Presentation on theme: "Louiss early wars Wanted to limit power of Habsburgs War of Devolution 1667 –France invaded Flanders and Franche-Comte –Claimed his wife should have inherited."— Presentation transcript:
Louiss early wars Wanted to limit power of Habsburgs War of Devolution 1667 –France invaded Flanders and Franche-Comte –Claimed his wife should have inherited Spanish Netherlands –Fought Triple Alliance of England, Sweden and Dutch. In 1670 signed the secret Treaty of Dover –Allied with England to invade Netherlands –William of Orange rallied Spain, HRE against French menace. –Peace of Nijmwegen
Jesuits v. Jansenists Gallican Liberties = French Church free of Papal interference Nobility in France, Louis XIVs confessor, all Jesuits. Jansenism rose in 1630s, they differed with Jesuits on free will. Cornelius Jansen. They supported St. Augustines views on grace and salvation. They were still Catholics but were similar to Puritans. Pope Innocent X called them heretics, Louis XIV agreed and persecuted them.
Revocation of Edict of Nantes France was 90% Catholic, 10% Huguenot Louis wanted to make France religiously unified Persecuted Huguenots than in 1685 revoked Edict of Nantes 250,000 Huguenots left France Louis became known as a religious fanatic
Louiss Later Wars Nine Years War- Fought against League of Augsburg (England, Spain, Sweden) War of Spanish Succession –Charles II of Spain died in 1700 (last Habsburg king of Spain) with no heirs –Charles left entire empire to Philip of Anjou, Louis grandson, who became Philip V of Spain –Grand Alliance (England, Holland, HRE) was formed to make sure France didnt become more powerful. –Ended with Treaty of Utrecht, England got Gibraltar and Minorca. Philip V remained king of Spain.
France after Louis XIV Largest population in Europe Advanced economy and administrative structure 1715 Louis XV became King (Only 5 years old) His uncle the Duke of Orleans was regent until he died in Parlements = courts dominated by nobility. –Had the power to allow or disallow laws
John Law and The Mississippi Bubble Scottish Mathematician and gambler Was friend of Duke of Orleans –Established Bank of Paris –started printing money –Gained monopoly on trade in Louisiana (Mississippi Company) and sold stock. –People made money in Mississippi Company stock and tried to exchange paper money for gold at Bank. –Bank went bankrupt. –John Law had to leave France
Poland King John III Sobieski saved Vienna from a Turkish siege in Polish nobility elected King, any one could veto (Liberum Veto). Resulted in having foreigners chosen as King and the nobility and aristocrats having more power than kings. Requirement of Unanimous elections led to lack of strong central authority.
Austrian Habsburg Empire, HRE Habsburgs ruled diverse territory with different religions, languages and peoples. Leopold I (R ) defeated invading Ottomans and expanded trade into Mediterranean. Charles VI (R ) had no sons. –He negotiated the Pragmatic Sanction to allow his daughter to continue his line of succession. –Everyone agreed, but his daughter Maria Theresa (R ) had no army so her territory was attacked in 1740 by Frederick II of Prussia.
Prussia and the Hohenzollerns After Treaty of Westphalia they expanded their territory and formed Prussia. Frederick William, Great Elector of Brandenburg (R ) began expanding and building up army. Junkers = German noble landlords Junkers pledged obedience to Elector, in return serfs had to obey them. Junkers also served as officers in military.
Kings Prussia Frederick I (R ) –Put his army at the control of HRE in War of Spanish Succession. In return HRE allowed him to take the title King. Frederick William I (R ) –Built army from 39,000 men to 80,000 in 1740 –Organized bureaucracy along military lines –Top 5 military in Europe with only 13 th largest population. –Didnt use military aggressively Frederick II (Frederick the Great, R ) –Immediately used army to invade Silesia to upset Pragmatic Sanction.
Russia Ivan the Terrible (R ) –Went crazy and demanded all power Time of Troubles Michael Romanov (R ) began dynasty that would rule until Along with his successors Aleksei and Theodore II built bureaucracy and brought stabilization to Russia. Boyars = Old Nobility –Still had power Streltsy = Guards –Tsar was in danger of a mutiny
Peter the Great R Modeled himself after Louis XIV In 1697 he travelled around Europe inspecting ports and military hardware. He returned determined to make Russia a military power. In 1698 the Streltsy rebelled, when Peter returned home he crushed them.
Peter the Great Began drafting soldiers into the Army. By ,000 troops. Forced Boyars to shave their beards and wear western clothing. (Instituted Beard Tax) Sought to end arranged marriages. Built Navy –Fought Ottomans in Black Sea –Took Azov –Took land from Sweden to gain control of Baltic in the Great Northern War.
St. Petersburg Peter founded his city on the Gulf of Finland. He forced Boyars to construct town houses there. (Versailles) The architecture reflected growing Russian Western orientation. Architects from Western Europe were brought in to construct city. Consequently it looks much different from other Russian cities.
The Peterhof Palace is a series of palaces and gardens located in Saint Petersburg, Russia, laid out on the orders of Peter the Great. These Palaces and gardens are sometimes referred as the "Russian Versailles".
Peter The Great Aleksei –was Peters son from his first wife whom he had divorced. –wanted to overthrow his father, he was sentenced to death, and killed when his plans with Habsburg emperor Charles VI were discovered. Reforms –Bureaucracy Colleges instead of Ministers –Table of Ranks Boyars had to serve State –Russian Orthodox Church Patriarch to Holy Synod
Ottoman Empire Was largest and most stable European empire after the Roman Empire. Hungary, Algeria, Iraq, Azerbaijan, Egypt, Greece Diverse population = more religiously tolerant. Religious groups didnt interact or intermix. Ottomans didnt speak other languages, so Greeks translated. Sultans ruled small territories. Dhimmis = non muslims. –Couldn't serve in military
Ottoman Empire Devshirme = Ottomans would take Christian boys, raise them as Muslims to fight in the elite Janissaries. They would give non-Muslims jobs in the military and govt. because they would be loyal. Why? They owed their status and lives to Sultan. Ottoman Nobility couldnt gain powerful positions in govt. and military.
Ottoman Empire Ulama were Religious Scholars Ottomans thought they were the protectors of Sharia and Sunni Islam. Ulama would advise Ottoman Govt. and support the state. Ulama and Janissaries resisted change. They wanted Ottomans to conform to traditional Sharia and old ways. Resisted European thought and culture. Consequently Ottoman military, science and govt. fell behind Europe.