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Paul Eggen and Don Kauchak Educational Psychology: Windows on Classrooms, Eighth Edition © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved CHAPTER 3:

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Presentation on theme: "Paul Eggen and Don Kauchak Educational Psychology: Windows on Classrooms, Eighth Edition © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved CHAPTER 3:"— Presentation transcript:

1 Paul Eggen and Don Kauchak Educational Psychology: Windows on Classrooms, Eighth Edition © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved CHAPTER 3: PERSONAL, SOCIAL, AND EMOTIONAL DEVELOPMENT

2 Paul Eggen and Don Kauchak Educational Psychology: Windows on Classrooms, Eighth Edition © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved Bronfenbrenners Bioecological Theory of Development

3 Paul Eggen and Don Kauchak Educational Psychology: Windows on Classrooms, Eighth Edition © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved PowerPoint 3.1 Bronfenbrenners Bioecological Model of Human Development The Microsystem The Mesosystem The Exosystem The Macrosystem The Chronosystem Family, peers, neighborhoods, schools Interactions between family, peers, schools, and neighborhoods Societal influences, such as the type of jobs parents have, health care The culture in which the child develops. Time-changing influences on development (aging and advances in technology) - BTW Influences on Child Development in Bronfenbrenners Model of Human Development

4 Paul Eggen and Don Kauchak Educational Psychology: Windows on Classrooms, Eighth Edition © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved Interaction Style Parental Characteristics Child Characteristics AuthoritativeFirm but caring. Provides reasons for rules. Consistent. High expectations. High self esteem. Confident and secure. Willing to take risks. Successful in school. AuthoritarianStresses conformity. Detached. Doesnt explain reasons for rules. Doesnt encourage verbal give and take. Withdrawn. Worry more about pleasing parents than solving problems. Defiant. Lack social skills. Parenting Styles and Patterns of Personal Development

5 Paul Eggen and Don Kauchak Educational Psychology: Windows on Classrooms, Eighth Edition © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved Interaction Style Parental Characteristics Child Characteristics PermissiveGive children total freedom. Low expectations. Make few demands on children. Lack self-control. Impulsive. Unmotivated. UninvolvedHave little interest in their childs life. Have few expectations. Lack self-control. Have few long-term goals. Easily frustrated. Disobedient. Parenting Styles and Patterns of Personal Development

6 Paul Eggen and Don Kauchak Educational Psychology: Windows on Classrooms, Eighth Edition © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved Group Activity Describe the Components of the of the bioecological model and explain how they influence development. Why is the Microsystem the most powerful influence on development? How are the influences of teachers and schools reflected in Bronfenbrenners bioeconomical model?

7 Paul Eggen and Don Kauchak Educational Psychology: Windows on Classrooms, Eighth Edition © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved Identity describes individuals senses of self, who they are, what their existence means, and what they want in life Identity combines with peoples self-concept, a cognitive assessment of their physical, social, and academic competence, to influence they way they respond to learning activities and their environments in general. Eriksons work was strongly influenced by his search for his own identity, and he believed, as he described it, that he experienced a crisis of identity. Erikson also believed that people have an instinctive desire to affiliate with others, and because he integrated identity and social factors in his theory of development, it is described as a psychosocial theory. Identity, Self-Concept, and Eriksons Work

8 Paul Eggen and Don Kauchak Educational Psychology: Windows on Classrooms, Eighth Edition © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved Trust vs. MistrustTrust in the world is developed through ( 0-1 year)continuous love and support. Autonomy vs. ShameIndependence is fostered by successful and Doubtexperiences formed by support and ( 1-3 years)structure. Initiative vs. GuiltAn exploratory and investigative attitude ( 3-6 years) results from meeting and accepting challenges. Eriksons Stages of Psychosocial Development

