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Improving Turfgrass Through Research New Bentgrasses Dr. Leah A. Brilman.

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Presentation on theme: "Improving Turfgrass Through Research New Bentgrasses Dr. Leah A. Brilman."— Presentation transcript:

1 Improving Turfgrass Through Research New Bentgrasses Dr. Leah A. Brilman

2 Improving Turfgrass Through Research Combine different species and types one trial –Differential herbicide/fungicide response –Different requirements for thatch control NTEP Trials at Universities - United States National Turfgrass Evaluation Program - –Most not managed as on golf course –Less mowing, mowing height different –No traffic –More trials this cycle with no or reduced fungicides Fairway and Greens trials - Greens trial on soil and sand Some varieties in only one trial due to seed availability Bentgrass Trials

3 Improving Turfgrass Through Research Management influences - Four sands / One cultivar Bentgrass Trials

4 Improving Turfgrass Through Research Standard varieties - Lower density, horizontal growth –Seaside, Penncross, Penneagle, Pennlinks Improved varieties - Moderate density for greens, tees and fairways : –Providence, SR 1020, Crenshaw, Seaside II, Trueline, Backspin, Putter, Cato, Century, Princeville, Cobra, Viper, Grand Prix, Bengal, Mariner, Regent, Imperial, ProCup, Southshore, 18th Green More upright, versatile Less thatch for fairways Disease and stress resistance important characteristics for selection Creeping bentgrass

5 Improving Turfgrass Through Research Improved - Moderate high density for greens, tees and fairways –SR 1150, SR 1119, Brighton (SR 1120), Sandhill, Ninety-six two, L-93, LS-44, Alpha, Independence, Bengal, Penneagle II, Pennlinks II, Benchmark DSR, 13-M Higher density than older cultivars - Upright growth Slightly more potential for thatch - watch fertility Most moderately fine texture Select for important disease resistance, color, stress tolerance Creeping bentgrass

6 Improving Turfgrass Through Research Versatile varieties - High Density for greens, tees and fairways –007 (DSB), MacKenzie, Memorial, Kingpin High density but with upright growth so more versatile Low tendency for Bentgrass Bloat - scalping Slightly greater thatch management needs Low Poa annua invasion May be combined with Ultra for greens or improved types in fairway blends Creeping bentgrass

7 Improving Turfgrass Through Research Ultra varieties - Very high density - greens –Tyee, Authority, T-1, Shark, CY-2, Declaration - new ones this type –Penn G-2, G-6, A-1, A-2, A-4, G-1 - all from selections at Augusta, GA - very similar genetics Some high thatch producers - must have budget and equipment to control, some newer upright growth Slower repair aerification holes, ball marks Use smaller diameter holes, topdress frequently Upright, dense growth - good at low height Good wear tolerance Creeping bentgrass

8 Improving Turfgrass Through Research Divot repair rate –Variable by cultivar - Penncross not fastest despite reputation –Cover may be greater but not fully repaired Higher density varieties sometimes ballmark less but some recover slower All bentgrasses - use sand/seed repair mix Add Chewings fescue into repair mix for faster germination Waiting for 6 weeks to grow in for repair = Poa annua Creeping bentgrass

9 Improving Turfgrass Through Research Damage control study Clemson, University –Repair of damage from 2 inch hole in June and August –Repair rate differed by type - standard and improved typically better than dense. Percent repair after 6 weeks 1998 CultivarJuneAug.CultivarJuneAug. Penncross43 33 Crenshaw33 45 Southshore41 36 Penn G Putter41 39 Crens/Cato31 37 Pennlinks41 33 Cato30 37 Mariner39 28 Penn A Viper38 37 Penn G SR Providence29 35 SR Penn A L Penn G Dominant %1011 Creeping bentgrass

10 Improving Turfgrass Through Research Versatile type with Ultra Greens performance Stress tolerant germplasm High turf quality - Greens, tees and fairways Very high density - All seasons - less thatch Bright medium green color Fine leaf texture Reduced fertilizer requirement Winter-active growth High resistance to dollar spot, brown patch and Fusarium patch MacKenzie creeping bentgrass

11 Improving Turfgrass Through Research MacKenzie Creeping Bentgrass Rutgers Univ. July, 2004 Fairway Trial High stress resistance SR 1119 MacKenzie

12 Improving Turfgrass Through Research MacKenzie Creeping Bentgrass Utah State University July, 2005 Comparison with Kingpin Brighter color, density SR 1119 MacKenzie Kingpin MacKenzie

