Presentation on theme: "Weather. Heating the Earth Weather is the daily conditions of the atmosphere The factors that interact to cause weather are heat energy, air pressure,"— Presentation transcript:
Heating the Earth Weather is the daily conditions of the atmosphere The factors that interact to cause weather are heat energy, air pressure, winds, and moisture
Moisture in the Air Water vapor or moisture in the air is called humidity Humidity can vary from place to place and time to time Latent heat is the amount of energy that is absorbed or released during a phase change.
Absolute humidity The mass of humidity contained in a certain amount of air absolute humidity = mass of water vapor (g) volume of air m³
Relative Humidity The actual amount of water vapor in the air relative to the amount of water vapor needed to reach saturation relative hum = amt. of H 2 O vapor in air X 100 amt. of H2O vapor to saturation If the temperature does not change and more moisture enters the air, RH goes up. If the temperature decreases RH goes up. If temperature goes down RH decreases.
Dew Point When the air temperature and the dew point is the same 100% humidity occurs. This causes dew on cool objects. When the temperature is below freezing frost occurs.
Measuring Relative Humidity Psychrometer has two thermometers, one dry and one wet. The difference in the temperature of the two will determine the humidity using the table.
Water Drop Formation Water needs to condense on a condensation nuclei
Clouds: collection of water drops
Stratus Low altitude sheet like clouds may produce rain (nimbostratus)
Cumulus Fair weather clouds, can form cumulonimbus if troposphere is unstable
Cirrus Ice crystals high in atmosphere, usually rain within 24 hours
Fog: Surface Clouds Radiation fog forms with nightly cooling Advection fog forms when warm, moist air moves across a cold surface
Some Unusual Clouds
Precipitation When water vapor in the clouds becomes too heavy, it can fall as rain, sleet, snow, or hail Cloud droplets must first increase in size until gravity pulls them down If they pass through extremely cold layers of air, they can freeze and produce sleet Snow is formed when water vapor changes directly into a solid Hail is formed when water droplets hit ice pellets
Causes of Precipitation Coalescence is the formation of a large droplet by the combination of smaller droplets
Measuring Rainfall A rain gauge is used to measure precipitation Snow usually is measured as 10 of snow = 1 of rain
Doppler Radar The intensity of precipitation can be measured using Doppler Radar which is the bouncing of radio waves off rain or snow.
Weather Patterns: Air Masses Changes in the weather are caused by very large areas of air with specific temperature and humidity called air masses There are four main air masses that affect the weather in the United States They are named for the regions they originate in
Maritime masses Maritime tropical air mass originates near the equator over the ocean, it brings warm moist air onto the continent Maritime polar air mass forms over the Pacific Ocean in both winter and summer, it forms over the North Atlantic and brings cold winter weather in the winter and cooler temperatures during the summer to the east coast
Continental masses The continental tropical forms over land in the Southwestern US it brings dry hot air The continental polar mass forms over the land in Canada and brings very cold dry air into the US
Fronts Fronts form when large air masses meet that have different temperatures and humidity The weather at a front is can be very unstable and stormy There are four different types of fronts: cold front, warm front, occluded front, and stationary front
Cold Front A cold front forms when a mass of cold air pushes over a mass of warm air The cold air pushes its way below the warm air Violent storms, even tornadoes can be associated with these front Fair, cooler, and drier air usually follows
Warm Front A warm front forms when a mass of warm air overrides a mass of cooler air Rain showers can accompany a warm front Hot and humid weather follows
Occluded Front When a very fast moving cold air mass overtakes a slower moving warmer air mass, an occluded front forms It produces less severe weather than a warm or cold front can
Stationary Front A stationary front is formed when a cold air mass and a warm air mass meet and do not move This produces several days of rain
High and Low Pressure Systems
High Pressure Some high pressure systems are associated with cold air systems that move in and change the weather Subtropical high pressure systems are slow moving, usually bring very warm conditions
Low Pressure Systems Low pressure systems are associated with precipitation and a change to the weather for an extended time Low pressure systems can bring rain or snow Low pressure systems can bring a sudden dramatic drop in temperatures
Measuring Air Pressure A barometer measures the pressure of the air
Winds Both local winds and global winds are caused by differences in air pressure due to unequal heating of the atmosphere Isobars that are closer together indicate stronger winds Winds travel from areas of high pressure to areas of low pressure
Measuring Wind Wind is measured by an anemometer for speed and a weather vane for direction
Storms A storm is a violent disturbance in the atmosphere It is marked by a sudden drop in pressure Some may cover a very large area
Rainstorms and Snowstorms Caused when two different fronts collide When a warm front overrides a cold front Rain or snow occurs During the winter, if the rain freezes it can cause an ice storm
Thunderstorms Occurs when a cold front meets a warm front Thunder and lightning form within the clouds Dangerous down drafts and wind shears are often present
Lightning Occurs because areas of positive and negative charges build up inside the storm, then a sudden discharge between two clouds or the clouds and the ground
Cyclones and Anticyclones Areas of low pressure that contain rising warm air are cyclones Winds spin in a counterclockwise inward movement with rain and storms Areas of high pressure, cool and dry winds are anticyclones Winds spin in a clockwise movement from the center outward
Hurricanes Powerful cyclone Warm moist air begins to rise rapidly Cooler air moves in and the air begins to spin The pressure in the center drops and more air rushes in causing the winds to spin faster Air forms a doughnut shape wall of strong winds with a calm center These storms are accompanied with strong winds and a high storm surge These are the most powerful storms on Earth
Tornadoes Whirling funnel shaped cloud Develops in heavy cumulonimbus clouds Air pressure at the bottom is low so the funnel acts like a vacuum cleaning Occur in the spring and summer in the area called Tornado Alley
Forecasting the Weather Just think the end is near!!!!
Predicting the Weather Meteorologist is a person who studies and predicts the weather They interpret weather information from local weather observers, balloons, satellites, and weather stations around the world
Weather Maps Data from stations around the country is gathered and put on weather maps This includes temperature, air pressure, precipitation, and the wind speed and direction Information about cloud cover, air masses, and fronts may be included The information is recorded by a number of symbols and numbers
Recording Weather Data
Isotherms and Isobars Isotherms connect points of equal temperatures Isobars connect points of equal pressure
Controlling the Weather At the present time, weather control is limited to seeding of clouds This is done by placing dry ice or silver iodine crystals into the super cooled layers of the stratosphere These cause large ice crystals to form that eventually fall as rain