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Chapter 1 Discovering Psychology. Psychology l Systematic, scientific study of behaviors and mental processes n Behaviors refer to observable actions.

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Presentation on theme: "Chapter 1 Discovering Psychology. Psychology l Systematic, scientific study of behaviors and mental processes n Behaviors refer to observable actions."— Presentation transcript:

1 Chapter 1 Discovering Psychology

2 Psychology l Systematic, scientific study of behaviors and mental processes n Behaviors refer to observable actions or responses in both humans and animals n Mental processes refer to a wide range of complex mental processes, such as thinking, imagining, studying, and dreaming

3 4 Goals of Psychology l Describe different ways organisms behave l Explain the causes of behavior l Predict how organisms will behave l Control an organisms behavior

4 Psychology has a long past…..but only a short history!!!!

5 How Did Psychology Begin? l Wilhelm Wundt n Father of psychology n Established the 1st psychology laboratory in Leipzig, Germany l Structuralism n Study of the most basic elements primarily sensations & perceptions that make up our conscious mental experiences n Emphasis on the STRUCTURE of consciousness (awareness) l Introspection n Method of exploring conscious mental processes by asking subjects to look inward and report their sensations & perceptions

6 Functionalism l Study of the FUNCTIONS rather than the structures of consciousness l Interested in how our minds adapt to changing environments l William James n Viewed mental activities as having developed through ages of evolution because of their adaptive functions

7 Behaviorism l Emphasized the objective, scientific analysis of observable behaviors l John B. Watson n Rejected introspection as a psychological technique because its results could not be scientifically verified by other psychologists

8 Women in Psychology l Mary Calkins n Although she completed all of the requirements for a Ph.D., she was denied a doctorate by the Harvard administration because she was a woman l Margaret Washburn n 1st woman to earn a Ph.D. in psychology (1908) l Today, women earn more Ph.D.s in psychology than men, however, in 1991 there were more male full-time psychologists than women

9 Minorities in Psychology l See page 24 n First African-American woman to receive a Ph.D. in psychology (1934) l Between 1920 and 1966, only 8 Ph.D.s were awarded to Black students, compared to 3,767 doctorates to Whites l From 1892 to 1990, the cumulative membership of the APA was 128,000; 700 African American, 700 Latino, and 70 Native American

10 Careers in Psychology l Psychologist vs. Psychiatrist n A psychologist is someone who has completed 4 or 5 years of postgraduate education and has obtained a Ph.D. in psychology n Some states permit individuals with masters degrees to call themselves psychologists n A psychiatrist is a medical doctor (M.D.) who has spent several years in clinical training, which includes diagnosing possible physical and neurological causes of abnormal behaviors

11 Careers in Psychology l Many Career Settings n 55% of psychologists work as clinical psychologists in one of the following settings: Source: Pie graph data from Psychological Science Around the World, by M. R. Rosenzweig, 1992, American Psychologist, 47,

12 Careers in Psychology (cont.) m private practice or therapy setting m a mental health center m psychiatric, drug, or rehabilitation ward of a hospital m private office n 27% work in academic settings of colleges & universities

13 Areas of Specialization l Social & Personality n Social psychology involves the study of social interactions, stereotypes, prejudices, attitudes, conformity, group behaviors, and aggression n Personality psychology involves the study of personality development, personality change, assessment, and abnormal behaviors l Developmental n Examines moral, social, emotional, and cognitive development throughout a persons life span l Experimental n Includes areas of sensation, perception, learning, human performance, motivation, and emotion l Biological n Involves research on the physical & chemical changes that occur during stress, learning, and emotions

14 Areas of Specialization l Cognitive n Involves how we process, store, and retrieve information and how cognitive processes influence our behaviors l Psychometrics n Focuses on the measurement of peoples abilities, skills, intelligence, personality, and abnormal behaviors


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