Presentation is loading. Please wait.

Presentation is loading. Please wait.

QL5A Preventive Medicine EO

Similar presentations


Presentation on theme: "QL5A Preventive Medicine EO"— Presentation transcript:

1 QL5A Preventive Medicine EO 012.01
Inspect Human Waste Disposal Systems Ships and Aircraft TP 7-8

2 Inspect Human Waste Disposal Systems EO 012.01
References: A. Guide to Ship Sanitation, World Health Organization, Oct 2004 ttp://www.who.int/water_sanitation_health/hygiene/ships/shipsanitation/en B. International Convention for the Prevention of Pollution from Ships, 1973, as modified by the Protocol of 1978 relating thereto (MARPOL) C. Transport Canada, Regulations to control discharges from cruise vessels operating in Canadian waters, D. Canadian Food Inspection Agency, International Waste Policy, AHPD-DSAE-IE , E. Guide to Hygiene and Sanitation in Aviation Third Edition, Geneva, © World Health Organization 2009, ISBN

3 Inspect Human Waste Disposal Systems EO 012.01
Ships Waste Disposal System TP7

4 Ships Waste Disposal System EO 012.01
Waste Management and Disposal, Unsafe management and disposal of ship wastes can readily lead to adverse health consequences. Humans can become exposed directly, both on ship and at port, due to contact with waste that is not being managed in a safe manner. Guide to Ship Sanitation, World Health Organization, Oct 2004, page 58 Waste Management and Disposal 5.1 Health concerns Waste can contain hazardous microbial, chemical or physical agents. For example, sharp objects are in themselves dangerous. Furthermore, those objects may harbour infectious agents. Used syringes are a good example and can transmit disease causing agents such as hepatitis C virus and human immunodeficiency virus. Medical waste requires special management (WHO internet site). Furthermore, harmful chemicals can be deposited in waste. Exposure can also occur via the environmental transfer of disease-causing organisms or harmful substances due to unsafe disposal. However, waste can be managed and disposed of in ways that prevent harm occurring. Risks of harm arising due to improperly managed ship waste are increasing with the increasing number of ships in service and the increase in shoreline habitation. Waste streams on ships include sewage, grey water, (discard water from deck drains, showers, dishwashers and laundries) garbage, ballast water, effluent from oil/water separators, cooling water, boiler and steam generator blow down, medical wastes, industrial waste water (e.g. from photo processing) and hazardous waste. Food wastes and refuse readily attract disease vectors including rodents, flies and cockroaches.

5 Ships Waste Disposal System EO 012.01
Risk Factors and Control Measures for Ship Waste Liquid wastes Overboard discharge of waste Wastes requiring treatment Galley wastes Excess sludge Food wastes Water supply for food-refuse grinders Dry refuse Health care wastes Guide to Ship Sanitation, World Health Organization, Oct 2004

6 Ships Waste Disposal System EO 012.01
Liquid Wastes, Drain, soil and waste pipes should be of adequate size, and be maintained frequently to prevent clogging and the backflow of sewage and bath water or contaminated wastes into the fixtures and spaces served by the collection system. Guide to Ship Sanitation, World Health Organization, Oct 2004 Sewage, food particles, putrescible matter and toxic substances should not be discharged to the bilge. Sewage, ballast water, bilge water or any other liquid containing contaminating or toxic wastes should not be discharged within an area from which water for a water supply is drawn, or in any area restricted for the discharge of wastes byany national or local authority.

7 Ships Waste Disposal System EO 012.01
Overboard Discharge of Waste, Barges and/or trucks for the reception of liquid wastes, or shore connections at ports to receive these wastes into a sewer system, should be provided at ports. Where the ports servicing area or barge does not provide hose or connections to receive liquid wastes, the ship should provide a special hose and connections large enough to allow rapid discharge of the wastes. Guide to Ship Sanitation, World Health Organization, Oct 2004 This hose should be durable, impervious, and with a smooth interior surface. It should be of a fitting different from that of the potable water hose or other water filling hose, and it should be labelled FOR WASTE DISCHARGE ONLY. After use, the hose should be cleaned, disinfected and stored in a convenient place, labelled WASTE DISCHARGE HOSE. It is forbidden to dispose of liquid waste around port areas, in compliance with the exceptions set forth on Rule 9 of MARPOL Annex IV.

