Presentation is loading. Please wait.

Presentation is loading. Please wait.

The four problems of technology enhanced learning Tak-Wai Chan National Central University, Taiwan (slightly updated a few places after the talk) AIED2007.

Similar presentations


Presentation on theme: "The four problems of technology enhanced learning Tak-Wai Chan National Central University, Taiwan (slightly updated a few places after the talk) AIED2007."— Presentation transcript:

1 The four problems of technology enhanced learning Tak-Wai Chan National Central University, Taiwan (slightly updated a few places after the talk) AIED2007 keynote

2 Dedicate to John Self! One who inspired a generation of researchers & was a not-yet-known co-founder of the ICCEs!

3 Thanks for my graduate students!

4 To elicit 4 problems that researchers seem to have been trying to resolve in this century!

5 The future is found from the past and the present, especially from the current research communities

6 I notice that the current research communities are working towards 3 orientations; two existed already and one is emerging These 3 orientations are leading to resolving the 4 problems

7 Three orientations of research (Chan, et. al. 2006; Chan, 2006) Dream-based research Dream-based research exploring the potential implications of some emerging technologies exploring the potential implications of some emerging technologies Adoption-based research Adoption-based research proving the feasibility of spreading our work in the real world practice proving the feasibility of spreading our work in the real world practice Humanity-based research Humanity-based research developing an individual’s capacity almost entirely from that individual’s perspective developing an individual’s capacity almost entirely from that individual’s perspective cultivating well being of the globe as learners’ value cultivating well being of the globe as learners’ value

8 human computer interaction distance human interaction face-to-face human interaction standalone computers Internet mobile & wireless devices; wearable computing CYBER PLATFORM NATURAL PLATFORM invisible & ubiquitous computing outdoor: natural as classroom context-aware physical environment indoor: smart wall smart desk digital tangibles digital manipulative digital toy

9 “The further backward you look, the further forward you can see” Winston Churchill

10 Sidney Pressey’s Teaching Machine in 1920’s

11 Whenever there is a dream, there is a day it comes true! It was not Pressey’s machine, nor was it the first computer in 1946 Was it traditional CAI in 60’s ? Was it artificial intelligence in 70’s ? Was it multimedia and simulation in 80’s ? Was it Internet in 90’s ? Was it mobile & game in 00’s ? This is the Dream-Based Research!

12 Adoption cycle of innovations (Ryan,1948; Rogers,1958; Moore,1991) innovators & visionaries pragmatists conservatives skeptics

13 innovators & visionaries pragmatists conservatives skeptics chasm Chasm between innovators & visionaries and pragmatists (G. A. Moore, 1991)

14 innovators & visionaries pragmatists conservatives skeptics chasm To cross the chasm –– synergy of technologies Internet (90’) Traditional CAI (60’) Multimedia & Simulation (80’) Artificial Intelligence (70’) Mobile & Game (00’) This is the Adoption-Based Research!

15 innovators & visionaries pragmatists conservatives skeptics chasm How long is the time span, 50 or 100 years? What happens after crossing the chasm? Internet (90’) Traditional CAI (60’) Multimedia & Simulation (80’) Artificial Intelligence (70’) Mobile & Game (00’) This is the Humanity-Based Research! or 2100

16 More on Humanity-Based Research

17 ‘Humanity’ ? 1.Stressing on individuality individuality is the basis of humanity individuality is the basis of humanity the very existence of a class is for the sake of an individual the very existence of a class is for the sake of an individual the very existence of the learning partners is for the sake of that individual the very existence of the learning partners is for the sake of that individual thus, learning is not for the class as a whole, but for an individual thus, learning is not for the class as a whole, but for an individual optimize individual capacity development optimize individual capacity development

18 Teachers Parents Volunteers Fellow Learners Educational Agents Expensive Equipment Cognitive Tools Student Database Electronic Books MuseumsDigital Libraries Every thing is for the sake of the learner Content Computation Community

19 ‘Humanity’ ? 2.Learning beyond knowledge acquisition knowledge acquisition is a vehicle for fostering other humanity qualities knowledge acquisition is a vehicle for fostering other humanity qualities cognitive, affective, social, attitudinal cognitive, affective, social, attitudinal

20 Beyond knowledge acquisition confidence effortcaringinterestcritical thinking (cognitive) (affective)(social)(attitudinal) perseveranceleadershippassion creativity inner freedom

21 John Self spelled out this humanity issue: “The defining characteristics of intelligent tutoring systems research: ITSs care,” (Self, 1999)

