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Forces Force is the cause of acceleration. It is defined as a push or a pull.

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Force Forces are vectors. If all the forces acting on an object add up to zero, then we say they are balanced. What types of forces are you familiar with?

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Friction and Air Resistance Friction is the force between two objects in contact that opposes the motion of either object.

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Gravity The force of attraction between two particles of matter due to their mass.

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Newton’s 1 st Law An object at rest remains at rest and an object in motion maintains its velocity unless acted upon by an outside force. Also known as the law of inertia. Inertia – the tendency of an object to resist change in velocity

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Mass Mass is an intrinsic characteristic of a body that automatically comes with the existence of the body. It turns out that the mass of a body is the characteristic that relates a force F applied on the body and the resulting acceleration a.

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Newton’s 2 nd Law The unbalanced force acting on an object equals the object’s mass times its acceleration. F=ma More precisely:

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Force Diagrams

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Gravity/Weight The weight of a body is defined as the magnitude of the force required to prevent the body from falling freely. Note: The weight of an object is NOT its mass.

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Contact Forces Normal Force: When a body presses against a surface, the surface deforms and pushes on the body with a normal force perpendicular to the contact surface.1

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Contact Forces Friction: If we slide or attempt to slide an object over a surface, the motion is resisted by a bonding between the object and the surface. This force is known as “friction.”

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Tension Tension: This is the force exerted by a rope or a cable attached to an object Tension has the following characteristics: – It is always directed along the rope. – It is always pulling the object. – It has the same value along the rope (for example, between points A and B).

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Tension The following assumptions are made: – The rope has negligible mass compared to the mass of the object it pulls. – The rope does not stretch. – If a pulley is used as in fig.(b) and fig.(c), we assume that the pulley is massless and frictionless.

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Newton’s 3 rd Law For every action force, there is an equal and opposite reaction force.

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