2 The Relevance of History Knowledge of the development of policing contributes to our understanding of contemporary practices and problems. Police organization, reforms, and police- community relations today are deeply rooted in the past.
3 The Relevance of History The study of police history can: The study of police history can: 1.Dramatize the fact of change 2.Put current problems into perspective 3.Help us understand what reforms have worked 4.Alerts us to the unintended consequences of reforms
4 The English Heritage The Constable, Sheriff, & Justice of the Peace The Watch System Sir Robert Peel London Metropolitan Police (1829) Mission, Strategy, Organizational Structure
5 First Modern America Police New York - first police department with a day and night shift (1844) New York - first police department with a day and night shift (1844) Did not wear uniforms but had a hat and badge Did not wear uniforms but had a hat and badge Did not carry firearms Did not carry firearms Officers hired based on who they knew Officers hired based on who they knew
6 Three Eras of American Policing The political era (1830s-1900) The political era (1830s-1900) The professional era (1900-1960s) The professional era (1900-1960s) The era of conflicting pressures (1960s- present) The era of conflicting pressures (1960s- present)
7 Law Enforcement in Colonial America Sheriff Appointed by colonial governor Chief local government official Law enforcement Collect taxes Conduct elections Maintain bridges and roads Constable Some responsibility for enforcing law and maintaining order Originally elected, later appointed Watch Watchmen patrolled to guard against FireCrimeDisorder Originally, only night watch All males were expected to serve Slave Patrol Distinctly American Guard against slave revolts and capture runaway slaves
8 American Policing in the 19 th Century EEEEstablishment of Modern Police Forces UUUUrbanization, Industrialization, Immigration BBBBreakdown in Law and Order TTTThe Political Era PPPPolice Personnel SSSSelection based on political connection
9 Patrol Foot patrol No communications system In time, call boxes emerged Weak supervision Major social welfare institution Corruption Reforms
10 American Policing in the 20 th Century Police Professionalism August Vollmer “Father of American Police Professionalism” Advocated higher education for police officers Chief of Berkeley, California Wrote Wickersham Commission Report (1931)
11 Professionalization Movement Reformers sought to define policing as a profession Reformers sought to define policing as a profession Sought to eliminate the influence of politics on policing Sought to eliminate the influence of politics on policing Argued for hiring qualified police chiefs Argued for hiring qualified police chiefs Tried to raise standards for patrol officers Tried to raise standards for patrol officers Applied modern management principles Applied modern management principles Create specialized units like traffic, vice Create specialized units like traffic, vice
12 The Diary of a Police Officer: Boston, 1895 The recently discovered 1895 diary of Boston police officer Stillman S. Wakeman provides a revealing glimpse into actual police work 100 years ago. Officer Wakeman was “an officer of the neighborhood.” He spent most of his time on patrol responding to little problems that neighborhood residents brought to him: disputes, minor property crimes, and so on. He spent relatively little time on major offenses: murder, rape, robbery. He resolved most of the problems informally, acting as a neighborhood magistrate. Officer Wakeman’s role was remarkably similar to that of contemporary patrol officers. He was reactive and a problem solver. The major difference was the absence of modern police technology: the patrol car and the 911 telephone system.
13 Important Issues in American Policing in the 20th Century PPPPolice Subculture RRRRacial/Ethnic Conflict CCCCrisis of the 1960s TTTThe Research Revolution SSSState Police Agencies FFFFederal Bureau of Investigation NNNNew Technology SSSSupreme Court Decisions
14 New Technologies Patrol car just before WWI Patrol car just before WWI Two-way radio, late 1930s Two-way radio, late 1930s Telephone for citizens to call police Telephone for citizens to call police
15 New Developments Changing police officer Race and gender Control of police discretion Policies and SOP Lawsuits Unions Significant improvement in salaries and benefits Community policing and problem-oriented policing