriately Stress functional use of academic skills Fade cueing
Educational Strategies for Academic Challenges Individualized academic programming designed to offer consistent success Make learning rewarding, not anxiety provoking Redirect away from following their own impulses Insure students understanding of presented material via his/her demonstration of it
Academic Strategies (cont) Big job: Clean your desk Little chunks: 1. Put pencils in pencil box 2. Close covers of all books 3. Throw away all wrinkled/ torn papers 4. Put important papers in a folder 5. Put books in a neat stack Break reading comprehension into smaller parts and analyze 1 section at a time Expectations must be set for amount and quality of work produced. Start small and increase as skills develop Earning time toward doing what interests them is often a good motivator to do what is expected.
Sensitivity to environmental conditions Hyper or hypo sensitivity to auditory, visual, smell/taste, tactile/kinesthetic Sensory Deficits
Response to Sensory Input Under/over reaction to sound Eye contact avoidance Focus on details of objects Avoids specific foods/odors/textures, etc.
Strategies to Address Sensory Differences Remove environmental conditions, if reasonable (e.g., odors) Desensitize in small steps (consulting with O.T.) Implement sensory diet, as prescribed by O.T.
Behavior Support Behavior Support First Then
Strategies Simplify abstract concepts. Use visuals as much as possible Teach the difference between general knowledge and personal ideas to help with writing skills
Emotional Vulnerability Often dont have the emotional resources to cope with the demands of the classroom (esp. from 3 rd grade on) Easily distressed due to inability to be flexible and lack of organizational skills Intolerant of making mistakes, low self-esteem Prone to depression Rage and tantrum reactions common response to stress and frustration
Educational Strategies: Emotional Vulnerability Provide high level of consistency to prevent outbursts Teach students strategies to cope with their stress: Make list of concrete steps to follow when they become upset (e.g., 3 deep breaths, count fingers of left hand 3 times, ask to take a break outside of classroom, write steps on card, etc.) Be alert to changes in behavior that signal depression: More disorganized, inattentive, isolative, crying/suicidal remarks, increased levels of stress, etc.
Troubleshooting Problem Situations Approach problem situations with an open mind, and reserve (behavioral) judgments! Analyze problem situations, taking into account knowledge of both the student and his/her disability Develop an action plan based upon the students needs Be proactive in the application of supports 41
BEHAVIOR Basic Overall Guidelines All behavior is a form of communication Investigate WHY its occurring – Inability to communicate Confusion/fear caused by change, sensory stimuli Pain caused by sensory stimuli, illness, accident Frustration/anger due to limited communication/social skills – Get something desired (food, toy, attention) – End disliked activity – Meet sensory need (increase or decrease input) – Opportunity to make a comment – Habitual not having alternative 42
All behavior communicates. What may appear to be an act of willful noncompliance, may be, in actuality, the students idiosyncratic attempt to send a message that s/he is unable to get across in any other more conventional way. Moreover, since it is the caregivers judgments that determine how the student will be perceived, what the caregiver does not know can, and often does, jeopardize the students learning.
Behavior If you try to force negative behaviors to stop without understanding WHY then – The behavior will increase in occurrence and intensity – Another negative behavior will emerge to replace Replace with appropriate behavior based on needs of child – Focus on instruction rather than discipline – Provide alternate acceptable behavior useful to student 45
Behavior Coordinate all personnel – consistency is essential Reinforce appropriate behavior frequently – Use meaningful reinforcements During crisis – Move to quiet calm space – Provide familiar people, places, objects – Allow calming, repetitive, stereotyped activities 46
Behavior If child loses it – Engage pre-planned intervention – Keep voice calm, actions simple and visible – Assure class student is OK – Get closure when calm (sequence paper, books, charts, clean up/apologize, transition) 47
Difficulties encountered Organization requires an understanding of what one wants to do and a plan for implementation. These requirements are sufficiently complex, interrelated, and abstract to present formidable obstacles for students with autism. Developing systematic habits and work routines, checklists, visual schedules, and visual instructions concretely showing autistic students what has been completed, what remains to be done, and how to proceed.
