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Contact Force

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**Gravity at Rest The force of gravity acts on all objects all the time.**

If an object is at rest, the law of inertia says that the net force is zero. There must be a force opposite to gravity that cancels it out. F = -Fgrav = mg Fgrav = -mg

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Normal Force The force that opposes gravity for objects on the ground is called the normal force. It is perpendicular (normal) to the plane of the ground. The force is a result of the law of reaction. FN = mg Fsb = -Fbs = mg

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**Normal Force and Weight**

The normal force pushing up against gravity can be measured. We measure weight with a scale that measures normal force. Weight is a force, not a mass. Pounds measure weight, so force (not mass) can be measured in pounds.

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**Forces on a Slope Draw the forces acting on the block.**

The force of gravity points down with magnitude Fg=mg. The normal force FN points away from the surface of the inclined plane. An applied force Fapp holds the block in place. m q

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**Net Force The block stays in place on the plane.**

No net force along the surface No net force away from the surface Find the components of gravity in those directions. Find the unknown forces m q The diagram is the same for constant velocity!

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Mechanical Advantage The inclined plane has been used as a machine for centuries. Pushing a block up an incline is easier than lifting. The ratio of the force to lift directly compared to the force using the incline is the mechanical advantage. m q

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**Tension Force A taut rope has a force exerted on it.**

If the rope is lightweight and flexible the force is uniform over the entire length. This force is called tension and points along the rope. Tension acts on both ends. FT forces on the rope FT = -Fg = mg -FT forces on the ball Fg = -mg

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**Tension or Normal Force**

Tension and normal forces are different. A pull on an object - tension A push from a surface - normal force Either one or both may be present. Normal force Tension force FN FT Ffr m Fg

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**Equilibrium in One Dimension**

Two weights are hung supported by strings. On the lower block the two forces balance: FT2 = m2g On the upper block there are three: FT1 = m1g + FT2 FT1 = (m1 + m2)g The upper string has more tension than the lower string. 3 forces on the upper block FT1 m1 m1g FT2 FT2 m2 m2g 2 forces on the lower block

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**Pulley A pulley uses tension to transfer a force to another direction.**

FT forces on the rope m1 FT m2 forces on block 1 forces on block 2 Ffr Frope m1 m1 Frope m2 m2 Fg

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**Mechanical Advantage next**

With more than one pulley the force needed to lift an object can be reduced. The pulley is a simple machine. The mechanical advantage to the left is 2. next

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