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Differentiated Instruction Extended Teacher Induction December 2009.

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Presentation on theme: "Differentiated Instruction Extended Teacher Induction December 2009."— Presentation transcript:

1 Differentiated Instruction Extended Teacher Induction December 2009

2 What is Differentiated Instruction? Please don’t forget to place your dot on the Differentiated Instruction Chart

3 Agenda Discuss the concept of DI Look at techniques to differentiate the classroom Consider a rationale for on-going assessment in the classroom to guide instruction

4 4 What It Is/What It’s Not Differentiated Instruction IS: Differentiated Instruction IS NOT:

5 What is Differentiation? A teacher’s response to learner’s needs The recognition of students’ varying background knowledge and preferences Instruction that appeals to students’ differences

6 The rationale for DI Examples of learner diversity: Cognitive abilities (Bloom) Learning styles (Gardner) Socioeconomic and family factors Readiness Learning pace Motivation Gender Cultural and ethnic influences

7 7 One Size Doesn’t Fit All

8 Essential Characteristics of DI There is no recipe for DI It is a way of thinking Teacher acts as facilitator for learning DI challenges the notion that the curriculum is just coverage of facts.

9 Readiness Differentiation Where is THIS child at THIS time with THIS particular skill or idea?

10 What Information Do You Need? To know your students The process of differentiating curriculum, instruction and assessment begins by knowing your students. To understand your students Strengths, interests, learning styles, preferences and intelligences To know student needs This information can be utilized to make your curricula more meaningful to students because you can tailor your delivery and expectations to meet their needs.

11 How will I get this information? Record review Family-centered and culturally responsive fact gathering Interest inventories Learning preferences information Multiple intelligences Data-based observations Functional behavior assessment Monitoring cooperative group learning

12 The Differentiated Instruction Decision Making Process Students How can I differentiate instruction and align lesson outcomes and tasks to learning goals? Adapted from Oaksford, L. and Jones, L Product Assessment of the content Review the Data Link To Next Concept, Lesson or Unit Curriculum PA Standards/ Assessment Anchors Pre-assessment Readiness/Ability Interest/Talents Prior Knowledge Content What the teacher plans to teach Process How the teacher plans instruction Management of flexible groups

13 WHAT CAN BE DIFFERENTATED?

14 Classroom Elements Content Process Product Affect Learning Environment

15 Differentiating Content Sources of content: Teacher determines/clarifies essential knowledge, understanding and skills of a unit or topic. Pre-test to determine readiness. Differentiate content to ensure all students have equal access to the essential knowledge.

16 16 DO NOT ASSESS BIG IDEAS ALL WILL LEARN DO TEACH INTENSIVELY DO ASSESS DO TEACH DO NOT ASSESS INTERESTING BUT NOT ESSENTIAL SOME WILL LEARN ANYWAY SPECIALIZED KNOWLEDGE – TRIVIA FEW WILL LEARN DO NOT TEACH DO NOT ASSESS Edwin Ellis, 2002 Differentiating the Curriculum

17 Ways to differentiate curriculum Reading partners/reading buddies Read/summarize Adjust questions Graphic organizers Varied texts Highlighted texts With a partner, discuss some other ways you can help all students have equal access?

18 Differentiating Process Learning and using higher order thinking skills Creative thinking Critical thinking Problem solving Integration of basic skills and abstract thinking skills Process = “activities”

19 Ways to Differentiate Process Games RAFTs Cubing, Think Dots Choices Tiered Lessons Anchor Activities Online Activities

20 Games Use games to capture a student’s interest, reinforce ideas and for review. Frequent practice is also necessary for children to build and maintain strong academic skills. Have varying levels according to ability.

21 Friendship Cinquain A cinquain is a five-line poem that follows a certain pattern. Interview a partner and use what you learn to write a cinquain about that person. Questions are on the next slide.

22 Friendship Cinquain What is your name? Adjectives that describe you Activities you enjoy What makes you a good friend? Nickname?

23 Friendship Cinquain Name Adjective, adjective Action word, action word, action word Four word phrase about friendship Nickname or noun

24 Friendship Cinquain Jordan Musical, athletic Singing, dancing, tackling Everyone can be considerate JJ

25 Friendship Cinquain This can be used for any topic if you change the questions. Examples: Plants Columbus’ journey Character in a story

26 RAFT Writing to learn activities to enhance understanding of informational text ROLE AUDIENCE FORMAT TOPIC The RAFT strategy forces students to process information rather than merely write answers to questions.

27 Role of the Writer What is the writer’s role: reporter, observer, eyewitness, object, number, etc.

28 Audience Who will be reading the writing? Teacher Other students A parent Editor People in the community, etc.

29 Format What is the best way to present the writing? Letter Article Report Contract Poem Advertisement

30 Topic Who or what is the subject of this writing? A famous scientist A prehistoric cave dweller A character from literature A chemical element or physical object

31 Plant RAFT ROLEAUDIENCEFORMATTOPIC Plant partsPlant needsPictureWe’re made for each other RootsStem, leaf, flower, seeds LetterYou’d be lost without me FlowerStem, leaf, seeds, roots AdI’m more than just a pretty face

32 Immigration RAFT ROLEAUDIENCEFORMATTOPIC Boy of 12 who came from Europe Best friend in Germany LetterCrossing the ocean on a ship Ship captainEmigrants waiting to come to America BookletHow to prepare for your trip Artist arriving from France Graphic design firm in NYC PostcardWish you were here

33 Activity With a partner develop several scenarios where you could use the raft in your classroom.

34 Cubing Students consider a concept from a variety of different perspectives. The cubes are six-sided figures that have a different activity on each side of the cube. A student rolls the cube and does the activity that comes up.

