Presentation on theme: "CHAPTER 3: PERSONAL, SOCIAL, AND EMOTIONAL DEVELOPMENT"— Presentation transcript:
1CHAPTER 3: PERSONAL, SOCIAL, AND EMOTIONAL DEVELOPMENT
2Bronfenbrenner’s Bioecological Theory of Development
3PowerPoint 3.1 Bronfenbrenner’s Bioecological Model of Human Development Influences on Child Development in Bronfenbrenner’s Model of Human DevelopmentThe MicrosystemThe MesosystemThe ExosystemThe MacrosystemThe ChronosystemFamily, peers, neighborhoods, schoolsInteractions between family, peers, schools, and neighborhoodsSocietal influences, such as the type of jobs parents have, health careThe culture in which the child develops.Time-changing influences on development (aging and advances in technology) - BTW
4Parenting Styles and Patterns of Personal Development InteractionStyleParentalCharacteristicsChildAuthoritativeFirm but caring.Provides reasons for rules.Consistent.High expectations.High self esteem.Confident and secure.Willing to take risks.Successful in school.AuthoritarianStresses conformity.Detached.Doesn’t explain reasons for rules.Doesn’t encourage verbal give andtake.Withdrawn.Worry more aboutpleasing parents thansolving problems.Defiant.Lack social skills.
5Parenting Styles and Patterns of Personal Development InteractionStyleParentalCharacteristicsChildPermissiveGive children totalfreedom.Low expectations.Make few demands onchildren.Lack self-control.Impulsive.Unmotivated.UninvolvedHave little interest intheir child’s life.Have few expectations.Have few long-termgoals.Easily frustrated.Disobedient.
6Group ActivityDescribe the Components of the of the bioecological model and explain how they influence development.Why is the Microsystem the most powerful influence on development?How are the influences of teachers and schools reflected in Bronfenbrenner’s bioeconomical model?
7Identity, Self-Concept, and Erikson’s Work Identity describes individuals’ senses of self, who they are, what their existence means, and what they want in lifeIdentity combines with people’s self-concept, a cognitive assessment of their physical, social, and academic competence, to influence they way they respond to learning activities and their environments in general.Erikson’s work was strongly influenced by his search for his own identity, and he believed, as he described it, that he experienced a crisis of identity.Erikson also believed that people have an instinctive desire to affiliate with others, and because he integrated identity and social factors in his theory of development, it is described as a psychosocial theory.
8Erikson’s Stages of Psychosocial Development Trust vs. Mistrust Trust in the world is developed through( 0-1 year) continuous love and support.Autonomy vs. Shame Independence is fostered by successfuland Doubt experiences formed by support and( 1-3 years) structure.Initiative vs. Guilt An exploratory and investigative attitude( 3-6 years) results from meeting and accepting challenges.
9Erikson’s Stages of Psychosocial Development Industry vs. Inferiority Enjoyment of mastery and competence( 6-12 years) comes through success and recognition of accomplishment.Identity vs. Confusion Personal, social, sexual, and occupational(12-18 years) identity comes from success in school and experimentation with different roles.Intimacy vs. Isolation Openness to others and the development(Young adulthood) of intimate relationships result from interaction with others.
10Erikson’s Stages of Psychosocial Development Generativity vs. Stagnation Productivity, creativity, and concern for (Middle adulthood) the next generation are achieved through success on the job and a growing sense of social responsibilities.Integrity vs. Despair Acceptance of one’s life is achieved by (Old age) an understanding of a person’s place in the life cycle.
11Assumptions in Erikson’s Theory PowerPoint 3.6 Assumptions and Corollaries in Erikson’s Work (slide 1 of 2)Assumptions in Erikson’s TheoryPeople have the same basic needs.The development of the self is a response to those needs.Each stage of development is characterized by a psychosocial challenge, called a crisis, that presents opportunities for development.Different stages reflect differences in the motivation of the individual.
