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FRBR Overview and Application

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1 FRBR Overview and Application
Understanding Conceptual Relationships June 2012 Much of what is presented today is drawn from Functional Requirements for Bibliographic Records: Final Report (http://archive.ifla.org/VII/s13/frbr/frbr_2008.pdf). Presenter should have a copy of this report on hand as the presenter’s notes refer to specific sections of the report. Credits: Parts of this presentation are based on the Power Point presentation: FRBR: Entity Relationships for the Bibliographic Universe, by Jacquie Samples, North Carolina State University, September 7,2010. Used with permission. (https://staff.lib.ncsu.edu/confluence/display/MNC/RDA+Test)

2 Course Objectives At the end of this course, you will be able to:
Understand FRBR as a conceptual model Understand FRBR terminology Identify FRBR Group 1 entities Identify FRBR Group 1 attributes Understand FRBR relationships Appreciate FRBR Group 2 and Group 3 entities Apply RDA: Resource Description & Access with a better appreciation of its underlying concepts

3 Why FRBR? Why do you need to understand this?
RDA is based on this conceptual model RDA uses these terms and language To make the catalog work best for patrons 3

4 Why FRBR? If you understand these concepts and terms
It will be easier to navigate the RDA text It will be easier to use cataloger’s judgment in context You can better apply RDA (because we can’t cover everything in classroom training -- unless you want training to last the rest of your lives) 4

5 FRBR Conceptual model Not a set of rules
Functional Requirements for Bibliographic Records Conceptual model Not a set of rules Uses an entity relationship model, rather than descriptive analysis The FRBR entity-relationship model is a conceptual model, which means it’s a generalized way to look at our bibliographic universe of things that libraries collect or want to make known to our users. It is intended to be independent of any cataloging code or implementation. It’s not a data model, it’s not a metadata scheme, it’s not a system design, but rather an abstract model of all the things that libraries, museums, and archives collect for our users. The conceptual model is useful as a foundation for the development of systems, and functions as a guide to the next generation of cataloguing rules .

6 FRBR vs. RDA vs. MARC FRBR is a conceptual model
RDA is a cataloging standard that is based on the FRBR conceptual model MARC is an encoding scheme by which computers exchange, use, and interpret bibliographic information

7 FRBR Functional Requirements for Bibliographic Records
Abstraction of how we can think about bibliographic records to facilitate relationships between data elements and between data and users Outlined in a 1998 report from the International Federation of Library Associations and Institutions (IFLA)

8 FRBR Working for the User
“FRBR is a user-centered model, explicitly relating its organization of entities and attributes to the users tasks identified by the 1998 IFLA modification to the Paris Principles (find, identify, select, and obtain).” FRBR attempts to present a way of interpreting the model in order to organize the display of bibliographic information into hierarchical groups and help us build better catalogs. It helps us focus on what each part of a bibliographic record is there for. It should assist the catalog user in identifying relevant relationships, holdings, and characteristics of editions. In the end, it will hopefully make the catalog more useful to the user. So, the Functional part of the name is really going at what the model attempts to address – the tasks, the uses, the functions that the data in bibliographic records needs to support. From: Antelman, K. (Oct. 2004). Identifying the Serial Work as a Bibliographic Entity. Library Resources & Technical Services, 48(4), 238. From: Antelman, K. (Oct. 2004). Identifying the Serial Work as a Bibliographic Entity. Library Resources & Technical Services, 48(4), 238.

9 FRBR User Tasks Find Identify
to locate either a single entity or a set of entities as the result of a search using an attribute or relationship of the entity Identify to confirm that the entity described corresponds to the entity sought, or to distinguish between two or more entities with similar characteristics FRBR first defines a set of user tasks, then attempts to model the bibliographic universe in such a way that these tasks are met for our users. To make our bibliographic data, our catalogs, function well, first we need to know what our patrons need. Living example: I want to watch the Ken Burns history of baseball. When I go to the library, I first want to find that they have that documentary, and then identify the that it is in fact the Ken Burns documentary and not the home-movie documentary called When It Was a Game. Functional Requirements for Bibliographic Records: Final Report (p. 8): “For the purposes of this study the functional requirements for bibliographic records are defined in relation to the following generic tasks that are performed by users when searching and making use of national bibliographies and library catalogues: ▪ using the data to find materials that correspond to the user’s stated search criteria (e.g., in the context of a search for all documents on a given subject, or a search for a recording issued under a particular title); ▪ using the data retrieved to identify an entity (e.g., to confirm that the document described in a record corresponds to the document sought by the user, or to distinguish between two texts or recordings that have the same title)” More on next slide

10 FRBR User Tasks Select Obtain
to choose an entity that meets the user's requirements with respect to content, physical format, etc., or to reject an entity as being inappropriate to the user's needs Obtain to acquire an entity through purchase, loan, etc., or to access an entity electronically through an online connection Living example: Then having confirmed that the library has the Ken Burns documentary that I want, I then have to select the DVD version and not the VHS version because I only own a DVD player. Afterward, I can then check it out after requesting it from another library branch. Functional Requirements for Bibliographic Records: Final Report (p. 8): ▪ “using the data to select an entity that is appropriate to the user’s needs (e.g., to select a text in a language the user understands, or to choose a version of a computer program that is compatible with the hardware and operating system available to the user); ▪ using the data in order to acquire or obtain access to the entity described (e.g., to place a purchase order for a publication, to submit a request for the loan of a copy of a book in a library’s collection, or to access online an electronic document stored on a remote computer).”

