Presentation on theme: "Louis’s early wars Wanted to limit power of Habsburgs"— Presentation transcript:
1 Louis’s early wars Wanted to limit power of Habsburgs War of Devolution 1667France invaded Flanders and Franche-ComteClaimed his wife should have inherited Spanish NetherlandsFought Triple Alliance of England, Sweden and Dutch.In 1670 signed the secret Treaty of DoverAllied with England to invade NetherlandsWilliam of Orange rallied Spain, HRE against French menace.Peace of Nijmwegen
2 Jesuits v. JansenistsGallican Liberties = French Church free of Papal interferenceNobility in France, Louis XIV’s confessor, all Jesuits.Jansenism rose in 1630’s, they differed with Jesuits on free will. Cornelius Jansen.They supported St. Augustine’s views on grace and salvation. They were still Catholics but were similar to Puritans.Pope Innocent X called them heretics, Louis XIV agreed and persecuted them.
3 Revocation of Edict of Nantes France was 90% Catholic, 10% HuguenotLouis wanted to make France religiously unifiedPersecuted Huguenots than in 1685 revoked Edict of Nantes250,000 Huguenots left FranceLouis became known as a religious fanatic
4 Louis’s Later WarsNine Years War- Fought against League of Augsburg (England, Spain, Sweden)War of Spanish SuccessionCharles II of Spain died in 1700 (last Habsburg king of Spain) with no heirsCharles left entire empire to Philip of Anjou, Louis’ grandson, who became Philip V of SpainGrand Alliance (England, Holland, HRE) was formed to make sure France didn’t become more powerful.Ended with Treaty of Utrecht, England got Gibraltar and Minorca. Philip V remained king of Spain.
5 France after Louis XIV Largest population in Europe Advanced economy and administrative structure1715 Louis XV became King (Only 5 years old)His uncle the Duke of Orleans was regent until he died in 1720.Parlements = courts dominated by nobility.Had the power to allow or disallow laws
6 John Law and The Mississippi Bubble Scottish Mathematician and gamblerWas friend of Duke of OrleansEstablished Bank of Parisstarted printing moneyGained monopoly on trade in Louisiana (Mississippi Company) and sold stock.People made money in Mississippi Company stock and tried to exchange paper money for gold at Bank.Bank went bankrupt.John Law had to leave France
7 PolandKing John III Sobieski saved Vienna from a Turkish siege in 1683.Polish nobility elected King, any one could veto (Liberum Veto). Resulted in having foreigners chosen as King and the nobility and aristocrats having more power than kings.Requirement of Unanimous elections led to lack of strong central authority.
8 Austrian Habsburg Empire, HRE Habsburgs ruled diverse territory with different religions, languages and peoples.Leopold I (R ) defeated invading Ottomans and expanded trade into Mediterranean.Charles VI (R ) had no sons.He negotiated the Pragmatic Sanction to allow his daughter to continue his line of succession.Everyone agreed, but his daughter Maria Theresa (R ) had no army so her territory was attacked in 1740 by Frederick II of Prussia.
9 Prussia and the Hohenzollerns After Treaty of Westphalia they expanded their territory and formed Prussia.Frederick William, Great Elector of Brandenburg (R ) began expanding and building up army.Junkers = German noble landlordsJunkers pledged obedience to Elector, in return serfs had to obey them.Junkers also served as officers in military.
10 Kings Prussia Frederick I (R. 1688-1713) Put his army at the control of HRE in War of Spanish Succession. In return HRE allowed him to take the title “King.”Frederick William I (R )Built army from 39,000 men to 80,000 in 1740Organized bureaucracy along military linesTop 5 military in Europe with only 13th largest population.Didn’t use military aggressivelyFrederick II (Frederick the Great, R )Immediately used army to invade Silesia to upset Pragmatic Sanction.
11 Russia Ivan the Terrible (R. 1533-1584) Time of Troubles Went crazy and demanded all powerTime of TroublesMichael Romanov (R ) began dynasty that would rule until 1917.Along with his successors Aleksei and Theodore II built bureaucracy and brought stabilization to Russia.Boyars = Old NobilityStill had powerStreltsy = GuardsTsar was in danger of a mutiny
12 Peter the Great R. 1682-1725 Modeled himself after Louis XIV In 1697 he travelled around Europe inspecting ports and military hardware.He returned determined to make Russia a military power.In 1698 the Streltsy rebelled, when Peter returned home he crushed them.
13 Peter the GreatBegan drafting soldiers into the Army. By ,000 troops.Forced Boyars to shave their beards and wear western clothing. (Instituted Beard Tax) Sought to end arranged marriages.Built NavyFought Ottomans in Black SeaTook AzovTook land from Sweden to gain control of Baltic in the Great Northern War.
14 St. PetersburgPeter founded his city on the Gulf of Finland. He forced Boyars to construct town houses there. (Versailles)The architecture reflected growing Russian Western orientation. Architects from Western Europe were brought in to construct city.Consequently it looks much different from other Russian cities.
16 The Peterhof Palace is a series of palaces and gardens located in Saint Petersburg, Russia, laid out on the orders of Peter the Great. These Palaces and gardens are sometimes referred as the "Russian Versailles".
21 Peter The Great Aleksei Reforms was Peters son from his first wife whom he had divorced.wanted to overthrow his father, he was sentenced to death, and killed when his plans with Habsburg emperor Charles VI were discovered.ReformsBureaucracyColleges instead of MinistersTable of RanksBoyars had to serve StateRussian Orthodox ChurchPatriarch to Holy Synod
22 Ottoman EmpireWas largest and most stable European empire after the Roman Empire.Hungary, Algeria, Iraq, Azerbaijan, Egypt, GreeceDiverse population = more religiously tolerant.Religious groups didn’t interact or intermix.Ottomans didn’t speak other languages, so Greeks translated.Sultans ruled small territories.Dhimmis = non muslims.Couldn't serve in military
24 Ottoman EmpireDevshirme = Ottomans would take Christian boys, raise them as Muslims to fight in the elite Janissaries.They would give non-Muslims jobs in the military and govt. because they would be loyal. Why? They owed their status and lives to Sultan.Ottoman Nobility couldn’t gain powerful positions in govt. and military.
25 Ottoman Empire Ulama were Religious Scholars Ottomans thought they were the protectors of Shari’a and Sunni Islam.Ulama would advise Ottoman Govt. and support the state.Ulama and Janissaries resisted change. They wanted Ottomans to conform to traditional Shari’a and old ways. Resisted European thought and culture.Consequently Ottoman military, science and govt. fell behind Europe.