22 Classical ITS model (Self, 1974) domain knowledge student modeltutoring strategy what who how

23 domain knowledge student model tutoring strategy what who why communication interface how when where who (with) pedagogical modellearner profile

24 Going beyond knowledge acquisition domain knowledge student model what who communication interface whyhow when where who (with) pedagogical modellearner profile reflective affectivecognitive social attitudinal

25 ‘Humanity’ ? 3.Building foundations for the better globe bettering yourself bettering yourself nurturing a caring family nurturing a caring family incubating a humane society incubating a humane society fostering the peaceful and collaborative globe fostering the peaceful and collaborative globe ~ Da-Hseh

26 What are we researchers doing? Dream-Based Research? Adoption-Based Research? Humanity-Based Research?

27 Does AIED / ITS have a dream? Yes, we did Yes, we did Bloom’s 2 sigma problem Bloom’s 2 sigma problem We still do We still do An extended dream An extended dream

28 Intelligent Tutoring System (ITS) (Carbonell, 1970) Learning Companion System (Chan & Baskin, ITS1988)

29 Lifelong learning companion (Chan, 2000; Chan, et. al., 2001; Chou & Chan, 2003) baby: learning companion as a magic cradle small kid: learning companion as a toy pupil: learning companion as a pet teenager: learning companion as a peer adult: learning companion as a mentor elder: learning companion as a pet

30 My animal companions – “Disneyficating the learner”

31 My-Pet-Our-Pet Affective domain Cognitive domain My-Pet’s attributes Social domain Telling the owner how to improve My-Pet’s attributes Topic levelTopic progress Numerical value Descriptive text

32 Gaming on PDA Character Building Game1 Game2 Game3 Affect Enrichment Game4 Game5 Game6

33 Physical Companion (Shu, et. al., 2007)

34 domain knowledge student model what who why communication interface how when where who (with) pedagogical modellearner profile AIED / ITS

35 Does CSCL have a dream? Assumption 1: Collaboration is a good thing, a good culture, so is collaborative learning Collaboration is a good thing, a good culture, so is collaborative learning Assumption 2: Collaborative learning is ‘usually’ effective learning Collaborative learning is ‘usually’ effective learning CSCL DREAM: CSCL DREAM: Making every learning experience a collaborative and effective learning Extended CSCL DREAM: Extended CSCL DREAM: How to make our globe a better one through collaborative learning

36 domain knowledge student model what who why communication interface how when where who (with) pedagogical modellearner profile CSCL

37 Acronyms WMUTE = Wireless, Mobile, and Ubiquitous Technologies in Education MLearn = Mobile Learning DIGITEL = DIgital Game & Intelligent Toy Enhanced Learning

38 One-to-one Technology Enhanced Learning Soloway & Norris, (WMTE2002, ITS2004) 1 student : 1 pencil 1 student : 1 book 1 student : 1 computer

39 Classroom dynamics will change

40

41 In the Campus

42 Outside the campus Bird Watching Zoo Visit

43 Linking a class to the outside ~ ITS 2000 EduCities EduTowns EduVillages 1:1 learning in physical space virtual learning community (1.5 million people) (2,500 schools) (20,000 classes)

44 Seamless learning space seamlessly learning across over learning scenarios from Physical Space X Social Space Physical / Virtual Space: classroom, campus, home, museum, etc. Social Space: individual, small group, class, online community, agents, etc. Does WMUTE / MLearn have a dream?

45 WMUTE / MLearn DREAM Assumption: context-aware, authentic, and situated learning is good learning Exploring this vast space of scenarios to find new scenarios or sequence of scenarios for good learning experience Exploring this vast space of scenarios to find new scenarios or sequence of scenarios for good learning experience

46 domain knowledge student model what who why communication interface how when where who (with) pedagogical modellearner profile WMUTE/ MLearn WMUTE/ MLearn

47 Does DIGITEL have a dream? DIGITEL DREAM: Every learning experience is fun, engaging, pleasurable and joyful!

48 All learning without fun must be DEAD! Gaming will be a dominating pedagogy, subsuming individual and collaborative learning

49 domain knowledge student model what who why communication interface how when where who (with) pedagogical modellearner profile DIGITEL

50 AIED / ITS CSCL DIGITEL Dream-Based ResearchHumanity-Based Research Adoption-Based Research Dream-Based ResearchHumanity-Based Research Adoption-Based Research Dream-Based ResearchHumanity-Based Research Adoption-Based Research WMUTE / MLearn Dream-Based ResearchHumanity-Based Research Adoption-Based Research

