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Seed Research of Oregon Improving Turfgrass through Research Improved Bluegrasses and Ryegrasses for Fairways Dr. Leah A. Brilman Research Director Seed.

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Presentation on theme: "Seed Research of Oregon Improving Turfgrass through Research Improved Bluegrasses and Ryegrasses for Fairways Dr. Leah A. Brilman Research Director Seed."— Presentation transcript:

1 Seed Research of Oregon Improving Turfgrass through Research Improved Bluegrasses and Ryegrasses for Fairways Dr. Leah A. Brilman Research Director Seed Research of Oregon

2 Seed Research of Oregon Improving Turfgrass through Research Bluegrass for fairways Requirements Summer patch resistance needed especially in high traffic areas Ability to take 1/2 inch cut Wear tolerant - entire season Rapid recovery from divots - should be on seeding program Resist Poa annua invasion Upright growth for good lie Powdery mildew, leaf spot resistance

3 Seed Research of Oregon Improving Turfgrass through Research Bluegrass for fairways Requirements Rapid establishment Fine texture High sod tensile-strength Rapid recuperative potential Aggressive growth High turf quality in your area Stress tolerant

4 Seed Research of Oregon Improving Turfgrass through Research Types of Kentucky Bluegrasses Compact TypesCELA Type CompactBellevue Type MidnightMid-Atlantic type AmericaCheri Type Aggressive TypeBVMG Type Julia TypeCommon Type Shamrock TypeOther Type

5 Seed Research of Oregon Improving Turfgrass through Research Types of Kentucky Bluegrasses Selection of type of bluegrass for fairways NJ Wear - Spring, summer and fall wear High performersLow performers CompactAmerica MidnightBVMG JuliaCheri AggressiveCommon Mid-Atlantic Repeat with wear, compaction different seasons

6 Seed Research of Oregon Improving Turfgrass through Research Univ. of Maryland 2000 NTEP Kentucky Bluegrass Trial 2003 Data Mown at 1/2 inch Cultivar Quality Julius 8.3 Midnight6.6 Limousine8.1 Midnight II 6.6 Chicago II7.9 Champlain 6.3 Bariris7.2 Rugby II 6.3 Ulysses7.0 Tsunami6.3 Kingfisher7.0 SR Julia6.9 P Rampart6.9 Liberator5.6 Arcadia 6.8Baron4.5 Total Eclipse 6.7 Kenblue3.2 5%0.8

7 Seed Research of Oregon Improving Turfgrass through Research Types of Kentucky Bluegrasses Selection of type of bluegrass for fairways WI Wear trial - fall wear Combined with perennial ryegrass varying percentages Only obtained 50% KBG with less than 15% rye No difference between Midnight types, BVMG types, Aggressive types Common types less wear tolerant Midnight, Fairfax more dominant in blends Longer establishment without rye - use sod

8 Seed Research of Oregon Improving Turfgrass through Research Types of Kentucky Bluegrasses IA Wear trial NTEP Cheri type - Serene Other type - Coventry, Chateau Common type - Kenblue America type - America, good - Unique, Brilliant, Apollo, Showcase Midnight type - Rugby II, good - Midnight, Award, Nustar, NuGlade Shamrock type- Champagne

9 Seed Research of Oregon Improving Turfgrass through Research Compact Types Compact, Midnight, America Low, compact growth High quality turf 1/2 inch cutting height Excellent resistance to Leaf Spot Long Winter dormancy Variable under Summer stress Often purple Winter color

10 Seed Research of Oregon Improving Turfgrass through Research Compact Type Cultivars SR 2109Alpine Ram IDiva MoonshadowPlatini WildwoodIndigo MoonlightGlade BlackstoneApex Blacksburg

11 Seed Research of Oregon Improving Turfgrass through Research Midnight Type Characteristics of compact type Very dark green color Late Spring green-up Good heat tolerance Susceptible to powdery mildew Variable resistance to Summer Patch Not good in shade sites Color shows Poa annua