8 Ships Waste Disposal System EO 012.01
Overboard Discharge of Waste, The discharge of sewage into the sea will be prohibited, except when the ship has in operation an approved sewage treatment plant or is discharging comminuted and disinfected sewage using an approved system at a distance of more than three nautical miles from the nearest land; or is discharging sewage which is not comminuted or disinfected at a distance of more than 12 nautical miles from the nearest land. International Convention for the Prevention of Pollution from Ships, 1973, as modified by the Protocol of 1978 relating thereto (MARPOL) Definition comminuted material, which has been pulverised or titurated, To reduce to powder; pulverize

9 Ships Waste Disposal System EO 012.01
Sewage, The International Maritime Organization (IMO) requirements are based on how, on the high seas, the oceans are capable of assimilating and dealing with raw sewage through natural bacterial action and dispersion. Transport Canada, Regulations to control discharges from cruise vessels operating in Canadian waters, Sewage Canada maintains one of the strongest Port State Control inspection programs in the world to ensure all ships from cruise ships to tankers and container ships comply with standards on safety and environmental protection. At the international level, commercial passenger vessels, including cruise ships, are subject to the International Maritime Organization (IMO) regulatory framework for pollution controls relating to oil, packaged goods, sewage, garbage and air emissions. The International Maritime Organization (IMO) requirements are based on how, on the high seas, the oceans are capable of assimilating and dealing with raw sewage through natural bacterial action and dispersion. The Canada Shipping Act, 2001 (CSA 2001) outlines strict controls of all discharges within internal waterways such as the Great Lakes and the lower portions of the St. Lawrence Seaway System. As well, at the request of the Province of British Columbia, sensitive areas of the Canadian west coast have also been designated as prohibited areas for sewage discharges. Under the CSA 2001, there are regulations to eliminate deliberate, negligent or accidental discharge of ship-source pollutants into the marine environment. The list of harmful ship-source discharges includes oil, noxious liquid substance and dangerous chemicals, sewage, garbage and air anti-fouling systems.

10 Ships Waste Disposal System EO 012.01
Wastes requiring treatment, All ships should be equipped with facilities for managing wastes from toilets and urinals, faecal material from hospital facilities and medical care areas, and wastes from food-refuse grinders. Guide to Ship Sanitation, World Health Organization, Oct 2004 page 59 These facilities should include either treatment facilities and/or safe holding tanks, properly equipped with pumps and piping. Wastes from safe holding tanks may be discharged to connections in the ports or to special barges or trucks for the reception of these wastes. The design of treatment facilities and waste holding tanks should be based on 114 litres per capita per day of liquid waste. Transport Canada, Regulations to control discharges from cruise vessels operating in Canadian waters, Garbage Regulations generally prohibit the dumping of garbage into any area of the marine environment under Canadian jurisdiction (200 nautical mile limit) including solid galley waste, food waste, paper, rags, plastics, glass, metal, bottles, crockery, junk or similar refuse. Discharges of ground up wastes are permitted in Canadian jurisdiction under specified conditions, including being a minimum distance from three nautical miles from land. Regulations also require ships to have a Garbage Management Plan onboard and to keep a record of all garbage that is discharged anywhere at sea or landed ashore.

11 Ships Waste Disposal System EO 012.01

12 Ships Waste Disposal System EO 012.01
Galley Wastes, All galley wastes that may contain grease should flow through grease traps to a retaining box prior to discharge overboard. Guide to Ship Sanitation, World Health Organization, Oct 2004 page 59 A distance of 3 N.M. from the closets line of land (territorial sea – 12 N.M.) or to a treatment aboard ship. The grease collected may be disposed of by incineration, by storage for shore disposal, or by overboard discharge on the high seas.

13 Ships Waste Disposal System EO 012.01
Excess sludge, Excess sludge should be stored for appropriate disposal to land based facilities or when on the high seas. Guide to Ship Sanitation, World Health Organization, Oct 2004, page 60 Picture of untreated grease trap

14 Ships Waste Disposal System EO 012.01
Food wastes, All ships should be equipped with facilities for safe storage of food refuse. All food refuse should be received and stored in watertight, non-absorbent and easily cleaned containers, fitted with tight covers which should be closed during food preparation, food serving and cleansing operations in food-handling spaces. Guide to Ship Sanitation, World Health Organization, Oct 2004 page 59 These containers should be placed in waste storage spaces, specifically constructed and used for this purpose, or on open decks when necessary. After each emptying, each container should be thoroughly scrubbed, washed, and treated with disinfectant, if necessary, to prevent odours and nuisances and to minimize attraction of rodents and vermin.