11 FRBR - Modeling the Bibliographic Universe
Utilizes an entity-relationship framework: Entities (a class of things) Relationships (associations among entities) Attributes (characteristics of the entities) Talk about vocabulary and what is meant by Entities, Relationships, and Attributes. Talk about Attributes as a FRBR term that can be used interchangeably with the phrase “identifying characteristics.”

12 FRBR - Modeling the Bibliographic Universe
Entities: Group 1 Entities – Works, Expressions, Manifestations, and Items Group 2 Entities – Persons, Corporate Bodies, Families Group 3 Entities – Concept, Place, Event, Object, plus all Group 1 & 2 Entities The FRBR entities are sorted into 3 groups for the convenience of talking about them. Although FRBR describes Group 1, Group 2, and Group 3 entities, we are going to focus on Groups 1 (Works, Expressions, Manifestations and Items) and 2 (Persons and Corporate Bodies) today.

13 “Book” Vocabulary Door prop (item) “publication” at bookstore any copy
(Animation: elements appear on mouse clicks) The vocabulary is really very important. Here is an analogy from Patrick LeBoeuf, who was formerly the chair of the IFLA FRBR Review Group. Our English language, like most languages, can be very fuzzy. A single word may mean many things. For example: When we say ‘book,’ what we have in mind may be a distinct, physical object that consists of paper and a binding and can <click> sometimes serve to prop open a door or hold up a table leg – FRBR calls this <click> an item. When we say ‘book’ we also may mean <click> “publication” as when we go to a bookstore to ask for a book identified by an ISBN – the particular copy does not usually matter to us, provided it has the content we want in a form we want and no pages are missing – FRBR calls this <click>manifestation. (manifestation) Cited from Patrick LeBoeuf, former chair of the IFLA FRBR Review Group 13 13 13 13

14 “Book” Vocabulary Who translated? (expression) Who wrote? (work)
(Animation: elements appear on mouse clicks) When we say ‘book’ as in <click> “who translated that book?” or “who illustrated that book?”– we may have a specific text in mind in a specific language or a translation – FRBR calls this <click>expression. *When we say ‘book’ as in <click> “who wrote that book?” - we could also mean a higher level of abstraction, the conceptual (intellectual or artistic) content that underlies all of the linguistic versions, the basic story being told in the book, the ideas in a person’s head for a book – FRBR calls this <click>work. We want our language to be more precise to help future catalogers and future systems designers speak the same language. (work) Cited from Patrick LeBoeuf, former chair of the IFLA FRBR Review Group 14 14 14 14

15 Which “book” are you cataloging?
When you catalog a “book” on your desk: You are working with a FRBR Group 1 Item The bibliographic record you create will represent a FRBR Group 1 Manifestation Attributes of other FRBR group entities may appear in the bibliographic record Emphasize that the Item has the identifying characteristics needed to describe the contained work/expression and manifestation -- those entities are merely ways of looking at that item – from what the contents are or the physical presentation.

16 WEMI (or IMEW?) FRBR Group 1 entities Work Expression Item
Manifestation Item Item Manifestation Expression Work (Animation: on first mouse click, the entities disappear; on second mouse click, they reappear in this order: Item, Manifestation, Expression, Work; at the same time, (or IMEW?) appears in header) FRBR Group 1 entities are Work, Expression, Manifestation, and Item. In FRBR documentation, the entities are described in this order. However, since catalogers generally work with FRBR “Items” in hand, and create bibliographic records for FRBR “Manifestations,” we will introduce the four FRBR Group 1 entities in reverse order, starting with Item and moving up to Work.

17 The Item in FRBR Item is a concrete entity
A single physical object (e.g., a copy of a one-volume monograph, a single audio cassette, etc.) or: Can comprise more than one physical object (e.g., a monograph issued as two separately bound volumes, a recording issued on three separate compact discs, etc.). Not to be confused with an “item” record in an OPAC or ILS. Introduce here a discussion of attributes of entities. Later in the presentation (Slide 30 and following), the individual attributes of entities will be discussed. But it is a good idea to mention here that attributes identify each of the entities. Identification of entities is enhanced through the use of attributes and their characteristics. Here are two examples of Item attributes: 4.5.1 Item identifier: The item identifier is a number or code that is uniquely associated with the item, and serves to differentiate that item from any other item in the same collection and/or institution (e.g., call number, accession number, bar code, etc.). The number is normally assigned by the institution that holds the item. The item identifier may also include a name or code identifying the institution or repository in which the item is housed, and a name or code identifying a particular collection or sub-unit within the institution (e.g., a rare book collection, a branch library, etc.). 4.5.3 Provenance of the Item: The provenance of an item is a record of previous ownership or custodianship of the item. More Item attributes will be discussed later in the presentation.

