Presentation on theme: "VI C. National and International Migration [See text, Chapter 7, pp"— Presentation transcript:
1VI C. National and International Migration [See text, Chapter 7, pp VI C. National and International Migration [See text, Chapter 7, pp and class notes for International Migration.]ECON March
2Agenda National Migration International Migration Why do People MigratePeople’s MotivationsUnderlying ForcesThe Migratory ProcessVarieties of migrationThe “Harris-Todaro Model” of MigrationIs Internal Migration Desirable?Policy ImplicationsInternational Migration
3A. Why do People Migrate People’s Motivations : Push factors: real income, security, opportunity:Environmental factors (drought, land degradation, salinizationPopulation pressures on the land (excessive land fragmentation; land ownership patterns)Political instability and civil conflict (e.g. Colombia)Non-economic Factors: To break the bonds of traditional rural societyPull factors:Urban employment opportunitiesIncome possibilitiesUrban amenities; water electricity modern housings
4A. Why do People Migrate Underlying Forces Structural Change Technological ChangeAll factors affecting agriculture and rural development relative to urban developmentAll factors affecting the location of economic activity
8C. The “Harris-Todaro Model” of Migration Intuitive version or verbal version;Migration is a rational decisionThe decision depends on expected rather than actual wage differentialsThe probability of obtaining a city job is inversely related to the urban unemployment rateHigh rates of migration are outcomes of rural urban imbalancesGraphical version (on blackboard in class)
9Figure 7.12 The Harris-Todaro Migration Model [See class notes and text pp. 340-342 for explanation]
10Economic Implications of Migration Accommodating structural change in an economyPermitting shifts from low to higher productivity economic activitiesShifting of “surplus labour”Relief of rural population pressuresMigrants are presumably better off and usually or else they would return if they were notSocioeconomic costs on urban areas
11D. Is Rural to Urban Migration Desirable? From the perspective of the migrants?B. From a societal perspective?
12D. Is Rural to Urban Migration Desirable? B. From a societal perspective?The PositivesSurplus labour leaves the land;Rural population pressures are relieved;Structural change in the economy is made possible;Higher productivity made possible in urban activities;Higher incomes for migrants
13D. Is Rural to Urban Migration Desirable? B. From a societal perspective?The Negatives:Unemployment and underemployment in urban areasInundation of people into informal sector activitiesOvercrowding & congestion;Shanty-towns and inadequate housing;Crime and social dysfunction?Overburdened infrastructureIncreased taxes to accommodate new-comersHigher costs of infrastructure as cities expand furtherEnvironmental costs
14D. Is Internal Migration Desirable? Cont’d: Rural-to-urban migration was viewed positively until recentlyThe current view is that this migration is greater or more rapid than the urban areas’ abilities toCreate jobsProvide social servicesTherefore, slow down the migratory process in those countries where it is very rapid. HOW?
15E. Policy Implications Slow down rural-urban migration. HOW? Create a better urban-rural balance; Reduce “Urban Bias”Eliminate all “biases” favouring large cities at the expense of small towns, rural areas and regions;Eliminate factor price distortions that favour “capital” industry and urban areas;Emphasize rural infrastructurePromote rural and regional developmentExpand small-scale, labor intensive industries in rural areas small towns and secondary cities;Broaden the economic base of rural areas; Programs of integrated rural development should be encouraged to generate rural jobs and higher incomes;Decentralize authority to cities, towns and neighborhoods;
16F. Policy Implications Slow down rural-urban migration. HOW? Cont’d Choose appropriate labor-intensive technologies of production where possible;Modify carefully the linkage between education and employment;Reduce population growth;Urban job creation is insufficient for reducing urban unemployment;Improve rural incomes and jobs as wellUrban wage subsidies can be counterproductive, merely inducing more migration and unemploymentAvoid “Induced Migration” by trying to create urban jobs while neglecting rural areas;
17International Migration: [Not in text; see class notes]
18International Migration: [Not in text; see class notes] I. Varieties of International MigrantsWorkers or Economic MigrantsFamily ReunificationRefugee MovementsTemporary or Circulatory Migration“Study-Abroad” MigrationInternational AdoptionsIllegal and Legal MigrationTrafficking in People“Reverse Migration”
19Some central facts re international migration: 214 million estimated international migrants,3.1 per cent of the global population.2In 2008, remittance flows are estimated at USD 444 billion worldwide, USD 338 billion of which went to developing countries.5 20 to 30 million unauthorized migrants worldwide, comprising around 10 to 15 per cent of the world's immigrant stock.6 26 million internally displaced persons (IDPs) in at least 52 countries as a result of conflict.7 In 2010, the global number of refugees reached an estimated 16 millionSee International Organization for Migration:
20II. Estimates of International Migrants by Region Major AreaNumber of International Migrants (Millions)Percent of Total, 2005Percent Female2005AfricaAsiaL. Am.Northern AmericaEuropeOceana9%283233447.444.750.350.453.451.3World10049.6Source: United Nations, Trends in Total Migration Stock, the 2005 Revision
26Who Wins, Who Loses, How and Why? Gains and Losses;Who Wins, Who Loses, How and Why?The MigrantsThe Receiving CountryThe Home or Sending CountryBrain Drain and Brain GainShould Winners Compensate Losers?
28Relevant Policies for Countries of Origin VIII Policy Possibilities for Increasing the Global and Origin-Country BenefitsCan Emigres and International Diasporas become Pro-Developmental for their Countries of Origin?Remittances;Diaspora Development Initiatives?Return Migration with New Skills, Financial Resources?Would Global “Economic Convergence” Change the Situation?