Presentation is loading. Please wait.

Presentation is loading. Please wait.

© 2011 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. Police in America Chapter Three The Contemporary Law Enforcement Industry.

Similar presentations


Presentation on theme: "© 2011 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. Police in America Chapter Three The Contemporary Law Enforcement Industry."— Presentation transcript:

1 © 2011 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. Police in America Chapter Three The Contemporary Law Enforcement Industry

2 2 Basic Features of American Law Enforcement Local Political Control Local Political Control –Tradition inherited from England –Primary responsibility for police protection rests with local governments –Result is a highly fragmented, decentralized system for regulating the different agencies Police services provided on 4 different levels Police services provided on 4 different levels –City, County, State, Federal

3 3 An Industry vs. International Perspective Industry Perspective Industry Perspective –This approach provides a consumer perspective on policing –Average citizen receive police services from several different agencies International Perspective International Perspective - Other countries have less fragmented systems - England only has 43 law enforcement agencies and Japan has 47 Their national governments provides a significant part of their local agencys budgets Their national governments provides a significant part of their local agencys budgets

4 4 Components of the American Law Enforcement Industry Private security Private security –Private security firms –Security personnel Government Agencies Government Agencies –Local Municipal police Municipal police County Police County Police County sheriffs County sheriffs –State State police State police Bureaus of criminal investigation Bureaus of criminal investigation –Federal Federal law enforcement agencies Federal law enforcement agencies Military law enforcement Military law enforcement –Special district police Public schools, Transit police, college and university police Public schools, Transit police, college and university police –Native American tribal police

5 5 Size and Scope of Law Enforcement 17,876 law enforcement agencies in U.S. 17,876 law enforcement agencies in U.S. –Myth: 1967 PCC incorrectly reported there were 40,000 12,766 local police departments 12,766 local police departments 3,067 Sheriffs departments 3,067 Sheriffs departments 49 State Police Agencies 49 State Police Agencies 1,481 special police agencies 1,481 special police agencies 65 Federal agencies 65 Federal agencies 731,903 full-time sworn officers employed by local and state agencies in ,903 full-time sworn officers employed by local and state agencies in 2004 Civilianization: Today, about 33 percent of all local police department employees are civilians Civilianization: Today, about 33 percent of all local police department employees are civilians

6 6 Employment by state and local law enforcement

7 7 Basic Sources on Law Enforcement Agencies The most comprehensive source of data on American law enforcement agencies is the report from the Bureau of Justice Statistics (BJS), Law Enforcement Management and Administrative Statistics. The most recent report is for 1999; BJS intends to conduct new surveys every 2-3 years. Additional data can be found in the FBIs Uniform Crime Reports (UCR), published annually. Many law enforcement agencies now maintain their own website, which provides information about organizational structure and current programs.

8 8 Contemporary Law Enforcement Sworn officers vs. total number of employees Civilianization Police-population ratio Officers per 1,000 population Officers per 1,000 populationCost Labor Labor Municipal police 78% of all law enforcement officers County Sheriff Law enforcement Courts CorrectionsState State police - full service Highway Patrol Private Security Over 2,000,000 people employed

9 9 The Fragmentation Issue Lack of coordination between agencies Lack of coordination between agencies Crime displacement Crime displacement Duplication of services Duplication of services Inconsistent standards Inconsistent standards Alternative Alternative Consolidation Consolidation Contracting Contracting However, the problem may not be as serious as some have argued However, the problem may not be as serious as some have argued The PSS concluded that small police departments were not necessarily less efficient than large departments The PSS concluded that small police departments were not necessarily less efficient than large departments Small departments put more officers on the street performing direct police services Small departments put more officers on the street performing direct police services

10 10 Types of Agencies Municipal police – represent 71 percent of all law enforcement agencies, handle serious crime, and provide emergency services Municipal police – represent 71 percent of all law enforcement agencies, handle serious crime, and provide emergency services County police- Municipal police that operate on a county wide basis, constitute 1 percent County police- Municipal police that operate on a county wide basis, constitute 1 percent Sheriffs- Responsibilities defined in state constitution, elected position, serve all three components of criminal justice system: law enforcement, courts, and corrections Sheriffs- Responsibilities defined in state constitution, elected position, serve all three components of criminal justice system: law enforcement, courts, and corrections

11 11 Other Local Agencies The Constable The Constable –Role defined by state constitution –Typically work within county court system The Coroner/Medical Examiner The Coroner/Medical Examiner –Have responsibility to investigate crimes –Coroners are not trained physicians and are elected to their position –Medical Examiners are appointed and receive special training –Investigate 20 percent of death in U.S. Special District Police Special District Police –Serve particular government agencies, such as colleges and universities Tribal Police Tribal Police –200 agencies to protect Native American tribes

12 12 State Law Enforcement Agencies State Police State Police –Share responsibility with local police –Varying degrees of criminal investigation responsibility depending on the state Highway Patrol Highway Patrol –Enforces traffic laws on the main highways State Investigative Agencies State Investigative Agencies

13 13 Federal Law Enforcement Agencies 17 agencies employing 500 or more sworn officers 17 agencies employing 500 or more sworn officers Role of each federal agency specified by federal statute Role of each federal agency specified by federal statute Federal Law Enforcement Post 9/11/01 Federal Law Enforcement Post 9/11/01 Homeland Security Act Homeland Security Act Department of Homeland Security and Department of Justice restructured Department of Homeland Security and Department of Justice restructured

14 14 Department of Homeland Security Customs and Border Protection Customs and Border Protection Immigration and Customs Enforcement Immigration and Customs Enforcement Federal Emergency Management Agency Federal Emergency Management Agency Transportation Security Administration Transportation Security Administration U.S. Coast Guard U.S. Coast Guard U.S. Secret Service U.S. Secret Service

15 15 Department of Justice Drug Enforcement Administration Drug Enforcement Administration Federal Bureau of Investigation Federal Bureau of Investigation Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco, Firearms and Explosives Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco, Firearms and Explosives U.S. Marshals Service U.S. Marshals Service

16 16 Qualifications for FBI U.S. Citizen U.S. Citizen years of age years of age Four-year College degree Four-year College degree Vision not worse that 20/200 Vision not worse that 20/200 Pass polygraph examination Pass polygraph examination Pass drug test Pass drug test Pass interview Pass interview

17 17 The Private Security Industry Estimated 90,000 private security organizations employing over 2 million Estimated 90,000 private security organizations employing over 2 million 3:1 ratio of private to public police officers in U.S. 3:1 ratio of private to public police officers in U.S. Different from public organizations because: Different from public organizations because: –1. Focus more on crime –2. More alternatives to addressing problems –3. More emphasis on crime prevention –4. Primarily concerned with matters occuring on private property

18 18 Minimum Standards No national police system or national standards U.S. Supreme Court Based on the Constitution Based on the Constitution State Government Licensing or certification Licensing or certificationAccreditation


Download ppt "© 2011 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. Police in America Chapter Three The Contemporary Law Enforcement Industry."

Similar presentations


Ads by Google