Presentation on theme: "Differentiated Instruction Evelyn Wassel, Ed. D. Williams Valley School District September 24, 2010."— Presentation transcript:
Differentiated Instruction Evelyn Wassel, Ed. D. Williams Valley School District September 24, 2010
Agenda Discuss the concept of DI Look at techniques to differentiate the classroom Consider a rationale for on-going assessment in the classroom to guide instruction
3 What It Is/What Its Not Differentiated Instruction IS: Differentiated Instruction IS NOT:
The success of education depends on adapting teaching to individual differences among learners. Yuezheng, in fourth century B.C. Chinese treatise, Xue Ji (Snow, 1982)
What is Differentiation? A teachers response to learners needs The recognition of students varying background knowledge and preferences Instruction that appeals to students differences
The rationale for DI Examples of learner diversity: Cognitive abilities (Bloom) Learning styles (Gardner) Socioeconomic and family factors Readiness Learning pace Motivation Gender Cultural and ethnic influences
7 One Size Doesnt Fit All
Essential Characteristics of DI There is no recipe for DI It is a way of thinking Teacher acts as facilitator for learning DI challenges the notion that the curriculum is just coverage of facts.
Readiness Differentiation Where is THIS child at THIS time with THIS particular skill or idea?
What Information Do You Need? To know your students The process of differentiating curriculum, instruction and assessment begins by knowing your students. To understand your students Strengths, interests, learning styles, preferences and intelligences To know student needs This information can be utilized to make your curricula more meaningful to students because you can tailor your delivery and expectations to meet their needs.
How will I get this information? Record review Family-centered and culturally responsive fact gathering Interest inventories Learning preferences information Multiple intelligences Data-based observations Functional behavior assessment Monitoring cooperative group learning
The Differentiated Instruction Decision Making Process Students How can I differentiate instruction and align lesson outcomes and tasks to learning goals? Adapted from Oaksford, L. and Jones, L Product Assessment of the content Review the Data Link To Next Concept, Lesson or Unit Curriculum PA Standards/ Assessment Anchors Pre-assessment Readiness/Ability Interest/Talents Prior Knowledge Content What the teacher plans to teach Process How the teacher plans instruction Management of flexible groups
WHAT CAN BE DIFFERENTATED?
Classroom Elements Content Process Product Affect Learning Environment
Differentiating Content Sources of content: Teacher determines/clarifies essential knowledge, understanding and skills of a unit or topic. Pre-test to determine readiness. Differentiate content to ensure all students have equal access to the essential knowledge.
16 DO NOT ASSESS BIG IDEAS ALL WILL LEARN DO TEACH INTENSIVELY DO ASSESS DO TEACH DO NOT ASSESS INTERESTING BUT NOT ESSENTIAL SOME WILL LEARN ANYWAY SPECIALIZED KNOWLEDGE – TRIVIA FEW WILL LEARN DO NOT TEACH DO NOT ASSESS Edwin Ellis, 2002 Differentiating the Curriculum
Ways to differentiate curriculum Reading partners/reading buddies Read/summarize Adjust questions Graphic organizers Varied texts Highlighted texts With a partner, discuss some other ways you can help all students have equal access?
Differentiating Process Learning and using higher order thinking skills Creative thinking Critical thinking Problem solving Integration of basic skills and abstract thinking skills Process = activities
Ways to Differentiate Process Games RAFTs Cubing, Think Dots Choices Tiered Lessons Anchor Activities Online Activities
Games Use games to capture a students interest, reinforce ideas and for review. Frequent practice is also necessary for children to build and maintain strong academic skills. Have varying levels according to ability.
Friendship Cinquain A cinquain is a five-line poem that follows a certain pattern. Interview a partner and use what you learn to write a cinquain about that person. Questions are on the next slide.
Friendship Cinquain What is your name? Adjectives that describe you Activities you enjoy What makes you a good friend? Nickname?
Friendship Cinquain Name Adjective, adjective Action word, action word, action word Four word phrase about friendship Nickname or noun
Friendship Cinquain Jordan Musical, athletic Singing, dancing, tackling Everyone can be considerate JJ
Friendship Cinquain This can be used for any topic if you change the questions. Examples: Plants Columbus journey Character in a story
RAFT Writing to learn activities to enhance understanding of informational text ROLE AUDIENCE FORMAT TOPIC The RAFT strategy forces students to process information rather than merely write answers to questions.
Role of the Writer What is the writers role: reporter, observer, eyewitness, object, number, etc.
Audience Who will be reading the writing? Teacher Other students A parent Editor People in the community, etc.