9 Paul Eggen and Don Kauchak Educational Psychology: Windows on Classrooms, Eighth Edition © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved Industry vs. InferiorityEnjoyment of mastery and competence ( 6-12 years)comes through success and recognition of accomplishment. Identity vs. ConfusionPersonal, social, sexual, and occupational (12-18 years)identity comes from success in school and experimentation with different roles. Intimacy vs. IsolationOpenness to others and the development (Young adulthood)of intimate relationships result from interaction with others. Eriksons Stages of Psychosocial Development

10 Paul Eggen and Don Kauchak Educational Psychology: Windows on Classrooms, Eighth Edition © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved Generativity vs. Stagnation Productivity, creativity, and concern for (Middle adulthood)the next generation are achieved through success on the job and a growing sense of social responsibilities. Integrity vs. DespairAcceptance of ones life is achieved by (Old age) an understanding of a persons place in the life cycle. Eriksons Stages of Psychosocial Development

11 Paul Eggen and Don Kauchak Educational Psychology: Windows on Classrooms, Eighth Edition © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved PowerPoint 3.6 Assumptions and Corollaries in Eriksons Work (slide 1 of 2) Assumptions in Eriksons Theory 1.People have the same basic needs. 2.The development of the self is a response to those needs. 3.Each stage of development is characterized by a psychosocial challenge, called a crisis, that presents opportunities for development. 4.Different stages reflect differences in the motivation of the individual.

12 Paul Eggen and Don Kauchak Educational Psychology: Windows on Classrooms, Eighth Edition © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved PowerPoint 3.6 Assumptions and Corollaries in Eriksons Work (slide 2 of 2) Corollaries in Eriksons Theory 1.No one permanently resolves a crisis. 2.People do not remain at a stage if the crisis isnt permanently resolved. 3.Less than ideal resolutions of crises at particular stages leaves individuals with personality glitches. 4.The effectiveness of the resolution of crises determines emotional health.

13 Paul Eggen and Don Kauchak Educational Psychology: Windows on Classrooms, Eighth Edition © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved States in Identity Development State Identify diffusion Identity foreclosure Identity moratorium Identity achievement Description Individuals fail to make clear choices, and confusion is common. Choices may be difficult, or individuals may not be developmentally ready to make choices. Individuals prematurely adopt ready-made positions of others, particularly parents. Decisions are based on the identities of others. Individuals pause and remain in a holding pattern. Long-range commitment is delayed. Individuals experience a period of crises and decision making. A commitment to a goal or direction is made.

14 Paul Eggen and Don Kauchak Educational Psychology: Windows on Classrooms, Eighth Edition © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved Sexual Identity The students have been dismissed for the day and youre in your room planning for the next day. One of your students comes in and asks to talk to you. You say, Of course,... Whats on your mind. Im having a lot of trouble. Students are pushing me around, knocking my books out of my hands and calling me gay.... Actually, I am gay. How do you respond to this student? What is your professional obligation to him and others who may be like him?

15 Paul Eggen and Don Kauchak Educational Psychology: Windows on Classrooms, Eighth Edition © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved The Relationships Among the Dimensions of Self-Concept and Achievement

16 Paul Eggen and Don Kauchak Educational Psychology: Windows on Classrooms, Eighth Edition © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved Self-Esteem in Our Popular Culture Self-concept and self-esteem (self worth) are often confused, much to the detriment of students and people in general. High self esteem is offered as a panacea for problems. Low self- esteem is seen as the root of problems such as... body image problems, marital infidelity, learning problems and personal unhappiness.... Increasing self esteem will result in remediation of these problems. Some educators subscribe to this simplistic view. Teachers are afraid to say anything negative to students about their performance because they believe it will hurt the students self-esteem. Children are asked to chant positive statements about themselves to enhance self-esteem. (Schunk, Pintrich, & Meece, 2008, p. 221-222)

17 Paul Eggen and Don Kauchak Educational Psychology: Windows on Classrooms, Eighth Edition © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved Guidelines for Promoting Identity and Self Concept Development in Your Classroom 1.Create a learning-focused classroom and communicate genuine interest in all students. 2.Use an authoritative management style to help your students develop responsibility. 3.Reward autonomy and initiative in your students. 4.Establish appropriately high expectations for all learners, and provide evidence of increasing competence. 5.Design grading systems that emphasize learning progress and personal growth.

