2Learning outcomes The impact migration has on population size Impact on population distributionImpact on service provisionImplications on economic activityImplications on the physical environment2 case studies: Achill Island and Delhi
3The impact of migration An area of origin is a place from which emigrants leaveAn area of destination is a place to which immigrants goThe process of migration has consequences for both- this can be either positive or negative
4Impact on population size An area of origin must inevitably grow les quickly if some people leaveHowever 10 million people moved from LEDCs to MEDCs between this did not affect overall numbers in general as growth rates are relatively highLEDCs are mainly affected by rural- urban migration- the rural areas being left behind.
5Impact on population distribution Migration also affects population distribution.Mainly at a national scale as opposed to a global scale.Rural- urban migrationMEDCs trend in reverse, now have counterurbanisation.
6Implications for service provision Service provision can include shops (commercial), and also public facilities such as health, education and justiceThreshold population needs to be considered for each area to ensure it is viable to have a serviceAreas suffering from emigration may find their commercial services cut firstPublic services may survive longer as it is the state’s responsibility to provideModern day society has witnessed primary schools, hospitals closing and people have to travel further to obtain these services.
7Implications for economic activities Affected by out- migration particularly the rural areasE.g. farming in LEDCs- the rural economy suffers as young adults move to the city in search of work.Positive side to migration- the origin country receives remittances back fro the migrants e.g. Mexico received $8million from migrants in the USA
8Implications for the physical environment Out migration can bring environmental problems if land and property is abandoned, water control systems neglected etc.
9Out- migration: a spiral of decline Out migration of the youngAgeing populationLow birth ratesLong term population declineReduced demand for goods and servicesLes opportunity for economic activityReduced competitivenessHigh transport costsIncreased cost of livingLess attractive place to live
10Impact on receiving areas- positive New people in the area- increased demand for commercial servicesNew workersIncreased tradeCheap labour
11Impact on receiving areas- negative Public service under too much pressureAccommodation problems- shanty townsHealth and education services under pressurePressure on water and sewage systemsTransport and infrastructure becomes overloadedPollution
12Case studiesKeeping this information in mind- look at two case studiesOut- migration and the impact on Achill Island, IrelandIn- Migration and the impact on Delhi, India