Presentation on theme: "Differentiated Instruction"— Presentation transcript:
1Differentiated Instruction Evelyn Wassel, Ed. D.Williams Valley School DistrictSeptember 24, 2010
2Agenda Discuss the concept of DI Look at techniques to differentiate the classroomConsider a rationale for on-going assessment in the classroom to guide instruction
3What It Is/What It’s Not Differentiated Instruction IS:Differentiated Instruction IS NOT:With a group of people around you complete the chart with your own ideas about DI.
4Yuezheng, in fourth century B.C. Chinese treatise, Xue Ji The success of education depends on adapting teaching to individual differences among learners.Yuezheng, in fourth century B.C. Chinese treatise, Xue Ji(Snow, 1982)
5What is Differentiation? A teacher’s response to learner’s needsThe recognition of students’ varying background knowledge and preferencesInstruction that appeals to students’ differences
6The rationale for DI Examples of learner diversity: Cognitive abilities (Bloom)Learning styles (Gardner)Socioeconomic and family factorsReadinessLearning paceMotivationGenderCultural and ethnic influences
7One Size Doesn’t Fit All We have used the analogy of "one size doesn't fit all" for years in education. We know students are different from one another in height, size, shape, hair & eye color, background, and experience.As with clothing we would not buy or make the same garment for all learners (even school uniforms). Although they may look the same, they are sized and adjusted and accessorized for the wearer because they would not fit, suit, or be comfortable for all.We are not trying to totally change teacher’s lessons. Not everything is meant to be “differentiated” or tiered. These are options of delivery.Fair and equal are not the same. Need to talk to kids about everyone’s needs. Fair is not always the same assignment.We as teachers already are differentiating in our classrooms. We are setting out to differentiate based on assessment of students.
8Essential Characteristics of DI There is no recipe for DIIt is a way of thinkingTeacher acts as facilitator for learningDI challenges the notion that the curriculum is just coverage of facts.
9Readiness Differentiation Where is THIS child at THIS time with THIS particular skill or idea?
10What Information Do You Need? To know your studentsThe process of differentiating curriculum, instruction and assessment begins by knowing your students.To understand your studentsStrengths, interests, learning styles, preferences and intelligencesTo know student needsThis information can be utilized to make your curricula more meaningful to students because you can tailor your delivery and expectations to meet their needs.
11How will I get this information? Record reviewFamily-centered and culturally responsive fact gatheringInterest inventoriesLearning preferences informationMultiple intelligencesData-based observationsFunctional behavior assessmentMonitoring cooperative group learning
12The Differentiated Instruction Decision Making Process Curriculum PA Standards/ Assessment AnchorsStudentsPre-assessmentReadiness/AbilityInterest/TalentsPrior KnowledgeHow can I differentiate instruction and align lesson outcomes and tasks to learning goals?ContentWhat the teacher plans to teachProcessHow the teacher plans instructionManagement of flexible groupsHandout #2: Differentiated Instruction Decision Making ProcessAs you begin to think of differentiating instruction in your own classroom you may wonder how am I ever going to do this with MY students? They are already grouped (homogeneous) or there are too many students to group them effectively (heterogeneous classroom). There is a lot of discussions in the field of education that make cases for one type of classroom learning over the other. No one situation is going to work 100% of the time. That’s where differentiated instruction comes into play. Differentiated instruction is based on student needs. When there is a need to break students into groups, you do it. When you can deliver effective instruction to the large group, you do it. Differentiating instruction doesn’t happen everyday in every classroom. It requires professional decision making based on assessment. Differentiated Instruction focuses on the students strengthsMust have information on your students – what is their prior knowledge? Ability? Interest? Talents?Given the Curriculum that should be aligned with the PA Standards and Assessment Anchors and the students within our classrooms, we must determine their level of performance. We must have information on our students- what is their prior knowledge? Ability? Interest? Talents?Where do you expect each student to perform? Not changing the standard, finding targeted ways of meeting the standard.In order to scaffold instruction so students can meet accepted levels of performance, teachers can differentiate instruction by differentiating:Content: What concepts and skills will be taught?Process: is the “How”, What activities will be used to teach the concepts and skills; What does the flow of instruction look like…movement from small group to whole class to partner pairs etc.?Product: How will students demonstrate what they know?There is a need to continually review the data; analyzing individual as well as class data to inform instructional decision making to link to next concept, lesson or unit so that the differentiated instruction decision making process can reoccur anewProductAssessment of the contentReview the DataLink To Next Concept, Lesson or UnitAdapted from Oaksford, L. and Jones, L. 2001