18 Paul Eggen and Don Kauchak Educational Psychology: Windows on Classrooms, Eighth Edition © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved Minority students need to know that their cultures are valued and that the languages they bring to school are assets rather than obstacles or liabilities. Teachers play a crucial role in making every student feel wanted and loved by the overt and implicit messages they send through their teaching. Ethnic Identity and Pride

19 Paul Eggen and Don Kauchak Educational Psychology: Windows on Classrooms, Eighth Edition © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved Group Activity A 9 th grade student will do his required work and no more. Explain his behavior using Ericksons theory. How may a teacher respond to this behavior? Read Discussion on pages 68-69 (Identity development). Explain the state of identity of each of the students. I know I can get this the way I want it. Ive always been a decent writer. Im not sure why Im having a problem. Use the idea of self-concept and/or self-esteem to explain the students comments. Describe the relationship between self-concept, self- esteem, and academic achievement.

20 Paul Eggen and Don Kauchak Educational Psychology: Windows on Classrooms, Eighth Edition © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved PowerPoint 3.16 Theory to Practice: Promoting Social Development in Classrooms Promoting Social Development in Classrooms 1.Model and explicitly teach social skills to your students. 2.Establish rules governing acceptable classroom behavior. 3.Help students understand the reasons for rules by providing examples and rationales. 4.Have students practice social skills, and give them feedback.

21 Paul Eggen and Don Kauchak Educational Psychology: Windows on Classrooms, Eighth Edition © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved Group Activity Describe and Explain the major components of social development. Two kindergarten students are arguing about who should play at the water table. The teacher interjects, What could we do to make you both happy? What dimension of social development is the teacher trying to promote? Why? Explain how school violence and aggression relate to social development. Describe the causes of violent and aggressive behaviors in children.

22 Paul Eggen and Don Kauchak Educational Psychology: Windows on Classrooms, Eighth Edition © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved PowerPoint 3.18 Moral, Conventional, and Personal Domains Moral, Conventional, and Personal Domains 1. You see a classmate has left his pen on his desk after school. Is it okay to take the pen? 2. One of your friends is a big talker. Is it okay to interrupt her while shes in midsentence to make a point that you want to make? 3. You have a classroom rule that says to raise hands for permission to speak. Other students are speaking without raising their hands. Is it okay to speak without permission? 4. Getting tattoos is popular with some students. Is it okay to get a tattoo?

23 Paul Eggen and Don Kauchak Educational Psychology: Windows on Classrooms, Eighth Edition © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved Kohlbergs Stages of Moral Reasoning Level I: Preconventional The ethics of egocentrism. Typical of Ethics children up to about age 10. Called preconventional because children typically dont fully understand others rules. Stage 1:Moral reasoning based on immediate Punishment and Obedienceconsequences for the individual. An act is moral if a person isnt punished for it. It is immoral if the person is punished. Stage 2:Moral reasoning based on reciprocity. An Market Exchangeact is moral if a similar act occurs in return.

24 Paul Eggen and Don Kauchak Educational Psychology: Windows on Classrooms, Eighth Edition © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved Kohlbergs Stages of Moral Reasoning Level II: Conventional Ethics The ethics of others. Typical of 10 to 20- year-olds. Called conventional because of or the conformity to the rules and conventions of society. Stage 3:Moral reasoning based on concern for others Interpersonal Harmonyor the opinions of others. An act is moral if others demonstrate similar acts, or it helps or is approved of by others. Stage 4: Moral reasoning based on rules, laws, and Law and Orderan orderly society. An act is moral if it follows rules or promotes an orderly society.