13 Improving Turfgrass Through Research MacKenzie Creeping Bentgrass Greens Trial Caledonia G.C. Chiba Prefecture Japan Kingpin Mackenzie

14 Improving Turfgrass Through Research Density of Creeping bentgrass cultivars in Japan. Greens Trial at Caldonian G.C. Chiba Prefecture Japan. Greenkeeper Mr. Ishii Seeded May 9, 2006, Data taken on August 25, 2006 (4 reps) Cultivar Stems / sq. cm. MacKenzie22.8 SR Authority19.0 LS T Penn G Grandprix15.4 CY L Penncross10.4 MacKenzie creeping bentgrass

15 Improving Turfgrass Through Research Percent establishment ratings of Creeping Bentgrass cultivars on a green at Raleigh, NC 2003 NTEP – Putting Green 2004 Data CultivarNov. 03Mean 007 (DSB) MacKenzie (SRX 1GPD) Pennlinks II Shark T Tyee (SRX 1GD) Benchmark DSR Penncross Kingpin Authority Independence Penn A Declaration % MacKenzie creeping bentgrass

16 Improving Turfgrass Through Research Density of creeping bentgrass cultivars in greens trials NTEP Trial 2005 Data Turfgrass Density ratings 1-9, 9 = Highest Density Summer Fall Cultivar Density Density MacKenzie Tyee Shark Authority Benchmark DSR T CY Declaration Memorial Alpha Penn A Pennlinks II Penncross % MacKenzie creeping bentgrass

17 Improving Turfgrass Through Research Quality ratings of Creeping Bentgrass cultivars on a soil green at twelve locations NTEP – Putting Green 2005 Data Turfgrass Quality ratings 1-9, 9 = Ideal Turf CultivarQuality MacKenzie6.7Benchmark DSR6.4 Declaration6.7T-16.4 Authority6.7Penn A-16.3 CY-26.6Alpha6.2 Memorial6.6Pennlinks II (DSB)6.5Penncross5.4 Tyee (SRX 1GD)6.5 5%0.2 MacKenzie creeping bentgrass

18 Improving Turfgrass Through Research Quality ratings of Creeping Bentgrass cultivars grown on a green at 10 locations using an 1/8 inch (3.2 mm) or lower cutting height 2003 NTEP – Putting Green 2005 Data Turfgrass Quality ratings 1-9, 9 = Ideal Turf CultivarQuality Declaration6.8Memorial6.4 MacKenzie6.7T-16.3 Authority6.7Benchmark DSR6.2 Tyee (SRX 1GD)6.6Alpha6.0 CY-26.6Pennlinks II5.5 Penn A-16.5Penncross (DSB)6.5 Kingpin6.4 5%0.2 MacKenzie creeping bentgrass

19 Improving Turfgrass Through Research Brown patch ratings of Creeping Bentgrass cultivars on a green at Blacksburg, VA NTEP – Putting Green 2004 Data Brown Patch ratings 1-9, 9 = No disease CultivarMean MacKenzie (SRX 1GPD)8.5 Kingpin8.5 Alpha8.3 CY-28.3 Tyee (SRX 1GD)8.2 Memorial8.0 Penncross8.0 Shark8.0 Pennlinks II7.5 T-17.5 Declaration7.3 Benchmark DSR7.2 Penn A %1.7 MacKenzie creeping bentgrass

20 Improving Turfgrass Through Research MacKenzie Creeping Bentgrass Puyallup, WA July, 2006 Resists Poa annua MacKenzie Kingpin Mackenzie

21 Improving Turfgrass Through Research MacKenzie Creeping Bentgrass Rutgers, NJ Fairway trial August, degrees C 95% humidity SR 1119 and MacKenzie Kingpin Mackenzie SR 1119 MacKenzie

22 Improving Turfgrass Through Research MacKenzie Creeping Bentgrass Rutgers, NJ Greens established 2003 August, degrees C 95% humidity High Density, growing Kingpin Mackenzie

23 Improving Turfgrass Through Research Benefits –Excellent performance all year-round –Very high density but upright growth –Uniform putting surface –Excellent wear tolerance –Excellent summer performance –Reduced fungicide requirements –Reduced ball marks –High performance greens, tees, fairways MacKenzie creeping bentgrass

24 Improving Turfgrass Through Research Moderate high density type Ideal for green, tees and fairways Excellent turf quality Excellent dollar spot and brown patch resistance Leaf texture and density matches Dominant blends Vigorous, moderately dense growth Bright, dark green color SR 1150 creeping bentgrass