12 Seed Research of Oregon Improving Turfgrass through Research Midnight Type Cultivars ArcadiaRugby IIGinney OdysseyImpactAwesome MidnightTotal EclipseBarrister LiberatorQuantum LeapBeyond AwardAbsoluteImpact NuGladeTsunamiExcursion NuDestinyMidnight IIBluestone

13 Seed Research of Oregon Improving Turfgrass through Research Arcadia Kentucky blue Better shade tolerance than Midnight or Blacksburg Excellent performance in the Transition zone High summer patch resistance Improved Dollar Spot resistance Tolerates reduced mowing heights Excellent root structure Uses: Fairways, Roughs, Sports Fields, Sod Production, Home Lawns (Shaded Areas)

14 Seed Research of Oregon Improving Turfgrass through Research Odyssey Kentucky blue Excellent performance under low nitrogen Improved Dollar Spot resistance Improved Summer Patch performance than Award and Quantum Leap Tolerates reduced mowing heights Excels under lower management Excellent summer persistence Uses: Fairways, Roughs, Sports Fields, Sod Production, Home Lawns

15 Seed Research of Oregon Improving Turfgrass through Research Aggressive Type Aggressive lateral growth High shoot density Very wear tolerant Quickly knit sod and repair May predominate in blend Variable in other characteristics Check for disease resistance

16 Seed Research of Oregon Improving Turfgrass through Research Aggressive Type Cultivars CheetahOrfeo BaririsP-105 TouchdownMystic LimousineNorthstar

17 Seed Research of Oregon Improving Turfgrass through Research Aggressive Type Cultivars Cheetah - PpH Cynthia x Limousine Good with summer wear in NJ, high density, sports fields, fairways Excellent in low light intensity Reduced Poa annua invasion High summer patch resistance Orfeo Rapid germination, aggressive growth Superior in Europe for wear tolerance Great for sod

18 Seed Research of Oregon Improving Turfgrass through Research Julia Type High turf quality High density Good Summer performance Moderate Winter performance Good Leaf Spot, Stripe Smut resistance Susceptible to Brown Patch, Dollar Spot

19 Seed Research of Oregon Improving Turfgrass through Research Julia Type Cultivars Ulysses Rampart Avalanche Julia Caliber Ikone

20 Seed Research of Oregon Improving Turfgrass through Research Ulysses Kentucky blue Julia type High performance at 1/2 inch cut Excellent performance with season long wear Excellent summer persistence Uses: Fairways, Roughs, Sports Fields, Sod Production, Home Lawns

21 Seed Research of Oregon Improving Turfgrass through Research America Type Characteristics of compact type Finer leaf, higher density Excellent at 1/2 inch Moderate Winter dormancy Moderate Summer recovery High Summer Patch resistance Resistant to powdery mildew Good in shade

22 Seed Research of Oregon Improving Turfgrass through Research America Type Cultivars ShowcaseApollo SR 2284Brilliant KingfisherLangara AmericaUnique BedazzledSonoma BoutiqueRoyale ArrowBordeaux GlenmontMallard

23 Seed Research of Oregon Improving Turfgrass through Research Kingfisher Kentucky blue Exceptional spring green-up and winter color Very fine textured Improved rust and leaf spot resistance Short internodes for denser canopy and wear recovery Improved Heat and Drought Tolerance Excellent performance at 1/2 inch Excellent summer patch resistance Uses: Fairways, Roughs, Sod Production, Home Lawns (Shaded Areas)

24 Seed Research of Oregon Improving Turfgrass through Research Showcase Kentucky Blue Improved fall color, better than Midnight Better summer stress recovery than Blacksburg Improved Summer Patch resistance than Blacksburg, Award Improved Powdery Mildew resistance Short internodes for denser canopy and wear recovery Rated top of 1995 NTEP for 1/2” mowing height

25 Seed Research of Oregon Improving Turfgrass through Research SR 2284 Kentucky blue Exceptional spring green-up and winter color Very fine textured Improved rust and leaf spot resistance Short internodes for denser canopy and wear recovery Improved Heat and Drought Tolerance Uses: Fairways, Roughs, Sod Production, Home Lawns (Shaded Areas)