18 Quick Quiz! Identify the FRBR Item
A. Digitized version of the printed Oxford University Press text published in 2008? B. Leatherbound autographed copy in Rare Books Collection? C. French translation? D. London Symphony Orchestra 2005 performance? E. Shakespeare’s Hamlet? (Animation: titles appear on mouse click, answer at end) Point out that each of the choices is a FRBR entity. Although they have not been discussed at this point in the presentation, we will come back to them after we look at some of the other attributes of these entities. For this first quiz, the Item attribute Item identifier (introduced on the previous slide) would identify this FRBR Item. Interesting related story: Washington Post, Sept, 21, 2011 article: In Brian Lamb’s ‘Booknotes’ marginalia, a record of our time’s serious thoughts By John Kelly In 2002, while he was reading Ann Coulter’s book “Slander: Liberal Lies About the American Right,” C-SPAN’s Brian Lamb scribbled the words “dog food” on Page 91. In 2000, when he was reading Arianna Huffington’s “How to Overthrow the Government,” he circled the word “V-chip” on Page 77. In 1998, when he was reading Ron Chernow’s “Titan: The Life of John D. Rockefeller, Sr. ,” he underlined the phrases “after she developed a chronic cough” and “a dark spot on Edith’s lower ribs” on Page 666. Dog food. V-chip. Lower ribs. As for why Brian Lamb was moved to do this, that’s for future scholars to puzzle out. And now they can, because earlier this week George Mason University took delivery of all 801 books that Brian read for the “Booknotes” author-interview program he hosted for 15 years on the cable channel he founded. The tomes take up five and a half bookcases in the university’s rare book collection. Most of the books are filled with marginalia in his neat cursive. “Once Brian announced on air the program was coming to an end, I immediately resolved . . . that the next day I would get on it,” said John Zenelis, the university librarian. That was in It took a while for Brian to be convinced there was any educational value to the books and his notes. The books aren’t rare, after all. “This collection . . . is a snapshot of the intellectual fervor of the late 20th and early 21st century,” John said. “The ‘Booknotes’ collection itself is a very visible effort to elevate the public discourse in this country.” The program, John said, gave viewers “a sense of who the important people were during this time in the United States, what they were thinking about, what their causes were, how this affected politics and public policy, and a whole range of issues.” The irony is that Brian Lamb wasn’t much of a reader growing up. Neither of his parents had much time for books, he said when we talked on the phone. But he saw that books fit perfectly into C-SPAN’s mission, and so he embarked on a reading marathon, from the very first book — Neil Sheehan’s Vietnam War classic, “A Bright Shining Lie,” to the very last: Mark Edmundson’s “Why Read?” “I had a chair in my bedroom in my townhouse in Arlington,” Brian said. “I was single at the time, and it was just a place I could go and keep my books. I would often read early in the morning. I’d get up at 3 a.m. and start reading till 6 or 7.” He had a lot of words to plow through, and if the scribblings in the books I looked at are any indication: He really read them. There are as many notes on the final pages as on the opening ones. And that probably explains why he ended the program. “I hit the wall,” Brian said. “Reading a book a week was a tough slog.” He didn’t want to write inside Maya Lin’s “Boundaries” — it was too nice — so he jotted notes down on the envelope his Verizon bill came in (“hair down to my knees,” “geode,” as well as a phone number for “Henry in Naples”). Lin’s book, the envelope and two loose-leaf pages of notes are in the university collection. So are the liner notes from a John Coltrane CD Brian consulted during his interview with Cornel West. Anything embarrassing scribbled in the books?, I asked. Did he scrawl “Awk!” next to a passage in Caspar Weinberger’s “Fighting for Peace: Seven Critical Years in the Pentagon”? Jot “You’ve lost me” in Robert Skidelsky’s “ John Maynard Keynes, Vol. 3: Fighting for Freedom, ”? No, Brian said. Like C-SPAN itself, his comments were bipartisan and nonconfrontational, designed merely to jog his memory during the interviews. The books are arranged at GMU just as they were in Lamb’s Capitol Hill office: not according to subject matter or author, but in the order the shows aired. Thus, Maureen Dowd is sandwiched between John McCain and Dennis Hastert. The author interviews — videos and transcripts — are online. Now, with a grant from C-SPAN’s foundation, the books are being catalogued, the marginalia scrutinized and annotated. “Who knows,” John said. “Maybe a few enterprising PhD students could also do dissertations, given the primary resources that exist here.” Just try doing that with a Kindle. 18 Tillett, Barbara. Library of Congress. March 4, FRBR: Things You Should Know, But Were Afraid To Ask 18

19 Quick Quiz! Which “book” is the FRBR Item?
A. We should order that book. B. I'd like to read that book in French. C. I have lost my book. D. That movie is based on my favorite book. (Animation: titles appear on mouse click, answer at end) Point out that each “book” in the multiple choice options is a FRBR entity. Although they have them after we look at some of the other attributes of these entities. For this first quiz, the Item attributes Item identifier and Provenance of the item (both introduced on Slide 16) would identify a personal copy of a “book.” Riva, Pat. CLA 2010 Conference, Edmonton, Alberta. 2 June IFLA’s Conceptual Models and RDA

