Intelligent Tutoring System (ITS) (Carbonell, 1970)
Classical ITS model (Self, 1974) domain knowledge student modeltutoring strategy what who how interface
Learning Companions ~ idea in my PhD thesis (ITS 1988) ROLE: ROLE: tutor tutor vs. vs. companion companion NUMBER: NUMBER: single character single character vs. vs. multiple characters multiple characters PEDAGOGICAL MODEL: PEDAGOGICAL MODEL: learning by being tutored learning by being tutored vs. vs. collaborative learning / collaborative learning / competitive learning / competitive learning / learning by teaching learning by teaching ITS Model Learning Companion System Model
From Learning Companions to Social Learning ~ AIED 1995 Elementary Schools High Schools Universities AmericaAsia-PacificAfrica Europe Networked learning inside classrooms with learning companions Global social learning club Learning in larger context Five educational goals: cognition, motivation, sociability, attitude, and ethics
Infrastructure for Future Network Learning ~ ITS 2000 EduCities EduTowns EduVillages 1:1 digital classroom network learning society (1.5 million people) (2,500 schools) (20,000 classes) Now, from Top down to Bottom up Enough?
Question What will be the roles and the future of learning companions What will be the roles and the future of learning companions in EduCities, in 1:1 digital classrooms, or for general advanced learning technologies in EduCities, in 1:1 digital classrooms, or for general advanced learning technologies in 10 years, or in 100 years? in 10 years, or in 100 years?
Why 100 years? It’ll take at least a century to settle the changes caused by technology to education 1995 2005 2095
Learning Companion Related Research Over the Years Multiple learning companions (Finland) Multiple learning companions (Finland) Pedagogical agents (USC) Pedagogical agents (USC) Trouble makers (Montreal U) Trouble makers (Montreal U) Teachable agents (Venderbilt, Stanford) Teachable agents (Venderbilt, Stanford) Affective learning companions (MIT) Affective learning companions (MIT) Animal companions (Taiwan) Animal companions (Taiwan) etc. etc.
Will there be a better general name than learning companion? Yes, ‘virtual character’ Yes, ‘virtual character’ But ‘companion’ could imply a long term companionship taking on various roles But ‘companion’ could imply a long term companionship taking on various roles
Lifelong learning companion (Chan, 2000; Chan, et. al., 2001; Chou & Chan, 2003) baby: learning companion as a cradle small kid: learning companion as a toy pupil: learning companion as a pet teenager: learning companion as a peer adult: learning companion as a mentor elder: learning companion as a pet
Also, what will be appearances of learning companions in digital era?
human computer interaction distance human interaction face-to-face human interaction standalone computers Internet mobile & wireless devices; wearable computing CYBER PLATFORM NATURAL PLATFORM invisible & ubiquitous computing outdoor: natural as classroom context-aware physical environment indoor: smart wall smart desk digital tangibles digital manipulative digital toy
Digital Tangible digital manipulatives (Cheng, et. al., 2005) Embedded Computer
Digital Tangible tangible companion (Shu, 2005)
Taxonomy of learning companions aspectscategories constituent cyber companion tangible companion similitude animal companion human-like companion cartoon companion social role teachable companion tutor companion collaborator companion challenger companion (opponent, critic, or troublemaker) team companion
Taxonomy of learning companions tangible human-like companions tangible animal companions widget human companion widget human companion robot companion robot companion facial companion facial companion stuffy human companion stuffy human companion widget animal companion widget animal companion movable animal companion movable animal companion stuffy animal companion stuffy animal companion
Is lifelong learning companion feasible? Can we record experience of one’s life?
Let us ask a basic question: Why we bother having “technology” enhanced learning?
EngagementReflection EngagementReflection advanced learning technologies deepen both Toward backward-forward theory of learning supported by digital technology!
Why bother reflection? “One has to reflect three times a day!” “One has to reflect three times a day!” said by one of Confucius’s students said by one of Confucius’s students from immediate feedbacks while one is learning to retrospection on one’s personal life history from immediate feedbacks while one is learning to retrospection on one’s personal life history short time span to long time span short time span to long time span information for success or failure in seeking for improvement information for success or failure in seeking for improvement believable information for achievement believable information for achievement understanding better self-limitations and opportunities understanding better self-limitations and opportunities freedom of learning freedom of learning
learn better >> learn more will learn >> can learn learn about yourself >> learn about other things Only then, you learn the right thing and learn it rightly, and with enjoyment!
Learning companion can play important roles on reflection & engagement! How do we build learning companion to support reflection?
tutoring strategystudent model domain knowledge learner profilepedagogical model interface content experience # of people: individual to large community time span: last second to past personal life to generations
How do we build learning companion using learner profile? individual learner profile other learners’ profiles domain expert knowledge student assessment roles and persona multi-media learning companion current problem lifelong profile current subject
What does it imply by using learner profile to simulate animal companions? acting an “active” mirror to support self- reflection acting an “active” mirror to support self- reflection being your second self being your second self
Classical ITS model domain knowledge learner profilepedagogical model interface what who how CSCLITS / AIED WMTE ICALT
How does learning companion support ‘engagement’?
Real life is tough! – most esteemed positions are occupied physiological needs love & belonging needs safety needs self-esteem needs self-actualization needs
Communications in digital era with a group of human beings, or with a group of human beings, or with a group of learning companions, or with a group of learning companions, or with human beings and learning companions with human beings and learning companions
The goal of the learning companion becomes the goal of the learner! Work hard, take the challenge, no complaint because you take the goal of the learning companion as your goal and you take the values of the learning companion as your values! You shall succeed in these worlds and you shall transfer your confidence to the real world!
EngagementReflection Now, if we can deepen both reflection and engagement … Can we reach a possible ultimate goal on education with technology?
Grand Challenge Problems A grand challenge defines a commitment by a scientific community to work together towards a common goal, considered to be valuable and achievable within a predicted timescale.
Grand Challenge Problem Criteria (Jim Gray, 1998) Understandable – Goal is simple to state. Helps recruit colleagues, support. Challenging – Should not be obvious how to achieve the goal - which has often been around for a long time. Some may believe goal is impossible. Useful – If the goal is achieved, the results should be clearly useful to many people at large. Testable – Solutions should have a simple test so that one can measure progress - one can tell when the goal is achieved. Incremental – Very desirable that the goal has intermediate milestones so that progress can be measured along the way. Keeps most researchers going.
Grand Challenge Problem Criteria ( Roy Pea, 2003) 1) Understandable, with Significance. – Clearly stated compelling case for contributing to long term benefits for science, industry and society. 2) Challenging, and Timely. – Hard problems within conceivable reach in 15-20 years with concerted coordinated efforts. 3) Clearly useful, in terms of Impact and Scale. – If problem is solved, contributes to long term benefits for many people at large, and with international scope. 4) Metrics: Testable and Incremental. – Can measure progress, incremental milestones.
Strategy 1 Cardinal subjects K-12 math, basic language learning, calculus, general physics
+ - * 300 concept nodes integration by parts Calculus as example Is it possible to evolve the ‘globally best’ pedagogical model for learning ‘subtraction’?
However, globally best pedagogical model for learning subtraction it is best for an individual with respect to his/her personal learning history!