26 Seed Research of Oregon Improving Turfgrass through Research Shamrock Type Moderate Winter color Good resistance to Leaf Spot Good turf quality and sod strength Billbug susceptible High seed yields Less stemmy than BVMG types Summer performance variable Large seed - quick germination

27 Seed Research of Oregon Improving Turfgrass through Research Shamrock Type Cultivars SR 2100 Shamrock Champagne Parkland Champlain Lakeshore Brooklawn

28 Seed Research of Oregon Improving Turfgrass through Research SR 2100 Kentucky blue Performs a lot like an aggressive-type Darker color than Eclipse and Limousine Better in full sun than in dense shade Excellent rhizomes, sod strength Tolerates lower mowing heights Good in low light intensities Uses: Fairways, Roughs, Sod Production, Home Lawns

29 Seed Research of Oregon Improving Turfgrass through Research Mid-Atlantic Type Deep, extensive roots and rhizomes Vigorous turf & medium-high density High Summer stress tolerance Early Spring green-up Good Winter performance Rapid recovery from disease Leaf spot susceptible except: SR 2000 and Preakness

30 Seed Research of Oregon Improving Turfgrass through Research Mid-Atlantic Type Cultivars SR 2000Livingston MonopolyBel-21 PreaknessPlush EagletonWabash Cabernet

31 Seed Research of Oregon Improving Turfgrass through Research BVMG Type - Not for fairways High seed yields Medium-good turf Stripe Smut susceptible Medium low growth Large seed - quick germ Medium wide leaves Very stemmy turf Poor Winter performance Billbug susceptible

32 Seed Research of Oregon Improving Turfgrass through Research BVMG Type Cultivars BaronNassau VictaRaven MeritMarquis GnomeBlueChip DragonFortuna AbbeyGoldrush BlueStarCrest Cannon

33 Seed Research of Oregon Improving Turfgrass through Research Common Type - not for fairways Erect growth and narrow leaf blades Good Summer stress tolerance (may go dormant) High Leaf Spot susceptibility Poor Winter color and performance Early seed production Good for soil stabilization/conservation

34 Seed Research of Oregon Improving Turfgrass through Research Common Type (Midwest Ecotypes) KenblueHuntsville S-21Park GearyPiedmont AleneGreenley GingerGarfield South Dakota Cert

35 Seed Research of Oregon Improving Turfgrass through Research Why Blends and Mixtures Kentucky bluegrass apomictic Single genotype - other turfgrass species are mixture of genotypes Vegetative cultivars comparison Vegetative bentgrasses Vegetative bermudas, zoysias, St. Augustine Merion Kentucky bluegrass - stripe smut Not just for disease resistance Winter and spring growth, shade tolerance

36 Seed Research of Oregon Improving Turfgrass through Research Science and nonscience of blends Kentucky bluegrass (Vargas and Turgeon, Proc. Third ITRC ) Melting-out resistance of blend of two cultivars intermediate between same cultivars in monostands Inoculum from susceptible cultivar reduced resistance of resistant cultivar Blends of two cultivars generally show resistance intermediate between each alone

37 Seed Research of Oregon Improving Turfgrass through Research Science and nonscience of blends Early blend analysis - Dr. Funk, Rutgers Sprigged out plants to ID Aggressive types dominated Aggressive types based on invasion in plots New DNA techniques allow blend analysis (Lickfeldt et al, Crop Sci. 42: ) 3-way blend - Unique, Midnight, Blacksburg Different management and % of each at seeding Final composition, 40% U, 46% M, 14% B

38 Seed Research of Oregon Improving Turfgrass through Research Texas X Kentucky bluegrass Texas bluegrass heat and drought tolerant, extensive and deep rhizomes Kentucky bluegrass turf quality 1st generation low fertility, low germination Backcrossed to Kentucky bluegrass More extensive rhizomes Greater heat and drought tolerance Must evaluate for diseases, germination vigor, apomixis

39 Seed Research of Oregon Improving Turfgrass through Research Texas x Kentucky bluegrass Many first hybrids poor germination Thermal Blue = HB 129 = BH Improved establishment High shear strength Excellent rhizomes = good recovery Good wear tolerance in Ohio - not high Rutgers Have done good in some fairway trials Additional new hybrids with good establishment, high drought tolerance