25 Improving Turfgrass Through Research SR 1150 Creeping Bentgrass Rutgers University – Dr. Stacy Bonos Dollar Spot resistant Moderately high density for greens and fairways Color, texture match with SR 1119, Brighton, Sandhill High turf quality High Brown Patch resistance Picture Rutgers Univ., Fairway Trial, July 04 SR 1150

26 Improving Turfgrass Through Research Percent dollar spot ratings of Creeping Bentgrass cultivars on a fairway or tee at Lexington, KY NTEP – Fairway or tee 2004 Data Cultivar % dollar spot Declaration0.6 Pennlinks II3.4 SR 1150 (SRX 1PDH)5.3 Kingpin5.4 Mackenzie7.4 Penncross8.6 L SR Alpha9.1 Shark9.3 T Independence17.1 5%4.5 SR 1150 Creeping bentgrass

27 Improving Turfgrass Through Research Quality ratings of Creeping Bentgrass cultivars grown on a fairway under Traffic Stress in Madison, WI 2003 NTEP – Fairway/Tee 2005 Data Turfgrass Quality ratings 1-9, 9 = Ideal Turf CultivarQuality Shark7.4L SR T-16.5 Kingpin7.1Penncross6.4 Alpha6.9Bengal6.2 Authority6.8Declaration6.2 LS-446.8Pennlinks II6.1 Princeville6.6Seaside5.2 5%1.3 SR 1150 creeping bentgrass

28 Improving Turfgrass Through Research Density of Creeping bentgrass cultivars in Japan. Greens Trial at Caldonian G.C. Chiba Prefecture Japan. Greenkeeper Mr. Ishii Seeded May 9, 2006, Data taken on August 25, 2006 (4 reps) Cultivar Stems / sq. cm. MacKenzie22.8 SR Authority19.0 LS T Penn G Grandprix15.4 CY L Penncross10.4 SR 1150 Density

29 Improving Turfgrass Through Research Quality ratings of Creeping Bentgrass cultivars grown on a fairway under Reduced Fungicides at Farmingdale, NY - Creeping bentgrasses 2003 NTEP – Fairway/Tee 2005 Data Turfgrass Quality ratings 1-9, 9 = Ideal Turf CultivarQuality SR T Pennlinks II6.9Kingpin6.5 Shark6.9MacKenzie6.4 Indepedence6.8L SR Authority6.4 LS Alpha6.2 Penncross 6.6Declaration6.1 Princeville 5%0.4 SR 1150 creeping bentgrass

30 Improving Turfgrass Through Research SR 1150 Creeping Bentgrass Temperature of 38 degrees C Humidity 95% Low fungicides Low N Picture Rutgers Univ., NJ Fairway Trial, August, 2006 SR 1150 SR 1119

31 Improving Turfgrass Through Research Benefits –Versatile for use on greens, tees and fairways –Lower maintenance requirements –High performance –Reduced fungicides –Increased genetic diversity SR 1150 creeping bentgrass

32 Improving Turfgrass Through Research Testing Blend performance at Rutgers University, NJ Tyee / 007 SR 1150 / SR 1119 Mackenzie / Sandhill 007 / SR / SR 1119 (Dominant X-treme 7 - N.A.) 007 / Mackenzie 007 / Mackenzie / Tyee Brighton / Sandhill Tyee / SR 7200 Creeping bentgrass blends

33 Improving Turfgrass Through Research Bentgrass Strategies Dollar spot resistance - New Michigan State, WI germplasm Stress tolerant - germplasm from AZ with salt and heat tolerance + improved winter color Dense types without excessive thatch Improved varieties to blend with current stable Salt tolerance Snow mold resistance for northern areas

34 Improving Turfgrass Through Research Kentucky Bluegrass Types Dr. Leah A. Brilman

35 Improving Turfgrass Through Research Kentucky Bluegrass Strengths –Self-repairing –High lateral stability –High recuperative ability –Dense stand, high quality –Excellent mowing quality –High cold tolerance –Some cultivars with improved drought tolerance –Select a blend of types depending on use

36 Improving Turfgrass Through Research Kentucky Bluegrass Weaknesses –Poa annua invasion - less options in herbicides - new ones coming on market –Slow germination and establishment - heavier seeding rates better –Shade tolerance cultivar dependent –Bluegrass billbugs –Must mix cultivars carefully - use different types to match strengths and weaknesses –Not adapted to some regions