25 Paul Eggen and Don Kauchak Educational Psychology: Windows on Classrooms, Eighth Edition © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved Kohlbergs Stages of Moral Reasoning Level III: Postconventional The ethics of principle. Called postconven- Ethicstional because transcends societys rules. Reached by a small portion of the population. Stage 5:Moral reasoning based on principled Social Contractagreements among people. An act is moral if it is consistent with a principled agreement. Stage 6: Moral reasoning based on abstract principles. Universal PrinciplesAn act is moral if it is consistent with an abstract principle that transcends an individual society.

26 Paul Eggen and Don Kauchak Educational Psychology: Windows on Classrooms, Eighth Edition © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved Moral Reasoning Exercise

27 Paul Eggen and Don Kauchak Educational Psychology: Windows on Classrooms, Eighth Edition © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved What stage is represented by your reasoning? Stage 3: Interpersonal Harmony Moral reasoning based on concern for others or the opinions of others. An act is moral if others demonstrate similar acts, or it helps or is approved of by others. Everyone else is driving the same speed, is an example. What stage is represented by highway patrol reasoning? Stage 4: Law and Order Moral reasoning based on rules, laws, and an orderly society. An act is moral if it follows rules or promotes an orderly society. My radar had you clocked at 75, and the speed limit clearly says 65, is an example. PowerPoint 3.17 Moral Reasoning on the Interstate (slide 2 of 2)

28 Paul Eggen and Don Kauchak Educational Psychology: Windows on Classrooms, Eighth Edition © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved Instructions: For the following items consider a teenager who is out with her friends. She is supposed to be in by midnight. She complies. Which of Kohlbergs stages is best illustrated by each of the reasons stated below? 1. If I stay out I will be in big trouble with my parents. 2. Nobodys doing anything anyway so I wont be missing anything. 3. My parents and I agreed that midnight is fair, and you cant go back on your agreements. 4. If I stay out my parents will be worried. 5. Its the curfew, so Ill be in by midnight. 6. My friends have curfews, too, and theyre going to be home by then. Stages of Moral Reasoning: An Application

29 Paul Eggen and Don Kauchak Educational Psychology: Windows on Classrooms, Eighth Edition © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved 1. If I stay out I will be in big trouble with my parents. Stage 1: Her concern is about being punished. 2. Nobodys doing anything anyway so I wont be missing anything. Stage 2: The focus is on herself. An exchange isnt evident; but her reasoning is egocentric. 3. My parents and I agreed that midnight was fair, and you cant go back on your agreements. Stage 5: She and her parents have agreed on the time to be in. PowerPoint 3.21 Stages of Moral Reasoning: An Application (slide 2 of 3)

30 Paul Eggen and Don Kauchak Educational Psychology: Windows on Classrooms, Eighth Edition © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved 4. If I stay out my parents will be worried. Stage 3: She is concerned about her parents feelings. 5.Its the curfew, so Ill be in by midnight. Stage 4: She is obeying the rule because its the rule. 6.My friends have curfews, too, and theyre going to be home by then. Stage 3: She is responding to the behavior of the group. PowerPoint 3.21 Stages of Moral Reasoning: An Application (slide 3 of 3)

31 Paul Eggen and Don Kauchak Educational Psychology: Windows on Classrooms, Eighth Edition © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved PowerPoint 3.22 Emotional Factors in Moral Development: An Application Are you okay? her mother asks as Melissa walks in the house after school. I feel bad, Mom, Melissa murmurs. We were working in a group, Jessica said something odd, and I said, Thats dumb....Then, she didnt say anything for the rest of our group time. She doesnt get great grades, and I know shes sensitive about it. I really hurt her feelings. It just sort of came out. I know you didnt mean to hurt her feelings, Sweetheart. Did you tell her you were sorry? No, when I realized it, I just sat there. I know how Id feel if someone said I was dumb. Tell you what, her mom suggests. Tomorrow, you go directly to her, tell her youre very sorry, and that it wont happen again. Thanks, Mom. Ill do it as soon as I see her.... I feel a lot better. 1.Identify three emotions that Melissa felt when she described the incident to her mother. 2.What does experiencing these emotions suggest about Melissa moral development?