Difficulties encountered Distractibility takes many forms in the classroom: reacting to outside car noises, visually following movements in the classroom, or studying the teachers pencil on the desk instead of completing the required work. Identifying what is distracting. it might be visual stimuli, it might be auditory. environmental modifications can be made to the physical make-up of a students work area, the presentation of work- related tasks, or many other possibilities.
Difficulties encountered Sequencing is another area of difficulty. These students often cannot remember the precise order of tasks because they focus concretely on specific details and do not always see relationships between them. Consistent work routines and visual instructions compensate for these difficulties. Visual instructions can highlight sequences of events and remind autistic students of the proper order to follow. The visual picture remains present and concrete, helping the student to follow the desired sequence. The establishment of systematic work habits is also helpful; a student who always works from left to right can have work presented in the correct sequence.
Difficulties encountered Difficulties with generalization. Students with autism frequently cannot apply what they have learned in one situation to similar settings. Appropriate generalization requires an understanding of the central principles in learned sequences and the subtle ways in which they are applicable to other situations. Focusing on specific details, students with autism frequently miss these central principles and their applications.
Some things to try Use simple, concrete language. Less is better! Key words and phrases that work include: The rule is… Make a good choice. If…..then…..
Some things to try Visuals The importance of visuals cannot be underestimated. As Temple Grandin, who has Aspergers Syndrome, explains in Thinking in Pictures (Vintage, 1996): Words are like a second language to me. Use visuals for schedules, directions, introducing new activities and more.
Examples of Visual Supports First/Then schedule Visual Class Rulesreal photo daily schedule
Visual Rules for desk
Some things to try Show, Dont Tell difficulty sequencing tasks means that the instruction Look at the article and fill in both sections of the answer sheet may as well be given in Klingon. Instead of telling, show your pupil what to do and guide them through the start of the activity.
Some things to try Rewards give out points for appropriate (not just good) behavior and effort at completing tasks. The points can be recorded on a chart. When each student gains five points they get a small reward. (prizes can be free choice time)
Effective Strategies Less is More Use plain language, check that the student is clear about what he/she needs to do Develop visual schedules, rules, instruction Keep the routine the same. Let the student know in advance if there will be a change and go through the change with them to reduce anxiety Handle group work in a sensitive way. Student must be clear about his/her role in the group Use detailed and clear instructions. Communicate important information in visual form 59
General Interventions Utilize step by step approach Employ visuals whenever possible Avoid power struggles Be aware of sensory needs (need for movement) Move at an appropriate pace Write and provide instruction manuals Structure transitions Provide behavioral supports across areas (social, language, behavior) 60
General Interventions Utilize the childs strengths/interests Improve self-awareness and self-esteem Teach student about strengths, weaknesses, and disability awareness Teach their classmates Provide buddy and mentoring Create an accepting classroom environment Watch as opposed to listen to them Dont be deceived by verbal skills 61
Modifications Physical arrangements Remove/minimize stimuli Modify requirements – Reduce length, amount, steps, complexity – Move to new space early (buddy system) – Take a Break (react to first signs of stress. Escalation is usually rapid) quiet area walk calming/sensory experiences Time to observe from distance new activities interactions with new objects Dont push – gradually move closer…fully include 62
When you tell me, I forget When you show me, I remember When you involve me, I understand
Fragile – Handle With Care Even though there are many things about me that are unique, in the ways that really matter I am just like other children. 64
I learn best from people I trust, and I learn to trust when I sense that people like me. Please try to see the world through my eyes, for I cant see it through yours. 65
And please know that even though it may not seem so, I really am trying to adapt to a world that my neurological challenges prevent me from understanding without your help 66
. If you keep these things clearly in mind, you will be less apt to label me a behavior problem, and more likely to teach me the things I need to know so that I can function with greater understanding and competence in a world that is often inhospitable to my needs. 67
RESOURCES and INFORMATION
RESOURCES and INFORMATION Stephen Shore, My life with Autism Teacch Temple Grandin Tony Atwood Resources for Educators Donna Williams – Artist with autism 69