Format What is the best way to present the writing? Letter Article Report Contract Poem Advertisement
Topic Who or what is the subject of this writing? A famous scientist A prehistoric cave dweller A character from literature A chemical element or physical object
Plant RAFT ROLEAUDIENCEFORMATTOPIC Plant partsPlant needsPictureWere made for each other RootsStem, leaf, flower, seeds LetterYoud be lost without me FlowerStem, leaf, seeds, roots AdIm more than just a pretty face
Immigration RAFT ROLEAUDIENCEFORMATTOPIC Boy of 12 who came from Europe Best friend in Germany LetterCrossing the ocean on a ship Ship captainEmigrants waiting to come to America BookletHow to prepare for your trip Artist arriving from France Graphic design firm in NYC PostcardWish you were here
Activity With a partner develop several scenarios where you could use the raft in your classroom.
Cubing Students consider a concept from a variety of different perspectives. The cubes are six-sided figures that have a different activity on each side of the cube. A student rolls the cube and does the activity that comes up.
Think Dots Each student is given a set of activity cards on a ring, a die and an activity sheet. Student rolls the die and completes the activity on the card that corresponds to the dots thrown on the die. Student then completes the activity on the activity sheet.
Think Dots Suggestions Use colored paper and/or colored dots to indicate different readiness levels, interests or learning styles. Have students work in pairs. Let students choose which activities – for example: Roll the die and choose any three. Create complex activities and have students choose just one to work on over a number of days.
Choices Use Gardeners Multiple Intelligences Human beings are capable of "many different and discrete facets of cognition." Humans display different types of intelligences which can be measured, fostered and evaluated as isolated faculties of the mind.
Multiple Intelligences The MI Theory assumes that all students possess an array of at least eight intelligences. Identifying students strength intelligences allows educators to use the strengths to capture a students attention and assist the student in learning new information. Source: Google ImagesGoogle Images
Bodily-Kinesthetic Intelligence The ability to manipulate ones own body and control muscle movements with utmost precision (surgeons, pianists)
Musical Intelligence The ability to understand and perform music
Logical-Mathematical Intelligence This also includes scientific ability.
Linguistic Intelligence Knowledge and ability to manipulate language
Spatial Intelligence The ability to form a mental model of a spatial world (i.e. sculptors, engineers, surgeons)
Interpersonal Intelligence The ability to understand others
Intrapersonal Intelligence The ability to understand oneself
Nature Intelligence The ability to understand nature
Gardners MI ml ml Whats your learning style? intelligences-learning-styles- quiz?utm_source=google&utm_medium=c pc&utm_content=pdf&utm_campaign=quiz &gclid=CNvIpqDLmaQCFaVn5Qod1WlVEA intelligences-learning-styles- quiz?utm_source=google&utm_medium=c pc&utm_content=pdf&utm_campaign=quiz &gclid=CNvIpqDLmaQCFaVn5Qod1WlVEA
Tiered Lessons Strategy that addresses a particular standard, key concept and generalization Allows several pathways for students to arrive at an understanding of these components Based on the students interests, readiness or learning profiles
49 Developing a Tiered Assignment Identify unit/lesson. Identify essential questions or objectives. Student outcomes Student skill levels Student output Develop/review lesson activity. Determine level of learner(s). Adjust COMPLEXITY for each level of learners.
50 Implementing a Tiered Assignment Assignments should be… Accompanied by directions Respectful. Adjusted for varying levels Designed to meet the lesson objective Determine product. Traditional versus alternate Teacher in role of facilitator
Anchor Activities Specified ongoing activities on which students work independently Ongoing assignments that students can work on throughout a unit
Why Use Anchor Activities? provide a strategy for teachers to deal with ragged time when students complete work at different times allow the teacher to work with individual students or groups provides ongoing activities that relate to the content of the unit allow the teacher to develop independent group work strategies in order to incorporate a mini lab of computers in classroom
Examples of Anchor Activities A worksheet with open- or closed-end questions Learning centers Journal writing Creating games or books Playing games that reinforce concepts/skills
With a partner, develop a few examples of anchor activities you can use in your classroom. Dont forget online options!
Differentiating Product Varying the ways students demonstrate what you asked them to learn. Use frequent assessment as checks for understanding and feedback – not just for grades. Replace some tests with rich product assignments. You can also give students a choice between tests and assignments.
Ways to Differentiate Product Choices based on interest, readiness and learning profile Clear expectations Timelines Agreements Product guides Rubrics
Differentiating Affect Students need to feel they belong to a group and are important to it. Teacher should be continually attuned to student feelings. Readiness levels should be value challenged & supported in the classroom. Differentiate proactively and reactively. Affect is the weather of the classroom.