40 Seed Research of Oregon Improving Turfgrass through Research Texas X Kentucky bluegrass Rhizomes on young spaced plants Deep rhizomes contribute to recovery Bluegrass usage further south Top rated for shear strength NTEP

41 Seed Research of Oregon Improving Turfgrass through Research Perennial ryegrass Advantages in mixtures Quick establishment Very dark green color Resistant to different diseases than KBG/TF Endophyte-enhanced Disadvantages in mixtures Overdominate other components Bunch-type growth Reduced stress tolerance

42 Seed Research of Oregon Improving Turfgrass through Research Perennial ryegrass Advantages and varietal needs Rapid establishment - Best species for establishment during play Winter-active growth for many uses Daylength-dependent dwarf types less suitable Decumbent, spreading growth - superior in Europe for repair Reduce nitrogen requirements Best in regular trials may not be best in wear trials

43 Seed Research of Oregon Improving Turfgrass through Research Benefits of Perennial ryegrass Benefits of adding endophyte-enhanced ryegrass to Kentucky bluegrass Richmond and Shetlar Percentage of perennial rye added to blue Above 40% bluegrass webworm protection Hairy chinch bug damage down more perennial ryegrass added No documentation of percentage in other species Complex of different species and different endophyte strains

44 Seed Research of Oregon Improving Turfgrass through Research Perennial ryegrass Gray leaf spot resistance Important in MidWest, transitional zone and now California California reports in both permanent and overseeded turf Seedlings most vulnerable Warm, moist conditions, especially with less hours of sunlight Rapid advances in resistance

45 Seed Research of Oregon Improving Turfgrass through Research Wear Trials 1999 NTEP Perennial Ryegrass Trial 2003 Data Mean two locations Cultivar Quality SR Gator 35.0 SR Barlennium 4.9 Citation Fore5.8 Amazing 4.7 LS Pinnacle II 4.7 SR Charger II4.7 Catalina II5.6 Admire 4.6 Paragon5.6 Affinity 4.5 Mach I 5.4 Promise4.3 Racer II 5.4Panther 4.0 Stellar 5.3 Linn 2.9 5%0.9

46 Seed Research of Oregon Improving Turfgrass through Research Gray Leaf Spot Resistance Rutgers University Trial 1-9, 9 = Best 2001 Cultivar GLS Res. Quality Peregrine (1425) Integra Pinnacle II AllStar Brightstar II4.34.0

47 Seed Research of Oregon Improving Turfgrass through Research Gray Leaf Spot Resistance Rutgers University Trial 1-9, 9 = Best 2002 Cultivar GLS Res. Quality MS1 Comp Integra Select SR 4550 (1557) Integra Amazing Pizzazz

48 Seed Research of Oregon Improving Turfgrass through Research Gray Leaf Spot Resistance Rutgers University Trial 1-9, 9 = Best Cultivar GLS Res. Quality SP Comp Panther GLS SR 4550 (1557) Integra C Integra Pizzazz

49 Seed Research of Oregon Improving Turfgrass through Research Temperature and Leaf Wetness

50 Seed Research of Oregon Improving Turfgrass through Research What we know Gray leaf spot spores primarily airborne and spread by mowers, equipment (How did it get to CA?) Gray leaf spot overwinters as dormant mycelium in dead tissue - cold winters can reduce initial innoculum Long periods of leaf wetness under hot conditions favor the disease Initial innoculum builds up under lower temperatures then it explodes Often first occurs in shady, wet areas

51 Seed Research of Oregon Improving Turfgrass through Research What we know Initial symptoms are an off-color, wilted appearance Often mistaken for drought stress so irrigation is applied increasing period of leaf wetness = more disease Seedlings tend to be more susceptible than mature plants - could partially be due to maintenance of wet conditions in seedbed High nitrogen makes it worse Primo in spring can make it worse, but not in fall

52 Seed Research of Oregon Improving Turfgrass through Research What we know Fungicide control QoIs - Heritage at high rate good with high disease pressure, Compass at label rate sometimes has reduced control Benzimidazole or Clearys 3336 good except highest pressure Always add in a contact fungicide for spores Resistance already reported to QoIs - switch to fungicide with moderate activity for part of year Best long term solution lies in breeding for resistance