20 The Manifestation in FRBR
Encompasses a wide range of materials Manuscripts Books Periodicals Maps Represents all the physical objects that bear the same characteristics, in respect to both intellectual content and physical form Posters Sound recordings CD-ROMs Multimedia kits Continue the discussion of attributes of entities. Later in the presentation (Slide 30 and following), the individual attributes of entities will be discussed. But it is a good idea to mention here again that attributes identify each of the entities. Identification of entities is enhanced through the use of attributes and their characteristics. Here are three examples of Manifestation attributes: 4.4.5 Publisher/Distributor: The publisher/distributor of the manifestation is the individual, group, or organization named in the manifestation as being responsible for the publication, distribution, issuing, or release of the manifestation. A manifestation may be associated with one or more publishers or distributors. 4.4.6 Date of Publication/Distribution: The date of publication/distribution of the manifestation is the date (normally a year) of public release of the manifestation. The date may be a single date of publication or release, or a range of dates (e.g., in the case of a serial publication). Capture mode: Capture mode is the means used to record notation, sound, or images in the production of a manifestation (e.g., analogue, acoustic, electric, digital, optical etc.).

21 Quick Quiz! Identify the FRBR Manifestation
A. Digitized version of the printed Oxford University Press text published in 2008? B. Leatherbound autographed copy in Rare Books Collection? C. French translation? D. London Symphony Orchestra 2005 performance? E. Shakespeare’s Hamlet? (Animation: titles appear on mouse click, answer at end) Point out again that each of the choices is a FRBR entity. Although they have not been discussed fully at this point in the presentation, we will come back to them. For this question, the Manifestation attributes Publisher/Distributor, Date of Publication/Distribution, and Capture mode (all introduced on the previous slide) would identify this FRBR Manifestation. 21 Tillett, Barbara. Library of Congress. March 4, FRBR: Things You Should Know, But Were Afraid To Ask 21

22 Quick Quiz! Which “book” is the FRBR Manifestation?
A. We should order that book. B. I'd like to read that book in French. C. I have lost my book. D. That movie is based on my favorite book. (Animation: titles appear on mouse click, answer at end) Each “book” in the multiple choice options is a FRBR entity. Publisher/Distributor and Date of Publication/Distribution (both introduced on Slide 19), as well as other Manifestation attributes, would identify this “book.” Riva, Pat. CLA 2010 Conference, Edmonton, Alberta. 2 June IFLA’s Conceptual Models and RDA

23 The Expression in FRBR The intellectual or artistic realization of a work in the form of: Alpha-numeric notation Musical notation Choreographic notation Sound Image Object Movement Or any combination of such forms Continue the discussion of attributes of entities. Later in the presentation (Slide 30 and following), the individual attributes of entities will be discussed. But it is a good idea to mention here again that attributes identify each of the entities. Identification of entities is enhanced through the use of attributes and their characteristics. Here are two examples of Expression attributes: 1) Language of Expression The language of the expression is the language in which the work is expressed. The language of the expression may comprise a number of languages, each pertaining to an individual component of the expression. 2) Medium of Performance (Musical Notation or Recorded Sound) Medium of performance is the instrumental and/or vocal medium of performance represented in the expression of a musical work (e.g., two pianos, soprano and alto, etc.). The instruments and/or voices represented in a particular expression of a work (e.g., in a transcription, in an arrangement, or in a performance) may differ from the medium of performance for which the work was originally intended. Cf., Medium of Performance (Musical Work).

24 Quick Quiz! Identify the FRBR Expression
A. Digitized version of the printed Oxford University Press text published in 2008? B. Leatherbound autographed copy in Rare Books Collection? C. French translation? D. London Symphony Orchestra 2005 performance? E. Shakespeare’s Hamlet? (Animation: titles appear on mouse click, answers at end) Each of the choices is a FRBR entity. We will come back to them after we look at some of the other attributes of these entities later in the presentation. For this question, the Expression attribute Language of Expression (introduced on the previous slide) identifies the French translation, and Medium of Performance (Musical Notation or Recorded Sound) (also introduced on the previous slide) identifies the London Symphony Orchestra 2005 performance. 24 Tillett, Barbara. Library of Congress. March 4, FRBR: Things You Should Know, But Were Afraid To Ask 24

25 Quick Quiz! Which “book” is the FRBR Expression?
A. We should order that book. B. I'd like to read that book in French. C. I have lost my book. D. That movie is based on my favorite book. (Animation: titles appear on mouse click, answer at end) Each “book” in the multiple choice options is a FRBR entity. By now you should start feeling comfortable with the distinctions between the “books.” We will look at other entities and attributes later in the presentation. For this quiz, the Expression attribute Language of Expression (introduced on Slide 22) would identify this “book.” Riva, Pat. CLA 2010 Conference, Edmonton, Alberta. 2 June IFLA’s Conceptual Models and RDA

