Presentation on theme: "Intercultural Communication T2013 46h Annette Finnsdottir."— Presentation transcript:
Intercultural Communication T2013 46h Annette Finnsdottir
Relevance? Marketing/Markedsføring Private/public service Management of organizations/Organisationsledelse Internationalization / Multicultural Localization Peer-to-peer
The communications model of Schramm (1955) applied to the Internet/ Schramm’s kommunikationsmodel (1955) anvendt på internet kommunikation
www.kwintessential.co.uk: “Now, more than ever, you need to think globally. Our localization and internationalization services help you take your service or product and present it properly to any audience on the international stage. We go way beyond translation, times, dates and colours. Software, videos, slogans, marketing copy, e-commerce websites and apps all need insightful adaptation in order to appeal to particular languages, cultures and local expectations. This is what we offer.”
www.kwintessential.co.ukwww.kwintessential.co.uk: "Nu, mere end nogensinde, er du nødt til at tænke globalt. Vores lokalisering og internationalisering hjælper dig med at præsentere din service eller produkt ordentligt til ethvert publikum på den internationale scene. Vi går langt ud over oversættelse, tider, datoer og farver. Software, videoer, slogans, marketing kopi, e-handel hjemmesider og apps har alle brug for indsigtsfuld tilpasning med henblik på at appellere til bestemte sprog, kulturer og lokale forventninger. Det er, hvad vi tilbyder."
Communication is much more than the ”words” themselves … It’s also behavior…
It’s also … the concepts, the stories, the services, the experiences, the products, the plans, the strategies …
> How to interpret the basis of intercultural communication? > How to understand culture? Edward T. Hall (1914-2009) Geert Hofstede (1928-) Hans Gullestrup
Eward T. Hall American anthropologist and cross-cultural researcher Famous for the concept of Proxemics, a description of how people behave and react in different types of culturally defined personal space High Context (HC) communication most of the information is already in the person, while very little is in the coded, explicit, transmitted part of the message. Twins who have grown up together can and do communicate more economically (HC) than two lawyers in a courtroom during a trial (LC Low context (LC) communication is just the opposite; i.e., the mass of the information is vested in the explicit code.
Eward T. Hall High Context (including much of the Middle East, Asia, Africa, and South America) relational, collectivist, intuitive, and contemplative Low Context (including North America and much of Western Europe) logical, linear, individualistic, and action-oriented.
Geert Hofstede http://geert-hofstede.com/countries.html http://geert-hofstede.com/countries.html Power distance (PDI) Individualism vs. collectivism (IDV) Masculinity vs. feminity (MAS) Uncertainty avoidance (UAI) Long-term vs. short-term orientation (LTO)
Hans Gullestrup (2002) “However, the intercultural actor, or manager, will have to predict which of the actual cultural categories and layers in the relevant hierarchy he considers to be the potentially relevant culture - or cultures - and which cultures he might try to understand according to this assessment. Each of these potential and/or relevant cultures then has to be analyzed as an empirical unit in accordance with the analytical, theoretical cultural frame model or other models. As mentioned before, a particular culture might be described and understood at a given time by means of two cultural dimensions, the horizontal and the vertical.”
” Den interkulturelle aktør eller leder må forudsige, hvilke af de faktiske kulturelle kategorier og lag i det relevante hierarki han anser for at være den potentielt relevante kultur - eller kulturer - og hvilke kulturer han må prøve at forstå ifølge denne vurdering. Hver af disse potentielle og/eller relevante kulturer skal så analyseres som en empirisk enhed i overensstemmelse med den analytiske og teoretiske kulturelle rammemodel eller andre modeller. Som nævnt, kan en bestemt kultur beskrives og forstås ved en given tid ved hjælp af to kulturelle dimensioner, den horisontale og den vertikale.” Hans Gullestrup (2002)
CORE CULTURE & MANIFESTATION Hans Gullestrup (2002)
The anthropologist, Ralph Linton (1893-1953) Ascribed-status External qualities such as age, wealth, education or gender. Little room for others to gain status through actions and achievements. Achieved-status Achieved-status is earned. Internal qualities are valued more than external ones. Status is achieved through accomplishments such as hard work and contributions to a company or community. In such cultures status is malleable, in that it can be lost as quickly as it is gained and status can shift to other individuals
Exercise I Visit: http://www.multilingual.com/articleDetail.php? id=595 What cultural theoretical tradition is used for the analysis? Do you agree with the conclusions? What are the concepts in use for this research?
Exercise 2 You are creating a service concept targeted immigrants of Arabic background or immigrants from China, living in Denmark. What should you be ware of in terms of communication and user involvement?
Source: www.kwintessential.co.uk/index.php?option =com_content&id=1243&lang=en&layout=ed it&view=article www.kwintessential.co.uk/index.php?option =com_content&id=1243&lang=en&layout=ed it&view=article Working in teams 1. Break Assumptions Everyone makes or has assumptions about others. Assumptions are beliefs rather than objective truth and are usually influenced by a number of subjective factors. For intercultural communication to truly work, people need to assess their assumptions and ask themselves why they hold those ideas or beliefs. By doing so and even openly examining them with others, the initial barrier to intercultural communication is overcome. 2. Empathise In order to come to appreciate and understand people from different cultures, empathy is vital. Through putting yourself in someone else's shoes you come to see or appreciate their point of view.
Source: www.kwintessential.co.uk/index.php?option =com_content&id=1243&lang=en&layout=ed it&view=article www.kwintessential.co.uk/index.php?option =com_content&id=1243&lang=en&layout=ed it&view=article 3. Involve Involving others in tasks or decision making empowers and builds strong relationships. Using intercultural diversity is in essence a more creative approach to problem solving as it incorporates different points of view. 4. Shun Insensitive Behaviour People can and do behave in culturally insensitive ways. By attacking someone's person, you attack their culture and therefore their dignity. This can only be divisive. Intercultural communication is based upon people thinking through words and actions to ensure they do not act inappropriately. When insensitive behaviour is witnessed it is the responsibility of all to shun it and ensure it remains unacceptable.
Source: www.kwintessential.co.uk/index.php?option=com_c ontent&id=1243&lang=en&layout=edit&view=article www.kwintessential.co.uk/index.php?option=com_c ontent&id=1243&lang=en&layout=edit&view=article 5. Discourage Herd Mentality Herd mentality refers to a closed and one dimensional approach. Such a way of thinking curbs creativity, innovation and advancement as people are restricted in how to think, approach and engage with people or challenges. Intercultural communication can only flourish and therefore contribute if people are encouraged to think as individuals, bring their cultural influences to the table and share ideas that may be outside the box. 6. Be Wise Wisdom is not called wisdom for nothing. People need to be aware how to interact with people with respect and knowledge. Intercultural communication is essentially founded upon wisdom, i.e. showing maturity of thought and action in dealing with people. Through thinking things out and have background knowledge to intercultural differences much of the communication problems witnessed within business could be avoided.