53 Seed Research of Oregon Improving Turfgrass through Research Ryegrass and GLS Further studies and needs Pyricularia grisea (Magnaporthe grisea) can rapidly change races Currently unknown number of races in US Do resistance genes work against all current races? Some variability in results from seedling trials in NJ and mature plants in MD - high resistant types remain resistant New germplasm sources - many resistant genes from European collections Genetic studies currently being done

54 Seed Research of Oregon Improving Turfgrass through Research Genetic relationship in GLS

55 Seed Research of Oregon Improving Turfgrass through Research Ryegrass and GLS Current and future buying decisions Varieties take two years to get some production started, three years for maximum production Current varieties with good resistance in last NTEP SR 4500, SR SR 4350 Varieties with improved resistance in production Peregrine, SR 4550 Varieties available in next few years Headstart II, SRX 4SP, SRX 4UP3, SRX 4692, SRX 4682

56 Seed Research of Oregon Improving Turfgrass through Research Ryegrass and GLS Current and future buying decisions Varieties take two years to get some production started, three years for maximum production Current varieties with good resistance in last NTEP SR 4500, SR SR 4350 Varieties with improved resistance in production Peregrine, SR 4550 Varieties available in next few years Headstart II, SRX 4SP, SRX 4UP3, SRX 4692, SRX 4682

57 Seed Research of Oregon Improving Turfgrass through Research Turf Quality - Green Velvet Sod Farm Perennial ryegrass 2004 Data Cultivar Quality Peregrine 8.3 Prizm5.7 SR Seville II 5.7 SR Penguin 5.7 SR Aberelf 5.7 SR Racer II5.0 SR Calypso II 4.7 SR Omni 4.0 SRX 45AB7.0 SR SRX Hawkeye6.7 5%1.9

58 Seed Research of Oregon Improving Turfgrass through Research Gray Leaf Spot Resistance 2004 Perennial ryegrass NTEP Gray leaf spot - Rutgers University

59 Seed Research of Oregon Improving Turfgrass through Research Wear tolerance 50 passes OH Treatment NameWear Tol. 1.5” Mowing HeightWear Tol. 3” Mowing Height Bariris KBG Grande ll TF + Rugby ll KBG Rugby ll KBG + Renaissance PRG Aberelf + SR4420 PRG Thermal Blue Texas x KBG hybrid Rendition TF Grande II TF Barlennium PRG Nexus PRG Orfeo KBG Titan, Kittyhawk + Rendition TF Winter Active Fescue (WAF) Showcase KBG + fine fescues Spring Green Festulolium Barfest Festulolium Labyrinth RTF™ LSD (0.05)1.61.6

60 Seed Research of Oregon Improving Turfgrass through Research Final recommendations Kentucky bluegrass Use a blend of types to increase probability of adaptation to all conditions Include an America-type, a Midnight-type, an Aggressive-type or Julia type. Shamrock-types needed in established turf Perennial ryegras Valuable to add to Kentucky bluegrass for endophyte-enhanced resistance Use wear tolerant, GLS resistant varieties

61 Seed Research of Oregon Improving Turfgrass through Research Bentgrass Improvement New NTEP Fall, 2003, first data in spring – SRX 1GD - Dense –SRX 1GPD - Dense –SRX 1PDH - Dollar spot, fairway, color similar to SR 1119 –DSB - very high dollar spot resistance Stress tolerant Dense types without excessive thatch Improved varieties to blend with current stable

62 Seed Research of Oregon Improving Turfgrass through Research Rutgers University 2003 NTEP Bentgrass Greens Trial 2004 Data Creeping Bentgrass Cultivars Cultivar Quality SRX 1GD 7.2 T-16.1 CY-26.7 DSB 5.9 Declaration6.7 Penn A Shark6.7 SR Penn G-26.7 L Penn G-66.4 Pennlinks II 4.9 Independence6.4 Alpha 4.7 SRX 1GPD6.3 Kingpin4.6 LS Benchmark DSR4.2 Penn A Penncross3.4 5%0.7