26 The Work in FRBR Abstract entity
Continue the discussion of attributes of entities. Later in the presentation (Slide 30 and following), the individual attributes of entities will be discussed. But it is a good idea to mention here again that attributes identify each of the entities. Identification of entities is enhanced through the use of attributes and their characteristics. Here are two examples of Work attributes: 1) Title of the Work The title of the work is the word, phrase, or group of characters naming the work (more follows). 2) Form of Work The form of work is the class to which the work belongs (e.g., novel, play, poem, essay, biography, symphony, concerto, sonata, map, drawing, painting, photograph, etc.). FRBR may never mean the same thing for every person or every library. What is the work? Movie v. book (ask these as questions): All the many adaptations of Dracula--they never seem to get that one right! Wuthering Heights: They only tell the first half of the book in just about every adaptation, ignoring the part with their children. The Scarlet Letter, especially when considering the horrible one with Demi Moore OH! Disney's The Hunchback of Notre Dame. Actually, I don't think many adaptations of the book include the gypsy girl dying, but rather Quasimodo. Original vs. Colorized movie (It's a Wonderful Life (1946) Music – written/performance/by who? Braille version of Harry Potter? A work can be an authority record. Work, according to FRBR, is a distinct intellectual or artistic creation. It is an abstract entity. I like to think of it as the ideas that a person has in their head. A work is realized through an expression in the form of some notation, like writing, musical notation, choreographic notation, or it can be sound, an image, an object, movement, etc., or any combination of these things. An expression can be a performance or a translation or a version of a particular work. It’s useful to identify works and expressions because we can use the names of works and expressions as a device to organize displays of information – I’ll show you more in a minute. Once we capture a particular expression of a work in some container or we record that content on some carrier, we have a manifestation of a particular expression of a work – still with me? When we record the intellectual or artistic content, we move from the abstract “work/expression” to some physical entity. As FRBR puts it, a manifestation is the physical embodiment of an expression of a work. In order to record something you have to put it on or in some container or carrier. So, manifestations appear in various “carriers,” such as books, periodicals, maps, sound recordings, films, CD-ROMs, DVDs, multimedia games, Web pages, and so on. A manifestation represents all the physical objects that have the same characteristics of intellectual content and physical form. In actuality, a manifestation is itself an abstract entity, but describes and represents physical entities, that is all the items that have the same content and carrier. When we create a bibliographic record, it typically represents a manifestation – that is, it can serve to represent any copy of that manifestation held in any library anywhere. One example or copy of a manifestation is called an item. Usually it is a single object, but sometimes it consists of more than one physical object, e.g., a book issued in 2 separately bound volumes – the 2 volumes represent 1 item; or a sound recording on 3 separate CD’s. With an item entity, we are able to identify an individual copy of a manifestation and to describe its unique characteristics - that may be information relevant for circulation – so we can check out a specific Kindle, for example, so our user gets the one with the ebook they want on it. Abstract entity No single material object one can point to Recognized through individual realizations or expressions Exists only in the commonality of content between and among the various expressions

27 Quick Quiz! Identify the FRBR Work
A. Digitized version of the printed Oxford University Press text published in 2008? B. Leatherbound autographed copy in Rare Books Collection? C. French translation? D. London Symphony Orchestra 2005 performance? E. Shakespeare’s Hamlet? (Animation: titles appear on mouse click, answer at end) Each of the choices is a FRBR entity. You should feel more comfortable with these entities by now. But we will come back to them again later in the presentation. For this question, the Work attributes Title of the Work and Form of Work (both introduced on the previous slide) identify the play Hamlet. 27 Tillett, Barbara. Library of Congress. March 4, FRBR: Things You Should Know, But Were Afraid To Ask 27

28 Quick Quiz! Which “book” is the FRBR Work?
A. We should order that book. B. I'd like to read that book in French. C. I have lost my book. D. That movie is based on my favorite book. (Animation: titles appear on mouse click, answer at end) Each “book” in the multiple choice options is a FRBR entity. of the FRBR entities by now. For this quiz, the Work attributes Title of the Work and Form of Work (both introduced on Slide 25), as well as other Work attributes, would identify this “book.” Riva, Pat. CLA 2010 Conference, Edmonton, Alberta. 2 June IFLA’s Conceptual Models and RDA

29 Online Quiz 1: FRBR Terminology
Online Graded Quiz – 15 minutes Multiple Choice Fill-in-the Blanks True/False Graded results at end of quiz Instructor will guide you through the first question The online quiz is posted on the Cataloger’s Learning Workshop page (http://www.loc.gov/catworkshop/courses/) 29 29

30 FRBR as philosophy FRBR is the library version of Plato’s forms
The Work is the chair, which is something to sit on, and which is tied to a particular person who thought of a chair The Expression is a specific type of that chair, such as an office chair, a dining room table chair, a schoolroom chair, a lounge chair, a metal folding chair, etc. The Manifestation is the manufacturing run of Sauder’s office chair that has microsuede fabric and the ability to adjust height. The Item is the chair you are sitting in now 30 30

31 Attributes of an Item Item identifier Fingerprint
Provenance of the item Marks/inscriptions Exhibition history Condition of the item Treatment history Scheduled treatment Access restrictions on the item We looked at Item identifier and Provenance of the item earlier in the presentation, when we took the first quiz. Now let’s go into more depth on the Attributes of an Item. See pp of the Functional Requirements for Bibliographic Records: Final Report.