32 Paul Eggen and Don Kauchak Educational Psychology: Windows on Classrooms, Eighth Edition © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved PowerPoint 3.23 Theory to Practice: Promoting Moral Development in Your Classroom Guidelines for Promoting Moral Development 1.Model ethical thinking, behavior, and empathy in your interactions with students. 2.Use classroom management as a vehicle for promoting moral development. 3.Encourage students to understand and respect the perspectives of others. 4.Use moral dilemmas as concrete reference points for discussions of moral issues.

33 Paul Eggen and Don Kauchak Educational Psychology: Windows on Classrooms, Eighth Edition © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved 1.Bridget encouraged a positive resolution of Autonomy vs. Shame and Doubt. While Tereses age suggests the Initiative vs. Guilt (and this would have been the case if Terese had intended to wash the dishes when she climbed the step stool), in this instance she was climbing the step stool to simply climb. Bridget provided structure and support by suggesting that her climb have a purpose--washing the dishes. 2. Severns interest and enthusiasm in taking the pottery class, and his enjoyment and the recognition he received from the teacher and his mother suggest that he is successfully resolving the Industry vs. Inferiority stage. 3. Bridgets commitment, as indicated by her comment, I really think I can make a difference in peoples lives, suggests that she is successfully resolving the Generativity vs. Stagnation crisis. PowerPoint 3.24 Feedback for Classroom Exercises (slide 1 of 3)

34 Paul Eggen and Don Kauchak Educational Psychology: Windows on Classrooms, Eighth Edition © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved 4. Barbara appears to have failed to successfully resolve the Industry vs. Inferiority crisis. In Barbaras eyes her teachers and her academic accomplishments suggested a path other than college or some other career besides secretarial school. It seems from the dialogue that her interests seem to lie in the direction of art/design area, one that was not encouraged or recognized as a strength by significant others. 5. Though being the grandmother of a 40-year-old might suggest Integrity vs Despair, Mary remains in the mainstream of life, and has continued interest in living productively with her travel and painting. This suggests Generativity vs. Stagnation. 6.The secretary is demonstrating Stage 3: Interpersonal Harmony, ethics. Loyalty to someone else illustrates this stage. Since the focus is on loyalty as opposed to fear of repercussion, or some personal favor, we see no evidence of Stage 1 or Stage 2 thinking. PowerPoint 3.24 Feedback for Classroom Exercises (slide 2 of 3)

35 Paul Eggen and Don Kauchak Educational Psychology: Windows on Classrooms, Eighth Edition © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved 7. This case illustrates Stage 2: Market Exchange. The key is the promise of protection in exchange for providing corroborating evidence. 8. Her reasoning is at Stage 1: Punishment and Obedience. The consequence of being fired if her bosss deed is discovered or reported caused the secretary to keep silent and continue to work for him as she always has. 9.In this case, the secretarys behavior indicates Stage 3: Interpersonal Harmony. Her decision not to contact the police was out of concern for the welfare of her children if she were fired from her job. 10. This reasoning suggests Stage 5: Social Contract. Agreements about keeping confidences is made among the people involved, the sanctity of which is kept until mutually agreed upon changes are made. PowerPoint 3.24 Feedback for Classroom Exercises (slide 3 of 3)

36 Paul Eggen and Don Kauchak Educational Psychology: Windows on Classrooms, Eighth Edition © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved Group Activity Traffic is moving at 65 mph. A speed limit sign indicates 55 mph. The flow of traffic continues at 65. How might a driver at stage 3 and a driver at stage 4 react? Explain. Read the scenario on page 79. According to Gilligan, how might a womans response differ from a mans response? To which of Kohlbergs stages are empathy and prosocial behaviors most closely related? Explain.


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