37 Improving Turfgrass Through Research Kentucky Bluegrass Types Compact TypesCELA Type CompactBVMG Type MidnightShamrock type AmericaCheri Type Aggressive TypeJulia Type Bellevue TypeCommon Type Mid-Atlantic TypeOther Type

38 Improving Turfgrass Through Research Kentucky Bluegrass Types These types have been verified by DNA analysis Cultivars in most types are closely related genetically –Often no or very small DNA differences If planting all of one type = all of one cultivar Greater DNA differences in Aggressive / Mid-Atlantic types - based more on performance Performance strengths and weaknesses are the same within a type

39 Improving Turfgrass Through Research Why Blends and Mixtures Kentucky bluegrass apomictic Cultivar = Single genotype - other turfgrass species are mixture of genotypes Vegetative cultivars comparison Vegetative bentgrasses Vegetative bermudas, zoysias, St. Augustine Merion Kentucky bluegrass - stripe smut Not just for disease resistance

40 Improving Turfgrass Through Research Blending bluegrasses Kentucky bluegrass Melting-out resistance of blend of two cultivars intermediate between same cultivars in monostands Inoculum from susceptible cultivar reduced resistance of resistant cultivar Blends of two cultivars generally show resistance intermediate between each alone (Vargas and Turgeon, Proc. Third ITRC )

41 Improving Turfgrass Through Research Blending bluegrasses Early blend analysis - Dr. Funk, Rutgers Sprigged out plants to ID Aggressive types dominated Aggressive types based on invasion in plots New DNA techniques allow blend analysis (Lickfeldt et al, Crop Sci. 42: ) 3-way blend - Unique, Midnight, Blacksburg Different management and % of each at seeding Final composition, 40% U, 46% M, 14% B

42 Improving Turfgrass Through Research Blending bluegrasses Why combine types in blends? Each type has weakness as well as strengths Single type has weaknesses Midnight types - powdery mildew, winter color, rust susceptibility as seedlings America types - not as dark green Aggressive - dominate in blends Shamrock types - billbug susceptible BVMG - Very stemmy turf, poor winter performance, stripe smut susceptible

43 Improving Turfgrass Through Research Conclusions Blends do provide benefit Learning long term blend peformance Kentucky bluegrasses difficult to breed Cooperative work breeders and NTEP to define types and publish Looking at competitiveness in different environments and management Never use more than 15% perennial ryegrass to maintain at least 50% bluegrass

44 Improving Turfgrass Through Research Kentucky Bluegrass Types NJ Wear - Spring, summer and fall wear (multi - use field) High performersLow performers CompactAmerica MidnightBVMG JuliaCheri AggressiveCommon Mid-Atlantic Repeat with wear, compaction different seasons

45 Improving Turfgrass Through Research Kentucky Bluegrass Types WI Wear trial - fall wear Combined with perennial ryegrass varying percentages Only obtained 50% KBG with less than 15% rye No difference between Midnight types, BVMG types, Aggressive types Common types less wear tolerant Midnight, Fairfax more dominant in blends

46 Improving Turfgrass Through Research Compact Types Compact, Midnight, America Low, compact growth High quality turf 1/2 inch cutting height Excellent resistance to Leaf Spot Long Winter dormancy Variable under Summer stress Often purple Winter color

47 Improving Turfgrass Through Research Compact Type ArgosIndigoGladeBlue-tastic AlpineMoonlightRam 1Ascot MoonshadowNugget Hallmark BlacksburgP-105AmazonSkye BlackstonePlatiniApexBlue Max ConniBroadwayGoldstarAmazon WildwoodDivaChicago II

48 Improving Turfgrass Through Research Midnight Type 1.Characteristics of compact type 2.Excellent wear tolerance 3.Very dark green color 4.Late Spring green-up 5.Good heat tolerance 6.Susceptible to powdery mildew 7.Variable resistance to Summer Patch 8.Not good in shade sites

49 Improving Turfgrass Through Research Midnight Type ArcadiaMidnightBarristerOdysseyEverGlade Quantum Leap AwardNuGlade Midnight Star Total Eclipse Blue VelvetAwesomePerfectionNuDestinyEverest RhythmImpactTsunamiGinneyAbsolute Freedom IIILiberatorMidnight IIBeyondFreedom II AlexaExcursionRugby II BluestoneCourtyard

50 Improving Turfgrass Through Research Aggressive Type Aggressive lateral growth Should have one in Sports Turf Blends High shoot density Very wear tolerant Quickly knit sod and repair May predominate in blend Variable in other characteristics