32 Item attribute example
Look at this record – showing item attributes Provenance from a rare book catalog

33 Item attribute quiz Look at the record on the next slide
Identify the item attribute

34 Item attribute quiz 1? 2? 3? LC copy information is the item attribute. 4?

35 Attributes of a Manifestation
Title of the manifestation Statement of responsibility Edition/issue designation Place of publication/distribution Publisher/distributor Date of publication/distribution Fabricator/manufacturer Series statement Form of carrier Extent of the carrier Physical medium Others … We looked at Publisher/distributor and Date of publication/distribution of the manifestation earlier in the presentation, when we took the first quiz. Now let’s go into more depth on the Attributes of Manifestation. See pp of the Functional Requirements for Bibliographic Records: Final Report. There are a lot!

36 Manifestation attribute quiz
Look at the record on the next slide Identify the manifestation attribute

37 Manifestation attribute quiz
1? 2? Title and dimensions are the manifestation attributes. 3? 4?

38 Attributes of an Expression
Form of expression Date of the expression Language of expression Other distinguishing characteristic Extensibility of expression Revisibility of expression Extent of the expression Summarization of content Others … We looked at Language of expression Medium of Performance (Musical Notation or Recorded Sound) – and remember, we learned that a performance is an expression-- earlier in the presentation, when we took the first quiz. Now let’s go into more depth on the Attributes of Expression. See pp of the Functional Requirements for Bibliographic Records: Final Report. Title of the expression exists in FRBR, but was removed in FRAD.

39 Expression attribute quiz
Look at the record on the next slide Identify the expression attribute

40 Expression attribute quiz
1? 2? Date is the expression attribute. NOTE: what is recorded in the bibliographic record is the manifestation attribute, but is usually understood to also indicate the expression attribute of date as well. We’ll be looking for a better example. 3? 4?

41 Attributes of a Work Title of the work Form of work Date of the work
Other distinguishing characteristic Intended termination Intended audience Context for the work Others … We looked at Title of the Work and Form of Work earlier in the presentation, when we took the first quiz. Now let’s go into more depth on the Attributes of a Work. We will look at Relationships in the next section of the presentation. A very important identifying characteristic of a work is shown in the relationship to the name of the creator. See pp of the Functional Requirements for Bibliographic Records: Final Report.

42 Work attribute quiz Look at the record on the next slide
Identify the work attribute

43 Work attribute quiz 1? 2? 3? Beginners of all ages is the work attribute. 4?

44 Online Quiz 2: Attributes of FRBR Group 1 Entities
Online Graded Quiz – 15 minutes Multiple Choice True/False Graded results at end of quiz Instructor will guide you through the first question The online quiz is posted on the Cataloger’s Learning Workshop page (http://www.loc.gov/catworkshop/courses/) 44 44

45 Entity Relationships and FRBR
Inherent relationships: work “is realized by” by an expression expression “is embodied in” a manifestation manifestation “is exemplified by” an item Content relationships: Equivalence Derivative Descriptive Whole/part Part-to-part Shared characteristics Barbara Tillett: Within FRBR there are relationships that are inherent among the entities: A work “is realized by” by an expression – that’s a relationship, and an expression “is embodied in” a manifestation – that’s a relationship. A manifestation “is exemplified by” an item – that’s a relationship. But how do we know about these relationships? We rely on information that we pick up from examining an item. Sometimes that item will self-describe which work it contains. A characteristic of a work (like its subject or what it is about or its name or the name of its creator) is carried to all the entities below it in the hierarchy. This is important because we could associate certain descriptors at the work level that then could apply to all records for the associated manifestations… more about this when we look at scenarios. So, there are inherent relationships among the entities, like saying “a work is realized.” Another way to look at this is through the content relationships among works, that are then inherited by their expressions, manifestations, and items. Many years ago I suggested a taxonomy of relationships: equivalence, derivative, descriptive, whole/part, and part-to-part (sequential and accompanying), and shared characteristics relationships. These content relationships and the inherent relationships will be covered in RDA. Some of these relationships are described in FRBR, such as equivalent, derivative, and descriptive relationships of the content. There are also whole-part relationships with aggregates and their components mentioned in FRBR.

46 Entity Relationships and FRBR
The first stage of information system design uses these models during the requirements analysis to describe information needs or the type of information that is to be stored. (Animation: diagram elements enter in sequence on mouse click) We can diagram the model using boxes for the entities and arrows to show the relationships. performs Artist Song was performed by has has Name --an attribute of a Person Title --an attribute of a Work

47 Work Expression Manifestation Item FRBR Group 1 Entities
is realized through Expression These four entities in Group 1 are the product of intellectual and/or artistic endeavor – the content and the packages that contain that content – all of the bibliographic resources that we want to make available to our users – the things libraries collect or provide access to. The model calls these work, expression, manifestation, and item. The entities form a hierarchy with work at the top of the model so it may help to see them in a diagram as here. This diagram begins to show how the Group 1 entities are related to each other. is embodied in Intellectual/Artistic Content Physical – Recording of Content Manifestation one many is exemplified by Item 47

48 Quick Quiz! Identifying Group 1 Entities
Harry Potter and the Goblet of Fire Summary: Fourteen-year-old Harry Potter joins the Weasleys at the Quidditch World Cup, then enters his fourth year at Hogwarts Academy where he is mysteriously entered in an unusual contest that challenges his wizarding skills, friendships and character, amid signs that an old enemy is growing stronger. This book is number four in the Harry Potter series.