14Classroom Elements Content Process Product Affect Learning Environment Content – what we teach and how we give students access to the information and ideas that matterProcess – how students come to understand and “own” the knowledge, understanding and skills essential to a topicProduct – how students demonstrate what they know, understand and are able to doAffect – how students link thoughts and feelings in the classroomLearning environment – the conditions under which learning takes shape
15Differentiating Content Sources of content:1.2.3.Teacher determines/clarifies essential knowledge, understanding and skills of a unit or topic.Pre-test to determine readiness.Differentiate content to ensure all students have equal access to the essential knowledge.State StandardsDistrict CurriculumTextbooks
16Differentiating the Curriculum DO NOT ASSESSBIG IDEASALL WILL LEARNDO TEACH INTENSIVELYDO ASSESSDO TEACHDO NOT ASSESSINTERESTING BUT NOT ESSENTIALSOME WILL LEARN ANYWAYDO NOTASSESSDO NOT TEACHDifferentiating the curriculum means separating the curriculum into three levels:Core ideas that ALL students will learnInteresting ideas, but not essentialSpecialized knowledge (trivia), few will learnConcentrating on designing activities that ensure that students “get” the core information.Differentiating the curriculum means:Not attempting to teach everythingCarefully selecting what is important for students to learn, and focus instruction on it.\Identifying the core ideas of a unitIdentifying the core questions that reflect essential understanding of core ideasIdentifying essential new concepts students should learnTargeting the best ways to make the organization of this information self evident to studentsEdwin Ellis, 2002SPECIALIZED KNOWLEDGE – TRIVIAFEW WILL LEARNEdwin Ellis, 2002
17Ways to differentiate curriculum Reading partners/reading buddiesRead/summarizeAdjust questionsGraphic organizersVaried textsHighlighted textsWith a partner, discuss some other ways you can help all students have equal access?Parallel reading with teacher promptChoral reading/antiphonal readingTiered assignments – we will discuss this in detail laterSplit journals (double entry/triple entry)Books on tapeHighlights on tapeNote taking organizersVaried supplemental materialsThink-pair-share
18Differentiating Process Learning and using higher order thinking skillsCreative thinkingCritical thinkingProblem solvingIntegration of basic skills and abstract thinking skillsProcess = “activities”
19Ways to Differentiate Process GamesRAFTsCubing, Think DotsChoicesTiered LessonsAnchor ActivitiesOnline Activities
20GamesUse games to capture a student’s interest, reinforce ideas and for review.Frequent practice is also necessary for children to build and maintain strong academic skills.Have varying levels according to ability.
21Friendship CinquainA cinquain is a five-line poem that follows a certain pattern.Interview a partner and use what you learn to write a cinquain about that person.Questions are on the next slide.
22Friendship Cinquain What is your name? Adjectives that describe you Activities you enjoyWhat makes you a good friend?Nickname?
23Friendship CinquainName Adjective, adjective Action word, action word, action word Four word phrase about friendship Nickname or noun
24Friendship CinquainJordan Musical, athletic Singing, dancing, tackling Everyone can be considerate JJ
25Friendship CinquainThis can be used for any topic if you change the questions. Examples: Plants Columbus’ journey Character in a story
26RAFTWriting to learn activities to enhance understanding of informational textROLEAUDIENCEFORMATTOPICThe RAFT strategy forces students to process information rather than merely write answers to questions.
27Role of the WriterWhat is the writer’s role: reporter, observer, eyewitness, object, number, etc.
28Audience Who will be reading the writing? Teacher Other students A parentEditorPeople in the community, etc.
29Format What is the best way to present the writing? Letter Article ReportContractPoemAdvertisement
30Topic Who or what is the subject of this writing? A famous scientist A prehistoric cave dwellerA character from literatureA chemical element or physical object
31Plant RAFT ROLE AUDIENCE FORMAT TOPIC Plant parts Plant needs Picture We’re made for each otherRootsStem, leaf, flower, seedsLetterYou’d be lost without meFlowerStem, leaf, seeds, rootsAdI’m more than just a pretty face
32Immigration RAFT ROLE AUDIENCE FORMAT TOPIC Boy of 12 who came from EuropeBest friend in GermanyLetterCrossing the ocean on a shipShip captainEmigrants waiting to come to AmericaBookletHow to prepare for your tripArtist arriving from FranceGraphic design firm in NYCPostcardWish you were here
33ActivityWith a partner develop several scenarios where you could use the raft in your classroom.