51 Improving Turfgrass Through Research Aggressive Type CheetahJuliusNorthstar OrfeoBaririsP-104 TouchdownMystic LimousineBrunswick

52 Improving Turfgrass Through Research Orfeo Kentucky Aggressive cultivar Fast germination and establishment - germination in days Superior germination with high salt levels High wear tolerance High sod strength Tolerant of low light intensity Medium green color

53 Improving Turfgrass Through Research Germination percentage of Kentucky bluegrass varieties at 5,000 ppm salts Preliminary data after 3 weeks Cultivar% Germ Orfeo38SR SR Spitfire3 Baron24Bandera3 Northstar10Argos3 Arcadia 8Moonlight0 STR Moonshadow0 Showcase 4Touchdown0 Ulysses 5%4 Salt germination bluegrasses

54 Improving Turfgrass Through Research Cheetah Kentucky One of the finest Kentucky Bluegrass - aggressive-type bluegrass Adapted to the low light intensity Superior on sports fields Very dense growth habit - similar to Odyssey, Midnight, and Rugby II Early spring green-up Excellent sod strength Very high shade tolerance

55 Improving Turfgrass Through Research Julia-Type High turf quality High wear tolerance High density Rapid establishment Good Summer performance Moderate Winter performance Good Leaf Spot, Stripe Smut resistance Susceptible to Brown Patch, Dollar Spot

56 Improving Turfgrass Through Research Julia Type Cultivars Ulysses Rampart Avalanche Julia Caliber Ikone

57 Improving Turfgrass Through Research Rampart Kentucky Julia-type Kentucky Bluegrass Larger seed - faster establishment Excellent wear tolerance - look best with wear High sod strength High heat tolerance High drought tolerance

58 Improving Turfgrass Through Research Ulysses Kentucky blue Julia type High performance at 1/2 inch cut Excellent performance with season-long wear Excellent summer persistence Uses: Fairways, Roughs, Sports Fields, Sod Production, Home Lawns

59 Improving Turfgrass Through Research America Type Characteristics of compact type Finer leaf, higher density Some with better rhizomes Better fall and spring growth Moderate Summer recovery High Summer Patch resistance Resistant to powdery mildew Good in shade - should be in Fairway mixes

60 Improving Turfgrass Through Research America Type KingfisherSonomaDynamo ShowcaseApolloUnique SR 2284BrilliantBedazzled ArgosBordeauxRoyale AmericaArrowBoutique LangaraMallardGlenmont

61 Improving Turfgrass Through Research Argos Kentucky American/Shamrock cross Compact-America Low growing, dense turf Shade tolerant Rapid establishment Aggressive rhizome growth High heat tolerance Early spring green-up

62 Improving Turfgrass Through Research Mid-Atlantic Type Deep, extensive roots and rhizomes New cultivars in 2005 Bluegrass NTEP Called RSP-types, some very aggressive Vigorous turf & medium-high density High Summer stress tolerance Early Spring green-up Good Winter performance Rapid recovery from disease and wear

63 Improving Turfgrass Through Research Mid-Atlantic Type Touche (STR 23180) Starburst (STR 2703) STR 2485 Eagleton Cabernet Monopoly Livingston Preakness Plush

64 Improving Turfgrass Through Research Touche Kentucky Turf Quality with wear of 2004 CTBT Bluegrass Trial established at North Brunswick NJ Rating with Wear 1-9, 9 = Best Cultivar Wear.Quality Touche (STR (Mid-Atl))6.7 STR 2485 (Mid-Atl)6.2 Rhythm (Mid)6.2 Bandera (T x K)5.7 Julia (Julia)5.7 SR 2100 (Shamrock)5.3 Midnight (Mid)5.0 Diva (Compact)5.0 Julius (Aggr)4.2 Eagleton (Mid-Atl)3.8 5%1.0

65 Improving Turfgrass Through Research Touche Kentucky Turf Quality of 2004 CTBT Bluegrass Trial established at Rolesville, NC Rating Turf Quality 1-9, 9 = Best Cultivar Mean.Quality Touche (STR 23180)5.9 STR Bandera TxK5.7 Julia5.0 Rhythm4.6 Diva4.4 Julius4.3 Midnight4.3 SR Eagleton3.5 5%0.6

