2FACTS About 150,000 babies are born each year with birth defects. The parents of one out of every 28 babies receive the frightening news that their baby has a birth defectThere are over 4,000 known birth defectsBirth defects are the leading cause of death in the first year of life.
4Environmental Influences on Birth Defects Inadequate nutrition of motherExposure to diseases or infections during pregnancyHarmful substances consumed during pregnancy
5Environmental Influences on Birth Defects Inadequate nutrition of motherStunted brain development of babyLeads to mental retardation
6Environmental Influences on Birth Defects Exposure to diseases or infections during pregnancyRubella, or German Measles, can cause blindness, deafness, heart disease, and mental retardationToxoplasmosis, can cause hearing loss, learning disabilities and death; found in cat litter and some raw meatsChicken pox, scarring of babies’ skin, limb defects, eye problems, and miscarriageSTDs can be passed to unborn child and lead to serious illness, physical disabilities, or death
7Environmental Influences on Birth Defects Harmful substances consumed during pregnancyNicotine from smoking tobacco or secondhand smokeSmaller babiesMiscarriages and premature birthsRespiratory infections or allergies
8Environmental Influences on Birth Defects Harmful substances consumed during pregnancyAlcohol can cause fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS)20% of infants dieFacial deformities, delayed physical growth, heart defects, and hyperactivityMental retardation or disabilitiesPoor coordinationDifficulty controlling behavior
9Environment Influences of Birth Defects Harmful substances consumed while pregnantDrugsOver-the-the counter drugsDrug addictionLong-term learning and behavioral problemsRisk of miscarriagesCongenital heart problems
10Environmental Influences on Birth Defects Exposure to hazards during pregnancyChemicalsX-raysToxoplasmosis – extreme high blood pressure
11Environmental Influences on Birth Defects Accidental injuriesCerebral palsy caused by damage to brain before, during, or shortly after birthFalls lead to a variety of complications
12Hereditary Influences on Birth Defects Dominant genes?Recessive genes?Can you explain the difference?
13Hereditary Influences on Birth Defects 1. Defective recessive genes inherited from both parentsCystic fibrosisTay-Sachs diseaseSickle cell anemia2. Defective dominant gene inherited from one parentHemophiliaHuntington’s diseaseDuchenne muscular dystrophyColor blindness3. Errors in chromosomesDown syndrome
14Combined Influence of Heredity and Environment Birth Defects Drugs + virus = heart defectCleft lip/cleft palateSpina Bifida – reduce risk by taking folic acid
16Can birth defects be prevented? While the potential causes of most birth defects are not known, there are a number of steps a woman can take to reduce her risk of having a baby with a birth defect.
17Factors that contribute to Birth Defects: OverweightUnderweightJewish descentAfrican-American
18BrainstormVisit a health care provider for a pre-pregnancy check up, especially if a woman has health problemsWhen pregnant take daily multivitamins containing 400 mg of the B-vitamin folic acidAvoid alcohol, drugs, smoking, prescription or over-the-counter medication unless approved by a health care provider
19More factors that contribute to birth defects Drinks alcoholUses prescription drugsHas used street drugsTakes vitaminsDrinks caffeineHas had exposure to chemicals
20More factors that contribute to birth defects Lives in a home built before 1955 (lead paint)Constant exposure to catsHas had x-rays during pregnancyHigh blood pressureDiabetesSickle cell anemia
21More factors that contribute to birth defects Health problemsGenital herpesGonorrheaSyphilisNo immunizations against rubellaMiscarriage
22Can some birth defects be diagnosed before birth?