49 Quick Quiz! Identifying Group 1 Entities
Identify the FRBR Group 1 entities: Harry Potter and the Philosopher’s Stone Harry Potter and the Chamber of Secrets Harry Potter and the Prisoner of Azkaban Harry Potter and the Order of the Phoenix Harry Potter and the Half-Blood Prince Harry Potter and the Deathly Hallows (Animation: answer appears on mouse click) Works

50 Quick Quiz! Identifying Group 1 Entities
Adaptations: Movie: Harry Potter and the Goblet of Fire (2005) Video game: Harry Potter and the Goblet of Fire (2005) (Animation: answer appears on mouse click) These may be considered new Works. The decision on calling them new Works is based on cataloging rules, not on FRBR. In FRBR, these could be other expressions of the same work. Let’s take a break from the quiz and look at a diagram of content relationships (next slide). The diagram shows a “magic line” where cataloging rules declare a new work. Expressions or Works!

51 Cataloging Rules Cut-Off Point
1Based on diagram in “Bibliographic Relationships,” Barbara B. Tillett. Ch. 2 in: Relationships in the Organization of Knowledge, edited by Carol A. Bean and Rebecca Green. Dordrecht, Boston, London: Kluwer Academic Publishers, 2001, p Family of Works Equivalent Derivative Descriptive Free Translation Review Microform Reproduction Edition Casebook Summary Abstract Dramatization Simultaneous “Publication” Abridged Edition Criticism Digest Novelization Screenplay Copy Libretto Illustrated Edition Evaluation Revision Change of Genre Exact Reproduction Parody Translation Annotated Edition Expurgated Edition Imitation This picture shows a continuum of the relationships within a family of works as represented in manifestations <click> moving from left to right following this red arrow On the left <click> are those that are equivalent content, that are from the same expression of the same work. Once we introduce a change to the content, like a translation, <click> we have a new expression of the same work - and as we make further changes to the content we move further to the right, farther away from the original work. These are derivative expressions of the same work. Once that derivation crosses the <click> “magic line” of becoming more of the work of another person or corporate body, we consider it a new work, but it is part of the family of related works, even when the content moves on to be only describing <click> a work in the family at the right end of this continuum. Works in a descriptive relationship can also be said to be in a subject relationships, because the subject of those works is another work – as with a commentary on a work. The ability to inform the user of these related works ties back to the ** collocating and finding functions of a catalog. We need to show users the pathways to related materials. The FRBR model reminds us of these important relationships that we should reflect in our catalogs and resource discovery systems for our users. 1Based on diagram first published in “Bibliographic Relationships,” Barbara B. Tillett. Ch. 2 in: Relationships in the Organization of Knowledge, edited by Carol A. Bean and Rebecca Green. Dordrecht, Boston, London: Kluwer Academic Publishers, 2001, p Same Style or Thematic Content Variations or Versions Facsimile Arrangement Commentary Slight Modification Reprint Adaptation Original Work-- Same Expression Same Work – New Expression New Work Cataloging Rules Cut-Off Point

52 Quick Quiz! Identifying Group 1 Entities
Expression Original English version (2000) Bloomsbury (UK) hardcover Bloomsbury (UK) paperback Bloomsbury (UK) paperback (adult cover) Scholastic (US) hardcover Scholastic (US) paperback Raincoast (Canada) hardcover Raincoast (Canada) paperback Penguin (Canada) paperback (adult cover) (Animation: answers appear on mouse clicks) Manifestations

53 Quick Quiz! Identifying Group 1 Entities
Translations Arabic Hardcover Softcover Finnish Italian Group of Expressions Expression Manifestations Expression Manifestations (Animation: answers appear on mouse clicks) Expression Manifestations

54 Quick Quiz! Identifying Group 1 Entities
Audiobooks Jim Dale’s reading (2000) Listening Library: 17 cassettes Listening Library: 12 CDs Stephen Fry’s unabridged reading (2001) BBC Audiobooks: 14 CDs BBC Audiobooks: 18 cassettes Group of Expressions Expression Manifestations Expression (Animation: answers appear on mouse clicks) Manifestations

55 Quick Quiz! Identifying Group 1 Entities
Audiobooks in translation French CD Cassette Japanese Group of Expressions Expression Manifestations Expression (Animation: answers appear on mouse clicks) Manifestations

56 More Examples of Group 1 Entities
This is a different way to see the relationships between Work, Expressions, Manifestations, and Items. I included it because some times this way is easier for people to understand the FRBR model, and sometimes another way is better. Hitchen, Alison, and Ellen Symons."Preparing Catalogers for RDA Training." Cataloging & Classification Quarterly 47 (2009): 56

57 Group 2 Entities Persons, corporate bodies, and families responsible for: the intellectual or artistic content, the physical production and dissemination, or the custodianship of the entities Looking at the FRBR model, we can see that there are relationships between works and creators that we can capture in bibliographic terms. We give the authorized form of name of a creator as access, and often we describe the creator in the statement of responsibility. We do not provide other identifying characteristics/attributes of “persons” or other entities that can be creators-- they are described in Authority data. FRBR refers to persons and corporate bodies responsible for works as “Group 2 Entities.” 57