Differentiating Learning Environment Use fluid, flexible grouping that reflects real- life situations. Use space, time and materials flexibly. Encourage expression of new ideas, accept diversity and exploration. Experiences reflect learner interests and ideas. Honor the dignity of all learners.
Differentiating Readiness Make work a little more difficult for students at a given point in their growth. Provide support to succeed at new level of challenge. Pre-assessment is key. Teachers need to adapt teaching in ways that make curriculum appropriately challenging for a range of learners.
Differentiating Interest Help students connect with new information by revealing connections with things they already find appealing and worthwhile. Interest surveys will give clues to teachers.
Differentiating Learning Profile Influenced by learning style, intelligence preference, gender and culture The goal is to help students learn in the way they learn best and to extend ways in which they can learn effectively.
63 In a differentiated classroom, the teacher plans and carries out varied approaches to content, process, and product in anticipation of and response to student differences in readiness and/or interest.
On-going Assessment Assessment is todays means of understanding how to modify tomorrows instruction. Carol Tomlinson
Some Thoughts on Assessment Assessment should happen on a daily basis in the classroom. It provides ways to use instruction to inform the next steps.
66 As you begin…. Examine your philosophy about individual needs. Start small. Grow slowly – but grow! Envision how an activity will look. Step back and reflect.
Giving Directions If the whole class is doing the same activity then give the directions to the whole group. Do not give multiple task directions to the whole class. For small group work, tape directions so students can listen to them repeatedly Use task cards to give directions to small groups. A general rule is that once the teacher has given directions the students cant interrupt while he/she is working with a small group Ask Me Visors
Assigning Groups Clothes pins with students names to assign them to a particular task Color code children to certain groups (a transparency with students names in color works well) Cubing allows you to assign groups by interest or readiness level
Handling Materials Assign jobs to different students (materials handler, table captain) As a teacher ask yourself, Is this something I have to do myself, or can the students learn to do it? Remember that you have to teach children how to become responsible for their own things.
Transitions Directions for transitions need to be given with clarity and urgency. Time limit for transition Address the acceptable noise level Rehearsal
Routines for Handling Paperwork Color-coded work folders Portfolios Baskets for each curricular area or class period Filing Cabinet Key to these organizational patterns is that the children have access to their own work and know how to file and/or find what they need to accomplish a task.
Time Must be flexible in order to address every childs readiness level Catch-up days Anchoring Activities Postcards for Writing Ideas Independent Investigations
Principles for Fostering Equity and Excellence in Academically Diverse Learners Good curriculum comes first. The teacher's first job is always to ensure a coherent, important, inviting, and thoughtful curriculum. All tasks should respect each learner. Every student deserves work that is focused on the essential knowledge, understanding, and skills targeted for the lesson. Every student should be required to think at a high level and should find his or her work interesting and powerful. When in doubt, teach up! Good instruction stretches learners. The best tasks are those that students find a little too difficult to complete comfortably. Be sure there's a support system in place to facilitate the student's success at a level that he or she doubted was attainable. Adapted from Tomlinson, C.A.,& Edison, C.C. (2003).Differentiation in practice: A resource guide for differentiating curriculum, Grades 5-9. Alexandria, VA: ASCD.
Principles for Fostering Equity and Excellence in Academically Diverse Learners Use flexible grouping. Find ways and time for the class to work as a whole, for students to demonstrate competence alone, and for students to work with varied groups of peers. Using only one or two types of groups causes students to see themselves and one another in more limited ways, keeps the teacher from" auditioning " students in varied contexts, and limits potentially rich exchanges in the classroom. Become an assessment junkie. Everything that a student says and does is a potential source of assessment data. Assessment should be an ongoing process, conducted in flexible but distinct stages, and it should maximize opportunities for each student to open the widest possible window on his or her learning. Grade to reflect growth. The most we can ask of any person-and the least we ought to ask-is to be and become their best. The teacher's job is to guide and support the learner in this endeavor. Grading should, in part, reflect a learner's growth. Adapted from Differentiation in Practice: A Resource Guide for Differentiating Curriculum, Grades 5-9,
I like this class because theres something different going on all the time. My other classes, its like peanut butter for lunch every single day. This class, its like my teacher really knows how to cook. Its like she runs a really good restaurant with a big menu and all. Comment from a course evaluation written by a 7th grader.
Exploring DI Sites Use the following wiki to access two DI word documents related to DI Explore the wiki to complete the Ticket Out The Door activity.
Lets review… Differentiated Instruction is… Differentiated Instruction is not…
For more information Teacher Resources Differentiated Instruction Resources ated+Instruction ated+Instruction ages ages