63 Seed Research of Oregon Improving Turfgrass through Research SRX 1GD Creeping Bentgrass Stress tolerant germplasm. Very high density for greens Bright medium green color. High turf quality. Dollar spot resistance level like L-93. High brown patch resistance High fall color retention. –Picture Puyallup, WA November, 2004 Use this slide if you are going to use a picture. To make a presentation interesting, you should have images on at least 50% of the slides. Without visuals, you will quickly put people to sleep. You might anyway, but you have a better chance of keeping their attention if you use some nice visuals. Pictures can make the presentation look more professional. Delete this text and place picture in same area, lining picture up with top of yellow text. Use 72dpi jpgs images. To shrink picture proportionally once it’s on the slide: 1. Click on the picture (note corner handles). 2. Hold down the Shift key, then press and drag a corner handle towards the middle of the picture. 3. Release the Shift key first then the mouse.

64 Seed Research of Oregon Improving Turfgrass through Research SRX 1GD Creeping Bentgrass Rutgers Univ. July, 2004 Greens Trial High stress environment SRX 1GD rated a 9 by supers

65 Seed Research of Oregon Improving Turfgrass through Research SRX 1GPD Creeping Bentgrass Stress tolerant germplasm. High density for greens and high end fairways Bright medium green color. High turf quality. High dollar spot resistance High brown patch resistance Early maturity –Picture Arkansas May 2004 Use this slide if you are going to use a picture. To make a presentation interesting, you should have images on at least 50% of the slides. Without visuals, you will quickly put people to sleep. You might anyway, but you have a better chance of keeping their attention if you use some nice visuals. Pictures can make the presentation look more professional. Delete this text and place picture in same area, lining picture up with top of yellow text. Use 72dpi jpgs images. To shrink picture proportionally once it’s on the slide: 1. Click on the picture (note corner handles). 2. Hold down the Shift key, then press and drag a corner handle towards the middle of the picture. 3. Release the Shift key first then the mouse.

66 Seed Research of Oregon Improving Turfgrass through Research SRX 1GPD Creeping Bentgrass Rutgers Univ. July, 2004 Fairway Trial High stress environment

67 Seed Research of Oregon Improving Turfgrass through Research SRX 1PDH Creeping Bentgrass Dollar spot resistant. Moderately high density for greens and fairways Color, texture match SR 1119, Brighton, Sandhill. High turf quality. High brown patch resistance Picture Rutgers Univ., Fairway Trial, July 04 Use this slide if you are going to use a picture. To make a presentation interesting, you should have images on at least 50% of the slides. Without visuals, you will quickly put people to sleep. You might anyway, but you have a better chance of keeping their attention if you use some nice visuals. Pictures can make the presentation look more professional. Delete this text and place picture in same area, lining picture up with top of yellow text. Use 72dpi jpgs images. To shrink picture proportionally once it’s on the slide: 1. Click on the picture (note corner handles). 2. Hold down the Shift key, then press and drag a corner handle towards the middle of the picture. 3. Release the Shift key first then the mouse.

68 Seed Research of Oregon Improving Turfgrass through Research DSB Creeping Bentgrass Developed by Dr. Rich Hurley. Very dollar spot resistant. Related to L-93. High turf quality. Excellent for greens and fairways. Moderately high density –Picture Arkansas May 2004 Use this slide if you are going to use a picture. To make a presentation interesting, you should have images on at least 50% of the slides. Without visuals, you will quickly put people to sleep. You might anyway, but you have a better chance of keeping their attention if you use some nice visuals. Pictures can make the presentation look more professional. Delete this text and place picture in same area, lining picture up with top of yellow text. Use 72dpi jpgs images. To shrink picture proportionally once it’s on the slide: 1. Click on the picture (note corner handles). 2. Hold down the Shift key, then press and drag a corner handle towards the middle of the picture. 3. Release the Shift key first then the mouse.

69 Seed Research of Oregon Improving Turfgrass through Research DSB Creeping Bentgrass Rutgers Univ. July, 2004 Greens Trial High stress environment


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