Presentation on theme: "I am because we are and therefore we are because I am. (Asante Proverb) Black Psychology."— Presentation transcript:
I am because we are and therefore we are because I am. (Asante Proverb) Black Psychology
What Shall We Say? Black Psychology African Psychology Africentric Psychology Afrocentric Psychology African American Psychology
Psychology of African Americans Black (African) Psychology –System of knowledge concerning the nature of the universe from an African perspective (Baldwin, 1986 as cited in Belgrave and Allison). Africentric (Afrocentric) Psychology –Focuses on defining African psychology experiences from an African perspective (Grills, 2004 as cited in Belgrave and Allison)
Psychology of African Americans African American Psychology –Pro-Black Study Blacks in the United States without using African structure to interpret those experiences –Pro-African African philosophies are central to studying African Americans and their experiences.
The Journey Cecil Sumner, Ph.D –Father of Black Psychology –First African American earn Ph.D (1920) Kenneth Clark and Mamie Clark (1939, 1940s, 1950s) Association of Black Psychologists (ABPsi) –Modern Era (1968)
More Traveled Roads Joseph White (1970, 1972). Toward a Black Psychology Reginald Jones (1972). Black Psychology William Cross (1978). “nigrescence’ model Wade Nobles (1980). writings on African philosophy Joseph Baldwin (1985) African Self-Consciousness Scale NA’IM AKBAR (1991). Effects of oppression DAUDI AJANI YA AZIBO (1996) system of diagnosing
Wood may remain ten years in the water, but it will never become a crocodile. (Zairian proverb) Not White! Black!
DIFFERENT And That’s All! Historical Themes in Psychological Research (Parham,White, and Ajamu, 2000) –Inferiority—Blacks are intellectually, physically, and mentally inferior to whites –Deficit-Deficiency—Blacks are deficient respect to intelligence, cognitive styles, family structure –Multi-cultural—all cultural distinct groups have strengths and limitations.
Ghetto-centricism Failure of traditional and general psychology to provide a full and accurate picture of Black reality. (Parham, White, and Ajamu, 2000) Normative standards developed by analyzing working-class, ghetto-dwelling Black people (Akbar, 1981 as cited in Belgrave and Allison, 2006) Biases generated against Blacks who do not fit the stereotype.
One Course of Action Black psychologists are making attempts to establish a normative standard of appropriate and inappropriate behaviors using an Afrocentric framework. –Humphries, Parker, and Jagers (2000) –Woods and Jagers (2004)
Methodological Issues Low number of African American Psychologist Design –Experimental often favored –Interviewing and observations more appropriate Self-knowledge Constructs being measured –Self-esteem Collective rather than individualistic –Family definition
Afro and Euro Opposites Culturally different Worldviews Self Feelings Survival Language Time Universe Death Worth Family
The ruin of a nation begins in the homes of its people. (Ashanti proverb) The foundation of an authentic Black psychology is found in the Black family (White,1972 as cited in Belgrave and Allison)
African American Families “The Black family has ended up as the most maligned, unappreciated, and least understood of American institutions” (Lincoln, 1978, p. 489).
African American Family Structure and Function Enslavement –Harsh conditions of slavery –Mother-child relationship not husband-wife –Permanent union not possible Reconstruction –Increase 2 parent families Migration –Urbanization and single-parent homes
African American Males Stud Lacked emotional maturity Confused identity Irresponsible Missing The most shameful chapters in America as a Christian nation is the systematic exploitation of the Black male as a domestic animal and denying him the status of being a responsible father (Erikson, 1968).
African American Women Breeder Dominant Extended self-worth Devalued African American men Strong Black Women (SBW) The multiple roles assumed by Black women has been out of necessity (Lincoln, 1978)
African American Families Methodological Issues Historical, cultural, social, economic, political factors, and institutional practices Lack of longitudinal studies Oversampling of low income families
Knowledge kept to oneself is as useless as candle burning in a pot. (Oromo proverb) Why Study Black Psychology?
Bringing It Home To DTCC Diverse population of students from African descent. Within group differences of African students. Between group differences between African students and African-American students. Understanding culturally different world views of self, time, and language may help to promote positive student outcomes.
The list could go on and on, but let us stop here. See you next time.
List of Sources Belgrave, F. Z. and Allison, K. W. (2006). African American psychology: From Africa to America. London: Sage Publications. Billingsley, A. (1968). Black Families in White America. Englwood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice Hall. Erikson, E. H. (1968). Identity youth and crisis.NY: W. W. Norton and Company. Humphries, M. L., Parker, B. L., and Jagers, R. J. (2000). Predictors of moral reasoning among African American children: A preliminary study. Journal of Black Psychology. 26(1), Lincoln, C. E. (1978). Black family, the black church, and the transformation of values. Religion in Life. 47, Psychology. 26(1), Parham, T. A., White, J. L, and Ajamu, A. (2000). The psychology of blacks: An African center perspective. (3 rd ed.). NJ: Prentice-Hall Publishers. Woods, L. N. and Jagers, R. J. (2003). Are cultural values predictors of moral reasoning in African American adolescents? Journal of Black Psychology. 29(1),