58 Person Musical Work Literary Work
FRBR - Tillett presentation, March 4, 2009 Group 2 Entities Person Wagner, Richard, Created by Musical Work Die Meistersinger von Nürnberg (Opera) Creates Created by Creates (Animation: each element appears on mouse click) This illustration show how a Person (Richard Wagner), can have multiple roles. He is both a composer and a librettist for an opera (Die Meistersinger von Nurnberg). Literary Work Die Meistersinger von Nürnberg (Libretto) 58 58 58 58

59 FRAD Functional Requirements for Authority Data User tasks:
Find: Find an entity or set of entities corresponding to stated criteria Identify: Identify an entity Clarify (Justify): Document the authority record creator’s reason for choosing the name or form of name on which an access point is based. Contextualize (Understand): Place a person, corporate body, work, etc. in context Example: WorldCat Identities: Dec. 2008, published 2009 59

60 FRAD Attributes Attributes of a person Title of person
Dates associated with the person (birth/death/period of activity Gender Place of birth Place of death Country Place of residence Affiliation Address Language of person Field of activity Profession / occupation Biography / history Other informational elements associated with the person Just as Group 1 entities have attributes, Group 2 entities have their own set of attributes. See pp of the FRBR Final Report. 60

61 FRAD Attributes Attributes of a family Attributes of a corporate body
Type of family Dates of family Places associated with family Field of activity History of family Attributes of a corporate body Place associated Dates associated Language of the corporate body Address Field of activity History Other information associated with the corporate body Corporate bodies can have subordinate components. 61

62 Group 3 Entities (FRSAD)
Subjects of Group 1 or Group 2’s intellectual endeavor, and include: Concepts Objects Events Places FRSAD – 2011 Available online: Persons can be “subjects”– Group 1 entities and Group 2 entities can be the subject of works. Here are some examples: Biographies A film about the Lindesfarne Gospels A criticism of the music of Shostakovich … etc. There are many examples. Ask attendees to come up with some others. Concepts, objects, events, and places also have their own attributes/identifying characteristics, as identified in FRSAD (Functional Requirements for Subject Authority Data) and will in the future be shown in RDA (by 2012, hopefully). For example, identifying characteristics of “events” include location, date, perhaps relationships to organizing bodies, etc. Identifying characteristics of places include coordinates, variant names, etc. 62

63 Songs of Innocence and Experience Approaches to Teaching Blake
FRBR - Tillett presentation, March 4, 2009 Group 3 Entities Work Songs of Innocence and Experience Person Blake, William, Created by Creates Has Subject Has Subject Work Approaches to Teaching Blake Concept/Topic Literary education Has Subject Complex animation: Click 1: Work: Approaches to Teaching… Click 2: Person: Gleckner Click 3: Arrow and phrases Created by, Creates connecting Work and Person Click 4: Concept/Topic Click 5: Arrow and phrases Has subject, Is subject of connecting Work and Concept/Topic Click 6: Work: Songs of Innocence, Person: Blake, Arrow and Created by/Creates all on same click Click 7: Arrow and Is About from Work: Approaches to Work: Songs of Innocence … Click 8: Arrow and Is About from Work: Approaches to Person: Blake Remember that the “Is About” arrows are one-way relationships. Created by Creates Is Subject of Person Gleckner, Robert F. 63 63 63 63

64 Back to User Tasks At the beginning of this course, we looked at FRBR User Tasks Then we looked at FRAD User Tasks Here is a comparison of the two: Bibliographic Data Authority Data Find Identify Select Obtain Find Identify Clarify (Justify) Understand (Contextualize) (Animation: bulleted lines appear on mouse clicks, comparison chart all on one click at the end) Just to recap, these are the 6 functions that we are trying to enable with this new (ish) model of the bibliographic universe. A new model to make library data more flexible and extensible.

65 Why Do Libraries Need FRBR?
To avoid becoming marginalized by other information delivery services To cut costs for the description and access to resources in our libraries To encourage redesign of our systems to move us into linked data information discovery and navigation systems in the Internet environment To make our bibliographic descriptions and access data more internationally acceptable (Animation– each line or point appears on mouse click) To avoid becoming marginalized by other information delivery services Repackage our shared metadata into more interesting visual information Timelines for publication histories Maps showing places of publication Build links between works and expressions Make our data more accessible on the Web To cut costs for the description and access to resources in our libraries Take advantage of metadata from publishers and other sources Share metadata more than we have done in the past to reduce costly, redundant creation and maintenance of bibliographic and authority data To encourage redesign of our systems to move us into linked data information discovery and navigation systems in the Internet environment To make our bibliographic descriptions and access data more internationally acceptable Tillett, Barbara. Keeping libraries relevant in the semantic Web with RDA: Resource Description and Access. First appeared in Serials, Nov issue, Vol. 24, no. 3. 65 65

66 Bibliography Antelman, K. (Oct. 2004). Identifying a Serial Work as a Bibliographic Entity. Library Resources & Technical Services, 48(4), 238. Childress, Eric, CO-ASIS&T Program, Columbus, OH. 21 July What’s FRBR? Riva, Pat. CLA 2010 Conference, Edmonton, Alberta. 2 June IFLA’s Conceptual Models and RDA Tillett, Barbara. Library of Congress. March 4, FRBR: Things You Should Know, But Were Afraid To Ask 66


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