12Corollaries in Erikson’s Theory PowerPoint 3.6 Assumptions and Corollaries in Erikson’s Work (slide 2 of 2)Corollaries in Erikson’s TheoryNo one permanently resolves a crisis.People do not remain at a stage if the crisis isn’t permanently resolved.Less than ideal resolutions of crises at particular stages leaves individual’s with personality “glitches.”The effectiveness of the resolution of crises determines emotional health.
13States in Identity Development DescriptionIndividuals fail to make clear choices, and confusion is common. Choices may be difficult, or individuals may not be developmentally ready to make choices.Individuals prematurely adopt ready-made positions of others, particularly parents. Decisions are based on the identities of others.Individuals pause and remain in a holding pattern. Long-range commitment is delayed.Individuals experience a period of crises and decision making. A commitment to a goal or direction is made.State Identify diffusion Identity foreclosureIdentity moratoriumIdentity achievement
14Sexual IdentityThe students have been dismissed for the day and you’re in your room planning for the next day.One of your students comes in and asks to talk to you. You say, “Of course, What’s on your mind.”“I’m having a lot of trouble. Students are pushing me around, knocking my books out of my hands and calling me gay Actually, I am gay.”How do you respond to this student?What is your professional obligation to him and others who may be like him?
15The Relationships Among the Dimensions of Self-Concept and Achievement
16Self-Esteem in Our Popular Culture Self-concept and self-esteem (self worth) are often confused, much to the detriment of students and people in general.“High self esteem is offered as a panacea for problems. Low self-esteem is seen as the root of problems such as body image problems, marital infidelity, learning problems and personal unhappiness Increasing self esteem will result in remediation of these problems.Some educators subscribe to this simplistic view. Teachers are afraid to say anything negative to students about their performance because they believe it will hurt the students’ self-esteem. Children are asked to chant positive statements about themselves to enhance self-esteem.” (Schunk, Pintrich, & Meece, 2008, p )
17Guidelines for Promoting Identity and Self Concept Development in Your Classroom Create a learning-focused classroom and communicate genuine interest in all students.Use an authoritative management style to help your students develop responsibility.Reward autonomy and initiative in your students.Establish appropriately high expectations for all learners, and provide evidence of increasing competence.5. Design grading systems that emphasize learning progress and personal growth.
18Ethnic Identity and Pride “Minority students need to know that their cultures are valued and that the languages they bring to school are assets rather than obstacles or liabilities. Teachers play a crucial role in making every student feel wanted and loved by the overt and implicit messages they send through their teaching.”
19Group ActivityA 9th grade student will do his required work and no more. Explain his behavior using Erickson’s theory. How may a teacher respond to this behavior?Read Discussion on pages (Identity development). Explain the state of identity of each of the students.“I know I can get this the way I want it.” “I’ve always been a decent writer. I’m not sure why I’m having a problem.” Use the idea of self-concept and/or self-esteem to explain the student’s comments. Describe the relationship between self-concept, self-esteem, and academic achievement.
20Promoting Social Development in Classrooms PowerPoint 3.16 Theory to Practice: Promoting Social Development in ClassroomsPromoting Social Development in ClassroomsModel and explicitly teach social skills to your students.Establish rules governing acceptable classroom behavior.Help students understand the reasons for rules by providing examples and rationales.4. Have students practice social skills, and give them feedback.
21Group ActivityDescribe and Explain the major components of social development.Two kindergarten students are arguing about who should play at the water table. The teacher interjects, “What could we do to make you both happy?” What dimension of social development is the teacher trying to promote? Why?Explain how school violence and aggression relate to social development. Describe the causes of violent and aggressive behaviors in children.
22PowerPoint 3.18 Moral, Conventional, and Personal Domains You see a classmate has left his pen on his desk after school. Is it okay to take the pen?One of your friends is a “big talker.” Is it okay to interrupt her while she’s in midsentence to make a point that you want to make?You have a classroom rule that says to raise hands for permission to speak. Other students are speaking without raising their hands. Is it okay to speak without permission?Getting tattoos is popular with some students. Is it okay to get a tattoo?