34CubingStudents consider a concept from a variety of different perspectives.The cubes are six-sided figures that have a different activity on each side of the cube.A student rolls the cube and does the activity that comes up.To differentiate according to different levels of studentreadiness, two or more different cubes could be created with the samecommands but with tasks at different levels of difficulty. Using "Describe" asthe command, the task might be to describe the rainforest using as muchinformation as you can and involving as many of your senses as possible in yourdescription. Using the same command, you might ask the students to describehow their life would change if they moved to the canopy of the rainforest,
35Think DotsEach student is given a set of activity cards on a ring, a die and an activity sheet.Student rolls the die and completes the activity on the card that corresponds to the dots thrown on the die.Student then completes the activity on the activity sheet.
36Think Dots Suggestions Use colored paper and/or colored dots to indicate different readiness levels, interests or learning styles.Have students work in pairs.Let students choose which activities – for example:Roll the die and choose any three. Create complex activities and have students choose just one to work on over a number of days.After students have worked on activity cards individually, have them come together in groups by levels, interest or learning style to synthesizeRead example from handout
37Choices Use Gardener’s Multiple Intelligences Human beings are capable of "many different and discrete facets of cognition."Humans display different types of intelligences which can be measured, fostered and evaluated as isolated faculties of the mind.
38Multiple Intelligences The MI Theory assumes that all students possess an array of at least eight intelligences.Identifying students’ strength intelligences allows educators to use the strengths to capture a students’ attention and assist the student in learning new information.Source: Google Images
39Bodily-Kinesthetic Intelligence The ability to manipulate ones own body and control muscle movements with utmost precision (surgeons, pianists)
40Musical IntelligenceThe ability to understand and perform music
41Logical-Mathematical Intelligence This also includes scientific ability.
42Linguistic Intelligence Knowledge and ability to manipulate language
43Spatial IntelligenceThe ability to form a mental model of a spatial world (i.e. sculptors, engineers, surgeons)
44Interpersonal Intelligence The ability to understand others
45Intrapersonal Intelligence The ability to understand oneself
46Nature IntelligenceThe ability to understand nature
47Gardner’s MI http://www.op97.k12.il.us/lincoln/mi.html What’s your learning style?
48Tiered LessonsStrategy that addresses a particular standard, key concept and generalizationAllows several pathways for students to arrive at an understanding of these componentsBased on the students’ interests, readiness or learning profiles
49Developing a Tiered Assignment Identify unit/lesson.Identify essential questions or objectives.Student outcomesStudent skill levelsStudent outputDevelop/review lesson activity.Determine level of learner(s).Adjust COMPLEXITY for each level of learners.A tiered assignment is just one strategy to use to differentiate instruction. We are all very familiar with designing instructional activities for students to process the information we are teaching them. Tiered assignments are variations of one activity. First, you design one activity and then adjust it based on student needs.Identify unit/lessons best suited for tiered assignments/differentiated instructionBase this on assessment or prior knowledge of unit/lessons.What are the essential questions or objectives?What should all students know by the end of the lesson/unit?What do you know about the students’ skill levels?How will students demonstrate knowledge?Develop/review lesson activityFor which level of learner(s) is the activity appropriate?Adjust the COMPLEXITY of the activity for other learners.