66 Improving Turfgrass Through Research Starburst Kentucky Turf Quality of 2005 CTBT Bluegrass Species Trial established at Knoxville, TN Quality 1-9, 9 = Best Cultivar Quality Starburst (STR 2703 Mid-Atl)7.4 Midnight (Mid)7.4 Touche (STR Mid-Atl)7.2 America (Am)7.1 Longhorn (T x K)7.1 Livingston (Mid-Atl)7.0 Julia (Julia)6.9 Bandera (SPTR 2LM95 T xK)6.7 Midnight Star (Mid)6.6 5%0.7

67 Improving Turfgrass Through Research Texas X Kentucky bluegrass Texas bluegrass heat and drought tolerant, extensive and deep rhizomes Kentucky bluegrass turf quality 1st generation low fertility, low germination. Selected superior progeny Some backcrossed to Kentucky bluegrass More extensive rhizomes Greater heat and drought tolerance Must evaluate for diseases, germination vigor, apomixis

68 Improving Turfgrass Through Research Texas x Kentucky bluegrass Many first hybrids poor germination Thermal Blue = HB 129 = BH Reveille sod type good performance Improved establishment High shear strength Excellent rhizomes = good recovery Good wear tolerance in Ohio - new ones high at Rutgers

69 Improving Turfgrass Through Research Texas X Kentucky Improved germination High heat tolerance Active summer growth Need more growth before vernalization for seed Bandera

70 Improving Turfgrass Through Research Texas x Kentucky bluegrass BanderaDuraBlueFire and Ice SpitfireThermalBlueLonghorn Fahrenheit 90Solar GreenReveille

71 Improving Turfgrass Through Research Texas X Kentucky bluegrass Rhizomes on young spaced plants Deep rhizomes contribute to recovery Bluegrass usage further south Top rated for shear strength NTEP

72 Improving Turfgrass Through Research Bandera T x K bluegrass Study was done in Rain Out Shelter at Rutgers Bandera (Reported as Sptr 21m95 instead of SPTR 2LM95) showed less decline than Thermal Blue or Midnight from 10 to 17 days drought, Kept quality longer. Maintained photosynthesis longer than Midnight under drought stress Recovered faster than Midnight or Thermal Blue after 41 days of drought and had a difference in stomatal resistance.

73 Improving Turfgrass Through Research Spitfire Texas x Kentucky Turf Quality of 2005 CTBT Bluegrass Species Trial established at Fayetteville, Arkansas Digital Quality 1-9, 9 = Best Cultivar Digital ColorDigital Quality Midnight (Mid) Spitfire (STR 2844 TxK) Longhorn (T x K) Touche (STR Mid-Atl) Bandera (SPTR 2LM95 T xK) America (Am) Midnight Star (Mid) Livingston (Mid-Atl) Julia (Julia) %0.70.8

74 Improving Turfgrass Through Research Shamrock Type Moderate Winter color Good resistance to Leaf Spot Good turf quality and sod strength Billbug susceptible High seed yields Less stemmy than BVMG types Summer performance variable Large seed - quick germination

75 Improving Turfgrass Through Research Shamrock Type SR 2100Champagne AtlantisParkland ShamrockChamplain BrooklawnMoonshine LakeshoreDurham Mongoose

76 Improving Turfgrass Through Research BVMG Type Wear tolerance poor, not good for sports turf Use Shmarock types instead for quick germination High seed yields so cheap seed Medium-good turf Stripe Smut susceptible, Billbug susceptible Medium low growth, Medium wide leaves Large seed - quick germ Very stemmy turf Poor Winter performance

77 Improving Turfgrass Through Research BVMG Type Cultivars CannonAbbeyFortuna MarquisBaronGnome VictaBlueChipGoldrush ClearwaterBlueStarBaronette MeritCrestNassau EnvictaDragonRaven

78 Improving Turfgrass Through Research Common Type (Midwest Ecotypes) Do not use for sports turf Erect growth and narrow leaf blades Good Summer stress tolerance (may go dormant) High Leaf Spot susceptibility Poor Winter color and performance Early seed production Good for soil stabilization/conservation

79 Improving Turfgrass Through Research Common Type (Midwest Ecotypes) KenblueAleneHuntsville ParkGarfieldPiedmont AleneGearyS-21 CacheGingerSouth Dakota RhondeGreenlyVoyager NewportWellingtonArgyle

80 Improving Turfgrass Through Research New Cultivars SR 4600 perennial ryegrass Harrier perennial ryegrass Calypso III perennial ryegrass SR 8650 tall fescue SR 5250 strong creeping red fescue SR 5130 Chewings fescue Shoreline slender creeping red fescue SR 3150 hard fescue


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