51 domain knowledge student model what who why communication interface how when where who (with) pedagogical modellearner profile Adoption Based Research We are doing very little “domain knowledge” component

52 We are all doing Dream-Based Research! Some have started to do Adoption-Based Research Humanity-Based Research is emerging

53 The Four Problems of Technology Enhanced Learning

54 The four problems 1. The productivity problem the performance or output/input problem the performance or output/input problem 2. The school restructuring problem the problem how school is being transformed the problem how school is being transformed 3. The lifelong, personalized curriculum problem the extension of the ITS’s Holy Grail problem the extension of the ITS’s Holy Grail problem 4. The global educational goal problem rethinking the educational goal from the global perspective rethinking the educational goal from the global perspective

55 Why these problems? May tell us unequivocally where we are heading to, both in the near or the farther future, say, tens or 100 years the 3 research orientations are indeed leading towards to these goals nurturing collective, global endeavor to resolve the problems

56 The four problems 1. The productivity problem the performance or output/input problem the performance or output/input problem Adoption-Based Research

57 Washington Post “Educational software, a $2 billion-a-year industry that has become the darling of school systems across the country, has no significant impact on student performance, according to a study by the U.S. Department of Education….” By Amit Paley, Thursday, April 5, 2007; Page A01 G11 website:

58 But many claims of successful research An example: He Kekang from Beijing Normal University claiming a great leap in elementary classes for learning Chinese tens of experimental classes; in cities and in poor rural areas in China Grade 4 students as good as Grade 6 students

59 How about Bloom’s 2-sigma problem? How about intelligent tutoring systems?

60 The productivity problem compared to traditional classrooms 2-sigma learning performance improvement summative assessment (Bloom, 1984) robust learning retention transfer accelerated learning 2-sigma affect improvement assuming there could be objective measure on affect still not clear which affect attributes are most crucial … confidence (or efficacy) and interest must be included

61 Design-based research 1. Innovative pedagogy driven 2. Reporting rationales and lessons learnt in the design iteration process 3. Describing open-mindedly interesting users' behavior Evidence-based research 1. Vigorous assessment driven 2. Theorizing some phenomena and then designing experiment 3. Explaining and/or further theorizing experiment findings The Productivity Problem

62 The productivity problem compared to traditional classrooms 2-sigma learning improvement summative assessment (Bloom, 1984) robust learning retention transfer accelerated learning 2-sigma affect improvement assuming there could be objective measure on affect still not clear which affect attributes are most crucial … confidence (or efficacy) and interest must be included Doubling teacher’s efficiency or halving teacher’s effort “8-fold (2 x 2 x 2) improvement problem”

63 Definitions lazy = less effort  worse or better result less effort  worse or better result intelligently lazy = less effort  better result less effort  better result diligent = more effort  better result more effort  better result

64 Our research now… from teachers’ point of view better resultworse result less effort more effort Our research in the future should direct more to teacher’s point of view

65 Making people intelligently lazy is the very essence of existence of technology No one will buy a washing machine if it can not make one intelligently lazy! No one want to be labeled as “lazy”. What I mean is people want to be “productive”!

66 Definition intelligent laziness quotient = ––––––––––––––––––––––––– learners’ outcome teacher’s effort max ( intelligent laziness quotient ) = ––––––––––––––––––––––––– max ( learners’ outcome ) min ( teacher’s effort )

67 A necessary condition for resolving the productivity problem: A FULL implementation of technology enhanced learning for the whole curriculum

68 The four problems 1. The productivity problem the performance or output/input problem the performance or output/input problem 2. The school restructuring problem the problem how the school is being transformed the problem how the school is being transformed Dream-Based Research / Adoption-Based Research

69 The school restructuring problem schools still exist 1. More and more informal learning to become parts of formal (school) learning online learning for homework online learning for homework ubiquitous and seamless learning to capture learning in everyday life activity ubiquitous and seamless learning to capture learning in everyday life activity game-based learning – a dominating pedagogy game-based learning – a dominating pedagogy

70 tutor’s tutor Gaming and small group learning will be prevalent in 1:1 classrooms reciprocal teaching & dyad competitive games collaborator opponent tutortuteetutor tutee

71 The school restructuring problem schools still exist 2. “school of their own” teaching mainly by peers teaching mainly by peers small group collaborative learning small group collaborative learning mutual peer tutoring mutual peer tutoring f2f or online f2f or online classrooms for 30 students will be very few classrooms for 30 students will be very few the elder students mentoring the younger the elder students mentoring the younger both academic and daily life matters both academic and daily life matters cross-age interactions as many as same-age interactions cross-age interactions as many as same-age interactions schools are more like a village schools are more like a village strong demand on sense of knowledge ownership and hence “ownership in learning” strong demand on sense of knowledge ownership and hence “ownership in learning” math of their own, language of their own, etc. math of their own, language of their own, etc.