35 Think Dots Each student is given a set of activity cards on a ring, a die and an activity sheet. Student rolls the die and completes the activity on the card that corresponds to the dots thrown on the die. Student then completes the activity on the activity sheet.

36 Think Dots Suggestions Use colored paper and/or colored dots to indicate different readiness levels, interests or learning styles. Have students work in pairs. Let students choose which activities – for example: Roll the die and choose any three. Create complex activities and have students choose just one to work on over a number of days.

37 Choices Use Gardener’s Multiple Intelligences Human beings are capable of "many different and discrete facets of cognition." Humans display different types of intelligences which can be measured, fostered and evaluated as isolated faculties of the mind.

38 Multiple Intelligences The MI Theory assumes that all students possess an array of at least eight intelligences. Identifying students’ strength intelligences allows educators to use the strengths to capture a students’ attention and assist the student in learning new information. Source: Google ImagesGoogle Images

39 Bodily-Kinesthetic Intelligence The ability to manipulate ones own body and control muscle movements with utmost precision (surgeons, pianists)

40 Musical Intelligence The ability to understand and perform music

41 Logical-Mathematical Intelligence This also includes scientific ability.

42 Linguistic Intelligence Knowledge and ability to manipulate language

43 Spatial Intelligence The ability to form a mental model of a spatial world (i.e. sculptors, engineers, surgeons)

44 Interpersonal Intelligence The ability to understand others

45 Intrapersonal Intelligence The ability to understand oneself

46 Nature Intelligence The ability to understand nature

47 Gardner’s MI ml ml

48 Tiered Lessons Strategy that addresses a particular standard, key concept and generalization Allows several pathways for students to arrive at an understanding of these components Based on the students’ interests, readiness or learning profiles

49 49 Developing a Tiered Assignment Identify unit/lesson. Identify essential questions or objectives. Student outcomes Student skill levels Student output Develop/review lesson activity. Determine level of learner(s). Adjust COMPLEXITY for each level of learners.

50 50 Implementing a Tiered Assignment Assignments should be… Accompanied by directions Respectful. Adjusted for varying levels Designed to meet the lesson objective Determine product. Traditional versus alternate Teacher in role of facilitator

51 Anchor Activities Specified ongoing activities on which students work independently Ongoing assignments that students can work on throughout a unit

52 Why Use Anchor Activities? provide a strategy for teachers to deal with “ragged time” when students complete work at different times allow the teacher to work with individual students or groups provides ongoing activities that relate to the content of the unit allow the teacher to develop independent group work strategies in order to incorporate a mini lab of computers in classroom

53 Examples of Anchor Activities A worksheet with open- or closed-end questions Learning centers Journal writing Creating games or books Playing games that reinforce concepts/skills

54 With a partner, develop a few examples of anchor activities you can use in your classroom. Don’t forget online options!

55 Differentiating Product Varying the ways students demonstrate what you asked them to learn. Use frequent assessment as checks for understanding and feedback – not just for grades. Replace some tests with rich product assignments. You can also give students a choice between tests and assignments.

56 Ways to Differentiate Product Choices based on interest, readiness and learning profile Clear expectations Timelines Agreements Product guides Rubrics

57 Differentiating Affect Students need to feel they belong to a group and are important to it. Teacher should be continually attuned to student feelings. Readiness levels should be value challenged & supported in the classroom. Differentiate proactively and reactively. Affect is the “weather” of the classroom.

58 Differentiating Learning Environment Use fluid, flexible grouping that reflects real- life situations. Use space, time and materials flexibly. Encourage expression of new ideas, accept diversity and exploration. Experiences reflect learner interests and ideas. Honor the dignity of all learners.

59 Differentiating Student Characteristics Readiness Interest Learning Profile

60 Differentiating Readiness Make work a little more difficult for students at a given point in their growth. Provide support to succeed at new level of challenge. Pre-assessment is key. Teachers need to adapt teaching in ways that make curriculum appropriately challenging for a range of learners.

61 Differentiating Interest Help students connect with new information by revealing connections with things they already find appealing and worthwhile. Interest surveys will give clues to teachers.

62 Differentiating Learning Profile Influenced by learning style, intelligence preference, gender and culture The goal is to help students learn in the way they learn best and to extend ways in which they can learn effectively.

63 63 In a differentiated classroom, the teacher plans and carries out varied approaches to content, process, and product in anticipation of and response to student differences in readiness and/or interest.

64 On-going Assessment “Assessment is today’s means of understanding how to modify tomorrow’s instruction.” Carol Tomlinson

65 Some Thoughts on Assessment Assessment should happen on a daily basis in the classroom. It provides ways to use instruction to inform the next steps.

66 66 As you begin…. Examine your philosophy about individual needs. Start small. Grow slowly – but grow! Envision how an activity will look. Step back and reflect.

67 Exploring DI Sites Use the following wiki to access two DI word documents related to DI. _DI_Dec09 _DI_Dec09 Explore the wiki to complete the Ticket Out The Door activity.

68 Let’s review… Differentiated Instruction is… Differentiated Instruction is not…

69 69 Differentiated Instruction IS: Using assessment data to plan instruction and group students Teaching targeted small groups Using flexible grouping (changing group membership based on student progress, interests and needs) Matching instructional materials to student ability Tailoring instruction to address student needs Differentiated Instruction Is NOT: Using only whole class instruction Using small groups that never change Using the same reading text with all students Using the same independent seatwork assignments for the entire class Vaughn Gross Center for Reading and Language Arts, 2005

70 For more information Teacher Resources Differentiated Instruction Resources ated+Instruction ated+Instruction ages ages


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