50Implementing a Tiered Assignment Assignments should be…Accompanied by directionsRespectful. Adjusted for varying levelsDesigned to meet the lesson objectiveDetermine product.Traditional versus alternateTeacher in role of facilitatorHandout # 13: Activity # 10: Tiered AssignmentsTrainer’s Directions for Persuasive Writing Tiered AssignmentsSince the teacher may be directly working with 1 or more groups, directions and examples are necessary for all groups! When we “adjust” the activity/assignment this could be done with the complexity, abstractness, number of steps, concreteness, etc.Share the following information about tiered assignments: According to Carole TomlinsonTiered lessons important when a teacher wants to work with students at different learner levels, but wants to impart the same concepts and skillsBy keeping the focus of the activity the same, the teacher can maximize the likelihood that each student learns the key concepts and skills and each student is taught at his margin of challengeSome guidelines for planning:Select the essential concept or skill that will be the focus of the lesson /unitIdentify the students for whom you are teaching ….assess, assess, assess (readiness, interest, talents)Create one activity that focuses on the specific skill you are targeting (or choose one that has worked for you in the past)Think about or draw a ladder: top rung represents the advanced learner, center rung is the grade level, bottom rung is the emerging learner Think about the student this activity will challenge.“Clone” the activity along the ladder to provide different versions at different degrees of difficultyMatch a version of the task to the level of the student.Then read an example from Carole Tomlinson’s book: Ms. Lighter’s class: Grade 8: Ozone. Source: Tomlinson, C. (1999). The Differentiated Classroom: Responding to the Needs of All Learners. Alexandria, VA: ASCD. pg. 84Show video clip here!After showing the video clip follow the Trainer’s Directions to complete the task with the participants.
51Anchor ActivitiesSpecified ongoing activities on which students work independentlyOngoing assignments that students can work on throughout a unit
52Why Use Anchor Activities? provide a strategy for teachers to deal with “ragged time” when students complete work at different timesallow the teacher to work with individual students or groupsprovides ongoing activities that relate to the content of the unitallow the teacher to develop independent group work strategies in order to incorporate a mini lab of computers in classroom
53Examples of Anchor Activities A worksheet with open- or closed-end questionsLearning centersJournal writingCreating games or booksPlaying games that reinforce concepts/skills
54With a partner, develop a few examples of anchor activities you can use in your classroom. Don’t forget online options!
55Differentiating Product Varying the ways students demonstrate what you asked them to learn.Use frequent assessment as checks for understanding and feedback – not just for grades.Replace some tests with rich product assignments.You can also give students a choice between tests and assignments.
56Ways to Differentiate Product Choices based on interest, readiness and learning profileClear expectationsTimelinesAgreementsProduct guidesRubrics
57Differentiating Affect Students need to feel they belong to a group and are important to it.Teacher should be continually attuned to student feelings.Readiness levels should be value challenged & supported in the classroom.Differentiate proactively and reactively.Affect is the “weather” of the classroom.
58Differentiating Learning Environment Use fluid, flexible grouping that reflects real-life situations.Use space, time and materials flexibly.Encourage expression of new ideas, accept diversity and exploration.Experiences reflect learner interests and ideas.Honor the dignity of all learners.
59Differentiating Student Characteristics ReadinessInterestLearning ProfileReadiness – current knowledge, understanding and skill level a student has related to a particular sequence of learningInterest – What a student enjoys learning about, thinking about and doingLearning Profile – a student’s preferred mode of learning – Gardner’s MI
60Differentiating Readiness Make work a little more difficult for students at a given point in their growth.Provide support to succeed at new level of challenge.Pre-assessment is key.Teachers need to adapt teaching in ways that make curriculum appropriately challenging for a range of learners.
61Differentiating Interest Help students connect with new information by revealing connections with things they already find appealing and worthwhile.Interest surveys will give clues to teachers.Keep your eyes and ears open to learn more about your students!
62Differentiating Learning Profile Influenced by learning style, intelligence preference, gender and cultureThe goal is to help students learn in the way they learn best and to extend ways in which they can learn effectively.
63In a differentiated classroom, the teacher plans and carries out variedapproaches to content, process, andproduct in anticipation of and responseto student differences in readiness and/or interest.We have examined the principles of differentiated instruction and the implications for universal design for learning implementation in supporting student outcomes. Then, we had identified learners’ needs according to different levels and evaluated what modifications we made to accommodate their learning. Now we are going to go into greater depth into how to differentiate instruction in response to these identified learners’ needs.
64On-going Assessment“Assessment is today’s means of understanding how to modify tomorrow’s instruction.”Carol Tomlinson
65Some Thoughts on Assessment Assessment should happen on a daily basis in the classroom.It provides ways to use instruction to inform the next steps.