23Kohlberg’s Stages of Moral Reasoning Level I: Preconventional The ethics of egocentrism. Typical of Ethics children up to about age 10. Called preconventional because children typically don’t fully understand others’ rules.Stage 1: Moral reasoning based on immediatePunishment and Obedience consequences for the individual. An act is moral if a person isn’t punished for it. It is immoral if the person is punished.Stage 2: Moral reasoning based on reciprocity. AnMarket Exchange act is moral if a similar act occurs in return.
24Kohlberg’s Stages of Moral Reasoning Level II: Conventional Ethics The ethics of others. Typical of 10 to 20-year-olds. Called conventional because of or the conformity to the rules and conventions of society.Stage 3: Moral reasoning based on concern for othersInterpersonal Harmony or the opinions of others. An act is moral if others demonstrate similar acts, or it helps or is approved of by others.Stage 4: Moral reasoning based on rules, laws, andLaw and Order an orderly society. An act is moral if it follows rules or promotes an orderly society.
25Kohlberg’s Stages of Moral Reasoning Level III: Postconventional The ethics of principle. Called postconven-Ethics tional because transcends society’s rules Reached by a small portion of the population.Stage 5: Moral reasoning based on principledSocial Contract agreements among people. An act is moral if it is consistent with a principled agreement.Stage 6: Moral reasoning based on abstract principles.Universal Principles An act is moral if it is consistent with an abstract principle that transcends an individual society.
27What stage is represented by your reasoning? PowerPoint 3.17 Moral Reasoning on the Interstate (slide 2 of 2)What stage is represented by your reasoning?Stage 3: Interpersonal HarmonyMoral reasoning based on concern for others or the opinions of others. An act is moral if others demonstrate similar acts, or it helps or is approved of by others.“Everyone else is driving the same speed,” is an example.What stage is represented by highway patrol reasoning?Stage 4: Law and OrderMoral reasoning based on rules, laws, and an orderly society. An act is moral if it follows rules or promotes an orderly society.“My radar had you clocked at 75, and the speed limit clearly says 65,” is an example.
28Stages of Moral Reasoning: An Application Instructions: For the following items consider a teenager who is out with her friends. She is supposed to be in by midnight. She complies. Which of Kohlberg’s stages is best illustrated by each of the reasons stated below?1. If I stay out I will be in big trouble with my parents.2. Nobody’s doing anything anyway so I won’t be missing anything.3. My parents and I agreed that midnight is fair, and you can’t go back on your agreements.If I stay out my parents will be worried.It’s the curfew, so I’ll be in by midnight.6. My friends have curfews, too, and they’re going to be home by then.
291. If I stay out I will be in big trouble with my parents. PowerPoint Stages of Moral Reasoning: An Application (slide 2 of 3)1. If I stay out I will be in big trouble with my parents.Stage 1: Her concern is about being punished.Nobody’s doing anything anyway so I won’t be missing anything.Stage 2: The focus is on herself. An exchange isn’t evident; but her reasoning is egocentric.My parents and I agreed that midnight was fair, and you can’t go back on your agreements.Stage 5: She and her parents have agreed on the time to be in.
30If I stay out my parents will be worried. PowerPoint 3.21 Stages of Moral Reasoning: An Application (slide 3 of 3)If I stay out my parents will be worried.Stage 3: She is concerned about her parents’ feelings.It’s the curfew, so I’ll be in by midnight.Stage 4: She is obeying the rule because it’s the rule.My friends have curfews, too, and they’re going to be home by then.Stage 3: She is responding to the behavior of the group.