15 Ships Waste Disposal System EO 012.01
Water supply for food-refuse grinders, Approved back-flow preventers (vacuum breakers) or acceptable air-gaps should be installed in the water supply lines to the grinders. Guide to Ship Sanitation, World Health Organization, Oct 2004 page 60,

16 Ships Waste Disposal System EO 012.01
Dry refuse, Dry refuse should be stored in tightly covered bins, or in closed compartments, protected against the weather and the entry of rodents and vermin. The containers should be thoroughly cleaned after emptying to discourage harbourage of rodents and vermin. Guide to Ship Sanitation, World Health Organization, Oct 2004 page 60,

17 Ships Waste Disposal System EO 012.01
Health care wastes, All ships should be equipped with facilities for treating and/or safely storing medical care wastes. Guide to Ship Sanitation, World Health Organization, Oct 2004 page 60, Medical waste is any waste generated during patient diagnosis, treatment or immunization. Medical waste is of two categories: infectious and non-infectious. Infectious medical waste is liquid or solid waste that contains pathogens in sufficient numbers and with sufficient virulence to cause infectious disease in susceptible hosts exposed to the waste. Noninfectious medical waste includes disposable medical supplies and materials that do not fall into the category of infectious medical waste. Infectious waste should be safely stored or sterilized, e.g. by steam, and suitably packaged for ultimate disposal ashore. Medical waste should be labelled. Ships properly equipped may incinerate paper and cloth based medical waste but not plastic and wet materials. Sharps should be collected in plastic autoclavable sharps containers and retained on board for ultimate disposal ashore. Unused sharps should be disposed of ashore in the same manner as medical waste. Liquid medical wastes may be disposed of by discharging them into the sanitary system. Noninfectious medical waste may be disposed of as garbage, not requiring steam sterilizing or special handling.

18 Inspect Human Waste Disposal Systems EO 012.01
Aircraft Waste Disposal Systems TP8

19 Aircraft Waste Disposal Systems EO 012.01
Waste water, Appropriate personal hygiene for employees handling water at the transfer point cannot be overemphasized, and responsibilities for potable water transfer should be considered exclusive and separate from wastewater handling to avoid cross-contamination. Guide to Hygiene and Sanitation in Aviation Third Edition, Geneva, © World Health Organization 2009, ISBN Sewage/liquid waste Under no circumstances should employees be tasked simultaneously with both wastewater handling and potable water transfer. Other issues to consider include the development of transfer procedures to ensure that contact of hose nozzles with the ground and other contaminated surfaces is not permitted and procedures to ensure that water trucks and carts are not parked directly adjacent to sewage equipment.

20 Aircraft Waste Disposal Systems EO 012.01
Waste water, Under no circumstances should employees be tasked simultaneously with both wastewater handling and potable water transfer. Guide to Hygiene and Sanitation in Aviation Third Edition, Geneva, © World Health Organization 2009, ISBN Sewage/liquid waste Other issues to consider include the development of transfer procedures to ensure that contact of hose nozzles with the ground and other contaminated surfaces is not permitted and procedures to ensure that water trucks and carts are not parked directly adjacent to sewage equipment.

21 Aircraft Waste Disposal Systems EO 012.01
Sewage, Guide to Hygiene and Sanitation in Aviation Third Edition, Geneva, © World Health Organization 2009, ISBN

22 Aircraft Waste Disposal Systems EO 012.01
Many larger airports have implemented an "orange bag" program to help reduce confusion between domestic and international waste. Canadian Food Inspection Agency, International Waste Policy, AHPD-DSAE-IE , Guidelines for the Handling, Removal, and Disposition of International Waste at Airport Terminals and Sea Ports Under the orange bag program, all domestic or international waste placed in orange disposal bags is deemed international waste and is handled accordingly. The movement and monitoring of the orange bags is conducted under the direct supervision of a CBSA inspector. The larger airports may also have an orange bag program in place at the U.S. Customs areas for international travellers en route to the U.S.. Products thus seized are placed in orange bags and handled according to this Policy. Depending on the size of the airport, the orange bag program may be implemented in other areas such as the pre-Customs' primary and international carousel arrival areas. In the Customs' primary areas, the orange bag program enables CBSA officers to dispose of agricultural products removed from declaring passengers carrying these products in handbags, etc. This reduces the number of items seized at the secondary areas and compliments the Prohibited Products Bins (PPBs) program. Airports with no orange bag program must segregate international and domestic waste to the satisfaction of a CBSA inspector.

23 Inspect Human Waste Disposal Systems EO 012.01
International waste, International waste is normally prohibited from entry into Canada because of the risk of introducing foreign animal diseases such as foot-and-mouth disease, African swine fever, hog cholera (classical swine fever), swine vesicular disease, Newcastle disease, Avian Influenza, African horse sickness and many other diseases. Canadian Food Inspection Agency, International Waste Policy, AHPD-DSAE-IE , International waste may be removed for disposal in Canada if a CBSA inspector is satisfied that the off loading and discharge of such material meets the requirements of the policy and thus would not, or would not likely, result in the introduction into Canada or the spread within Canada of a vector, disease, or toxic substance. The International Waste Policy was not based on country classification because of the number of countries and the wide variety of products involved. The policy applies to international waste originating in all countries, other than the USA. It is not mandatory for aircraft/ships landing or docking in Canada to remove any onboard garbage. They may return to the country of origin or proceed to a third country before removing such material. If, however, waste is removed from international flights/ships landing or docking in Canada, the removal may not occur at the first point of landing/docking. Flights or ships may land to re-fuel or discharge passengers and continue to a second or subsequent landing/docking point before removing waste for disposal. It is the aircraft/ship owner's responsibility to dispose of international waste in accordance with the Health of Animals Regulations. It may be prudent, however, for CBSA inspectors at the initial or subsequent landing/docking sites to verify that proper disposal procedures have been followed.