66As you begin…. Examine your philosophy about individual needs. Start small.Grow slowly – but grow!Envision how an activity will look.Step back and reflect.Teachers are as different as students. Some teachers will embrace the concept of differentiation and others will need to take smaller steps in the beginning of the process. Although there is no one right way to begin to differentiate instruction, there are some helpful guidelines.Reflect frequently on the match or mismatch between your philosophy regarding individual needs and the practice within your classroom.Start small:prepare the students and parents for a differentiated classroomTalk often with students regarding classroom procedures – why in place, how differentiating is working, what are the procedures and routines that everyone must follow to promote a successful environmentGrow Slowly: Begin small changes beyond comfort growth. Try to not duplicate what has already been accomplished, but don’t try to do too much too fast either. Try one subject, one time per day, one curricular element (content, process, product or learning environment).Think how the activity will look:Consider management routines – directions, movement throughout the room, completion of work routinesTeach routines explicitly, monitor, adjust and reviseAssess how things are goingStep Back and ReflectBuild a support system within the schoolCo-teachingStudy groupsPlan and share materialAccording to Carole Tomlinson (1995, 1999)
68Giving DirectionsIf the whole class is doing the same activity then give the directions to the whole group.Do not give multiple task directions to the whole class.For small group work, tape directions so students can listen to them repeatedlyUse task cards to give directions to small groups.A general rule is that once the teacher has given directions the students can’t interrupt while he/she is working with a small groupAsk Me Visors
69Assigning GroupsClothes pins with student’s names to assign them to a particular taskColor code children to certain groups (a transparency with students names in color works well)Cubing allows you to assign groups by interest or readiness level
70Handling MaterialsAssign jobs to different students (materials handler, table captain)As a teacher ask yourself, “Is this something I have to do myself, or can the students learn to do it?”Remember that you have to teach children how to become responsible for their own things.
71Directions for transitions need to be given with clarity and urgency. Time limit for transitionAddress the acceptable noise levelRehearsal
72Routines for Handling Paperwork Color-coded work foldersPortfoliosBaskets for each curricular area or class periodFiling CabinetKey to these organizational patterns is that the children have access to their own work and know how to file and/or find what they need to accomplish a task.
73TimeMust be flexible in order to address every child’s readiness levelCatch-up daysAnchoring ActivitiesPostcards for Writing IdeasIndependent Investigations
74Good curriculum comes first. Principles for Fostering Equity and Excellence in Academically Diverse LearnersGood curriculum comes first.The teacher's first job is always to ensure a coherent, important, inviting, and thoughtful curriculum.All tasks should respect each learner.Every student deserves work that is focused on the essential knowledge, understanding, and skills targeted for the lesson. Every student should be required to think at a high level and should find his or her work interesting and powerful.When in doubt, teach up!Good instruction stretches learners. The best tasks are those that students find a little too difficult to complete comfortably. Be sure there's a support system in place to facilitate the student's success at a level that he or she doubted was attainable.Adapted from Tomlinson, C.A.,& Edison, C.C. (2003).Differentiation in practice: A resource guide for differentiating curriculum, Grades Alexandria, VA: ASCD.
75Become an assessment junkie. Principles for Fostering Equity and Excellence in Academically Diverse LearnersUse flexible grouping.Find ways and time for the class to work as a whole, for students to demonstrate competence alone, and for students to work with varied groups of peers. Using only one or two types of groups causes students to see themselves and one another in more limited ways, keeps the teacher from" auditioning " students in varied contexts, and limits potentially rich exchanges in the classroom.Become an assessment junkie.Everything that a student says and does is a potential source of assessment data. Assessment should be an ongoing process, conducted in flexible but distinct stages, and it should maximize opportunities for each student to open the widest possible window on his or her learning.Grade to reflect growth.The most we can ask of any person-and the least we ought to ask-is to be and become their best. The teacher's job is to guide and support the learner in this endeavor. Grading should, in part, reflect a learner's growth.Adapted from Differentiation in Practice: A Resource Guide for Differentiating Curriculum, Grades 5-9,
76Comment from a course evaluation written by a 7th grader.I like this class because there’s something different going on all the time. My other classes, it’s like peanut butter for lunch every single day. This class, it’s like my teacher really knows how to cook. It’s like she runs a really good restaurant with a big menu and all.
77Exploring DI SitesUse the following wiki to access two DI word documents related to DI.Explore the wiki to complete the Ticket Out The Door activity.
78Let’s review… Differentiated Instruction is… Differentiated Instruction is not…
79For more information www.iu29.org Teacher ResourcesDifferentiated Instruction Resources