72 The school restructuring problem schools still exist 3. “school as embryo society” or “learning as work” Epistemic games (David Shaffer): activities simulating professionals such as engineers, journalists, architects, etc. Epistemic games (David Shaffer): activities simulating professionals such as engineers, journalists, architects, etc. Extending school to knowledge building society (Marlene Scandemaria & Carl Brieter) Extending school to knowledge building society (Marlene Scandemaria & Carl Brieter) Technology enhanced drama or play Technology enhanced drama or play early fostering of interest to future career and of life commitment early fostering of interest to future career and of life commitment

73 The four problems 1. The productivity problem the performance or output/input problem the performance or output/input problem 2. The school restructuring problem the problem how school is being transformed the problem how school is being transformed 3. The lifelong, personalized curriculum problem the extension of the ITS’s Holy Grail problem the extension of the ITS’s Holy Grail problem Dream-Based Research / Humanity-Based Research

74 One-to-one Technology Enhanced Learning Extending Soloway & Norris’s claims 1 student : 1 pencil 1 student : 1 book 1 student : 1 computer 1 student : 1 intelligent tutor 1 student : 1 set of learning companions 1 student : 1 class (Yuan-Tseh Lee, 2000) 1 student : 1 optimal curriculum

75 The four problems 1. The productivity problem the performance or output/input problem the performance or output/input problem 2. The school restructuring problem the problem how school is being transformed the problem how school is being transformed 3. The lifelong, personalized curriculum problem the extension of the ITS’s Holy Grail problem the extension of the ITS’s Holy Grail problem 4. The global educational goal problem rethinking the educational goal from the global perspective rethinking the educational goal from the global perspective Humanity-Based Research

76 The vast impact of digital technology in the longer future Digital technology is the biggest thrust to change education in this century. Despite being a slow process, technology will be changing every aspect of education ultimately.

77 Well being of the humankind The globe is at stake! “Until our own generation, no one had grounds to worry whether the next human generation would survive or enjoy a planet worth living on.” (Jared Diamond, 1992) Nuclear holocaust; earth resource exhaustion; mass- extinction of species; polarization of the society (MIT’s OLPC is an endeavor toward this), etc. Should we just pursue Gross National Product? Or Bhutan’s Gross National Happiness: economy, culture, environment, and governance?

78 We researchers are the designers of the education and hence the future society We are very powerful, too powerful! good citizens? gangsters?

79 What constitutes human nature? Heredity, Development, Aggression, Sex, Altruism, Religion (Edward Wilson, 1978) Many MMOGs design address wealth, fame, and power in the process of building identity MMOG for learning must affect extensively learners’ value system

80 What is this global educational goal? What should we do for the global educational goal problem? A global, collective endeavor! G11 website:

81 The four problems 1. The productivity problem AIED / ITS, WMUTE / MLearn AIED / ITS, WMUTE / MLearn 2. The school restructuring problem WMUTE / MLearn, CSCL WMUTE / MLearn, CSCL 3. The lifelong, personalized curriculum problem AIED / ITS AIED / ITS 4. The global educational goal problem DIGITEL, CSCL DIGITEL, CSCL

82 The four problems (Switch the order, considering time frame and urgency) 1. The global educational goal problem rethinking the educational goal from the global perspective rethinking the educational goal from the global perspective 2. The productivity problem the performance or output/input problem the performance or output/input problem 3. The school restructuring problem the problem how school is being transformed the problem how school is being transformed 4. The lifelong, personalized curriculum problem the extension of the ITS’s Holy Grail problem the extension of the ITS’s Holy Grail problem

83 Summary Describe 3 orientations of research Dream-Based Research, Adoption-Based Research, Humanity-Based Research Use Self’s architecture to analyze the current subfields Describe 4 problems for the future global educational goal, productivity, school restructuring, personal curriculum

84 Thank you!


Download ppt "The four problems of technology enhanced learning Tak-Wai Chan National Central University, Taiwan (slightly updated a few places after the talk) AIED2007."

Similar presentations


Ads by Google