24 Inspect Human Waste Disposal Systems EO 012.01
Under the orange bag program, all domestic or international waste placed in orange disposal bags is deemed international waste and is handled accordingly. The movement and monitoring of the orange bags is conducted under the direct supervision of a CBSA inspector. Canadian Food Inspection Agency, International Waste Policy, AHPD-DSAE-IE , Guidelines for the Handling, Removal, and Disposition of International Waste at Airport Terminals and Sea Ports The larger airports may also have an orange bag program in place at the U.S. Customs areas for international travellers en route to the U.S.. Products thus seized are placed in orange bags and handled according to this Policy. Depending on the size of the airport, the orange bag program may be implemented in other areas such as the pre-Customs' primary and international carousel arrival areas. In the Customs' primary areas, the orange bag program enables CBSA officers to dispose of agricultural products removed from declaring passengers carrying these products in handbags, etc. This reduces the number of items seized at the secondary areas and compliments the Prohibited Products Bins (PPBs) program. Airports with no orange bag program must segregate international and domestic waste to the satisfaction of a CBSA inspector.

25 Inspect Human Waste Disposal Systems EO 012.01
Guidelines for orange bag program: 1. All orange bags must be double tied before being removed from designated areas. 2. Once tied, the bags must only be opened in the presence of a CBSA inspector. 3. Orange bag contents must not be handled or removed. 4. All orange bags must be placed in international waste bins on the tarmac. 5. Orange bags are to be moved directly to the tarmac bins, without entering any domestic areas. 6. If a hole or leak occurs in an orange bag, it must be double-bagged and the spill cleaned and disinfected to the satisfaction of a CBSA inspector. 7. Only orange bags are to be used in the international restricted arrival areas. Canadian Food Inspection Agency, International Waste Policy, AHPD-DSAE-IE , Guidelines for the Handling, Removal, and Disposition of International Waste at Airport Terminals and Sea Ports

26 Inspect Human Waste Disposal Systems EO 012.01
Guidelines for tarmac / area bins 1. Containers must be leak proof to the satisfaction of a CBSA inspector (please refer to CBSA responsibilities area for definition of leak proof containers). 2. Containers must be stored so that any leakage would not contaminate the surrounding soil and water supply. 3. All orange bags must be double tied when placed in the bins. 4. All bins must be in areas free of animals (rodents) and birds. 5. Lids on bins must be closed at all times. 6. Bins must be kept in good repair. Canadian Food Inspection Agency, International Waste Policy, AHPD-DSAE-IE , Guidelines for the Handling, Removal, and Disposition of International Waste at Airport Terminals and Sea Ports Transfer area: In larger airports/seaports, there may be a garbage transfer area in which international waste collected from the tarmac is taken to a central location to be picked up by an approved international waste carrier for transport to the pre-approved disposal site. The transfer area must be monitored with the same guidelines and restrictions as the tarmac area. Leakproof containers: containers whose sides and bottom prevent the escape of solids and liquids and with a tightly fitting lid, that prevents the escape of solids. Disposal of liquids: garbage compaction is practised in many airports for removal of liquids, reduction in volume and ease of handling. Such practise may result in large amounts of liquid waste being generated. This liquid waste must be captured and either treated on location or released into the municipal water system for treatment.

27 Inspect Human Waste Disposal Systems EO 012.01
Transfer Area, In larger airports/seaports, there may be a garbage transfer area in which international waste collected from the tarmac is taken to a central location to be picked up by an approved international waste carrier for transport to the pre-approved disposal site. Canadian Food Inspection Agency, International Waste Policy, AHPD-DSAE-IE , Guidelines for the Handling, Removal, and Disposition of International Waste at Airport Terminals and Sea Ports Transfer area: In larger airports/seaports, there may be a garbage transfer area in which international waste collected from the tarmac is taken to a central location to be picked up by an approved international waste carrier for transport to the pre-approved disposal site. The transfer area must be monitored with the same guidelines and restrictions as the tarmac area. Leakproof containers: containers whose sides and bottom prevent the escape of solids and liquids and with a tightly fitting lid, that prevents the escape of solids. Disposal of liquids: garbage compaction is practised in many airports for removal of liquids, reduction in volume and ease of handling. Such practise may result in large amounts of liquid waste being generated. This liquid waste must be captured and either treated on location or released into the municipal water system for treatment.

28 Questions?


Download ppt "QL5A Preventive Medicine EO"

Similar presentations


Ads by Google