31PowerPoint 3.22 Emotional Factors in Moral Development: An Application “Are you okay?” her mother asks as Melissa walks in the house after school.“I feel bad, Mom,” Melissa murmurs. “We were working in a group, Jessica said something odd, and I said, ‘That’s dumb.’ . . .Then, she didn’t say anything for the rest of our group time. She doesn’t get great grades, and I know she’s sensitive about it. I really hurt her feelings. It just sort of came out.”“I know you didn’t mean to hurt her feelings, Sweetheart. Did you tell her you were sorry?”“No, when I realized it, I just sat there. I know how I’d feel if someone said I was dumb.”“Tell you what,” her mom suggests. “Tomorrow, you go directly to her, tell her you’re very sorry, and that it won’t happen again.”“Thanks, Mom. I’ll do it as soon as I see her I feel a lot better.”Identify three emotions that Melissa felt when she described the incident to her mother.What does experiencing these emotions suggest about Melissa’ moral development?
32Guidelines for Promoting Moral Development PowerPoint 3.23 Theory to Practice: Promoting Moral Development in Your ClassroomGuidelines for Promoting Moral Development1. Model ethical thinking, behavior, and empathy in your interactions with students.2. Use classroom management as a vehicle for promoting moral development.3. Encourage students to understand and respect the perspectives of others.4. Use moral dilemmas as concrete reference points for discussions of moral issues.
33PowerPoint 3.24 Feedback for Classroom Exercises (slide 1 of 3) 1. Bridget encouraged a positive resolution of Autonomy vs. Shame and Doubt. While Terese’s age suggests the Initiative vs. Guilt (and this would have been the case if Terese had intended to wash the dishes when she climbed the step stool), in this instance she was climbing the step stool to simply climb. Bridget provided structure and support by suggesting that her climb have a purpose--washing the dishes.2. Severn’s interest and enthusiasm in taking the pottery class, and his enjoyment and the recognition he received from the teacher and his mother suggest that he is successfully resolving the Industry vs. Inferiority stage.3. Bridget’s commitment, as indicated by her comment, “I really think I can make a difference in people’s lives,” suggests that she is successfully resolving the Generativity vs. Stagnation crisis.
34PowerPoint 3.24 Feedback for Classroom Exercises (slide 2 of 3) 4. Barbara appears to have failed to successfully resolve the Industry vs. Inferiority crisis. In Barbara’s eyes her teachers and her academic accomplishments suggested a path other than college or some other career besides secretarial school. It seems from the dialogue that her interests seem to lie in the direction of art/design area, one that was not encouraged or recognized as a strength by significant others.5. Though being the grandmother of a 40-year-old might suggest Integrity vs Despair, Mary remains in the mainstream of life, and has continued interest in living productively with her travel and painting. This suggests Generativity vs. Stagnation.6. The secretary is demonstrating Stage 3: Interpersonal Harmony, ethics. Loyalty to someone else illustrates this stage. Since the focus is on loyalty as opposed to fear of repercussion, or some personal favor, we see no evidence of Stage 1 or Stage 2 thinking.
35PowerPoint 3.24 Feedback for Classroom Exercises (slide 3 of 3) 7. This case illustrates Stage 2: Market Exchange. The key is the promise of protection in exchange for providing corroborating evidence.8. Her reasoning is at Stage 1: Punishment and Obedience. The consequence of being fired if her boss’s deed is discovered or reported caused the secretary to keep silent and continue to work for him as she always has.9. In this case, the secretary’s behavior indicates Stage 3: Interpersonal Harmony. Her decision not to contact the police was out of concern for the welfare of her children if she were fired from her job.10. This reasoning suggests Stage 5: Social Contract. Agreements about keeping confidences is made among the people involved, the sanctity of which is kept until mutually agreed upon changes are made.
36Group ActivityTraffic is moving at 65 mph. A speed limit sign indicates 55 mph. The flow of traffic continues at 65. How might a driver at stage 3 and a driver at stage 4 react? Explain.Read the scenario on page 79. According to Gilligan, how might a woman’s response differ from a man’s response?To which of Kohlberg’s stages are empathy and prosocial behaviors most closely related? Explain.