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The Sociohistorical Approach Founder of the Approach L. S. VYGOTSKY  1896 – 1934.

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Presentation on theme: "The Sociohistorical Approach Founder of the Approach L. S. VYGOTSKY  1896 – 1934."— Presentation transcript:

1 The Sociohistorical Approach Founder of the Approach L. S. VYGOTSKY  1896 – 1934

2 Lev Semenovich Vygotsky

3 Vygotsky QUESTION: WHAT SEPARATES US FROM OTHER ANIMALS?

4 Vygotsky EPISTEMOLOGICAL AND OTHER DISTINCTIONS: kinds ofspontaneous cultural knowledgecommonsensesocietal natural sources ofdirect experiencemediated knowledgeimmediate consciousnoyes reflective directionbottom uptop down of devinductivedeductive data driventheory driven

5 Vygotsky TEMPERATURE TASKS spontaneous cultural Are these data good for Vygotsky? Bad for Vygotsky? Neutral for Vygotsky?

6 WHAT DEVELOPS? INDIVIDUAL LEVEL WORD MEANINGS CULTURAL LEVEL WORLD VIEWS SPURRED ON BY TECHNOLOGICAL CHANGES (PRINTING MACHINE, COMPUTERS)

7 MECHANISMS OF DEVELOPMENT SOCIAL INTERACTION SMALL “ S ” CONVERSATIONS BETWEEN PEOPLE DISCOURSE ANALYSIS LARGE “ S ” SOCIETAL TECHNOLOGIES AS CONCEPTS CALENDAR AS AN EXAMPLE

8 Dan Sperber

9  Cultural Evolution and Epidemiology

10 COMPARISON OF ROLE OF SOCIAL INTERACTION: VYGOTSKY ’ S THEORY AND PIAGET ’ S PIAGET SOCIAL INTERACTION CAN PRODUCE DISEQUILIBRIUM PLACE OF CULTURE AND SOCIAL INTERACTION QUITE NEGLIGIBLE

11 VYGOTSKY  METAPHORS: ACQUISITION AND PARTICIPATION (SFARD)  VYGOTSKY IS PARTICIPATION  PIAGET IS ACQUISITION

12 VYGOTSKY ZONE OF PROXIMAL DEVELOPMENT SPATIAL METAPHOR DISTANCE BETWEEN ACTUAL AND POTENTIAL KNOWLEDGE X potential knowledge ZPDX potential ZPD X actual knowledgeX actual Two children with the same actual knowledge travel different distances to their potential knowledge; therefore different ZPDs

13 VYGOTSKY  DYNAMIC ASSESSMENT  CONVENTIONAL:  TEACH – LEARN – TEST  VYGOTSKY:  TEST/TEACH/LEARN

14 VYGOTSKY  SCAFFOLDING  EXAMPLE: MY USING ADVANCED ORGANIZERS IN CLASS, SUCH AS THE DEEP STRUCTURE QUESTIONS AND MAP OF THE FIELD

15 VYGOTSKY  RELATIONS BETWEEN LEARNING AND DEVELOPMENT  FORMER GOES BEYOND LATTER  TEACHING WITH SCAFFOLDING CAUSES LEARNING  LEARNING GOES BEYOND POTENTIAL KNOWLEDGE, WHICH IS THE DEVELOPMENTAL LEVEL

16 COMPARING PIAGET AND VYGOTSKY  PIAGET CLAIMS THAT DEVELOPMENT SETS THE LIMITS ON LEARNING  VYGOTSKY CLAIMS THAT LEARNING GOES BEYOND DEVELOPMENT AND DRWS IT IN ITS WAKE

17 VYGOTSKY – TRUE CONCEPT  TRUE CONCEPT  CONCEPT THAT RESULTS FROM THE AMALGAM OF NATURAL AND SOCIETAL KNOWLEDGE  TRUE CONCEPTS ENRICH SOCIETAL KNOWLEDGE BY GROUNDING IT IN DIRECT EXPERIENCE ENRICH NATURAL KNOWLEDGE BY MAKING IT MORE GENERAL

18 TRUE CONCEPTS EXAMPLES:  CONFLICT – TEMPERATURE  ANALOGY - ARITHMETIC AVERAGE

19 TEMPERATURE

20 ARITHMETIC AVERAGE

21 DEVELOPMENTAL CONSTRAINTS  WHERE ARE THERE DEVELOPMENTAL CONSTRAINTS ON LEARNING?  CULTURAL/HISTORICAL CONSTRAINTS  Cultural periods in history (middle ages, enlightenment) had different worldviews than modern (post-industrial, information age)  INDIVIDUAL CONSTRAINTS  Vygotsky did not write about this very much

22 TOOLS  MATERIAL  mediate between subject and physical environment  PSYCHOLOGICAL  mediates between individual and himself and between individual and others

23 NOTATIONS AS TECHNOLOGIES  NOTATIONS AS TECHNOLOGIES (OLSON, FERREIRO, LEVIN, TOLCHINSKY-LANDSMANN, RAVID, TUFTE)  PURPOSE: FREEZE THE CHANGING WORLD

24 NOTATIONS  “ USES ” :  1. CAN BE CARRIED FROM PLACE TO PLACE  2. CAN BE USED ACROSS TIME (NOVELS FROM THE MIDDLE AGES)  ENABLES:  1. REFLECTION ON THE NOTATED SYSTEM  2. SELF-REGULATION  3. REGULATION OF OTHERS ’ THINKING AND BEHAVIORS

25 NOTATIONAL SYSTEMS Examples:  WRITING – NOTATES SPOKEN WORD (UR - 4,500 YRS)  DANCE NOTATION – NOA ESHKOL  CARTOGRAPHY  NUMERICAL SYSTEM  MUSICAL NOTATION  MIDDLE AGES – DORIT TANAY

26 CLASS ACTIVITIES  JEANNE BAMBERGER (MIT) TASK  CONSTRUCT NOTATIONS FOR A RHYTHM  ANALYZE INSTRUCTIONS


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