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Director of Research and Technical Services Seed Research of Oregon

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1 Director of Research and Technical Services Seed Research of Oregon
Choosing a Bentgrass Dr. Leah A. Brilman Director of Research and Technical Services Seed Research of Oregon

2 Old and New Choices in Cultivars and Species
Choosing a Bentgrass Old and New Choices in Cultivars and Species

3 Bentgrass decisions Greens or fairways Wear - Amount, type and season
Environmental stresses - heat, cold, humidity Budget and equipment for maintenance Type of course Private or public Clientele expectations and competition Water quality and quantity Environmental concerns

4 Bentgrass breeding goals
Disease resistance Dollar spot Brown patch Anthracnose Snow mold Take-all resistance High density for greens - resist weed invasion Winter active growth - winter color retention Salt tolerance Wear tolerance Dense types without excessive thatch

5 Bentgrass breeding goals
Greens Ballmark repair and recovery Speed of greens Stress tolerance Fairways Divot repair and recovery Both Thatch control Poa annua control

6 Bentgrass trials Combine different species and types one trial
Differential herbicide/fungicide response Different requirements for thatch control NTEP Trials at Universities Most not managed as on golf course Less mowing, mowing height different No traffic Fungicide/no fungicide split but often only fungicide side reported New NTEP - no split. More trials with reduced fungicides

7 Bentgrass trials NTEP/GCSAA On site trials Putting Green only
High end courses - intensive management Thatch control often geared to heavy thatch producers Preventative fungicide Only four disease ratings in all trials Best trials on golf courses - often no feedback

8 Bentgrass trials Management influences - Four sands / One cultivar

9 Creeping bentgrass Traditional varieties - Penncross, Seaside
Lower density, horizontal growth Standard improved varieties for greens and fairways : SR 1119, SR 1120 (Brighton), Sandhill, Ninety- six two, L-93, Providence, SR 1020, Crenshaw, Seaside II, Pennlinks, Penneagle, Trueline, Backspin, Putter, Cato, Century, Princeville, Cobra, Viper, Grand Prix, Bengal Moderate density, more upright, versatile Less thatch for fairways, disease and stress resistance important characterstics

10 Creeping bentgrass High density varieties - greens
Penn G-2, G-6, A-1, A-4, G-1 - all from selections at Augusta, GA - very similar genetics High thatch producers - must have budget and equipment to control Slower repair aerification holes, ball marks Use smaller diameter holes, topdress frequently Upright, dense growth - good at low height Good wear tolerance

11 Creeping bentgrass New moderate density improved varieties
SR 1150 (SRX 1PDH), LS-44, Alpha, Independence, Penneagle II, Pennlinks II, Benchmark DSR, Memorial, Kingpin Intermediate versatile varieties - greens, tees and fairways 007 (DSB), MacKenzie (SRX 1GPD) New high density varieties Tyee (SRX 1GD), Declaration, T-1, Authority, Shark

12 Creeping bentgrass l Divot repair rate
Traditional > Improved >Versatile> High Density Cover may be greater but not fully repaired Higher density varieties sometimes ballmark less but recover slower All bentgrasses - use sand/seed repair mix Add Chewings fescue for faster germination Green speed and smoothness Some Improved cultivars faster than High Density. Dependent on health of plant and management practices. l

13 Mean % repair after 28 days over 4 dates
Creeping bentgrass Ball mark repair study Bakalyar, Honors Course, Tennessee. Ball mark created as a hole. Sunny and shady plots healed differently Repair rate related to growth pattern of cultivar - heat tolerant cultivars better in summer, Winter-active types better in October No consistent pattern in type Mean % repair after 28 days over 4 dates SR Penn G Pennlinks Crenshaw 38.0 L Penncross 36.5 Penn A

14 Percent repair after 6 weeks 1998
Creeping bentgrass Damage control study Clemson, University Repair of damage from 2 inch hole in June and August Repair rate differed by type - standard and improved typically better than dense. Percent repair after 6 weeks 1998 Cultivar June Aug. Cultivar June Aug. Penncross 43 a 33 cd Crenshaw 33 b-e 45 ab Southshore 41 ab 36 a-d Penn G-2 32 b-e 36 a-d Putter 41 ab 39 abc Crens/Cato 31 cde 37 a-d Pennlinks 41 ab 33 cd Cato 30 cde 37 a-d Mariner 39 abc 28 d Penn A-1 30 cde 35 a-d Viper 38 a-d 37 a-d Penn G-1 30 cde 30 cd SR a-d 35 a-d Providence 29 de 35 a-d SR a-d 34 bcd Penn A-4 29 de 35 a-d L a-e 45 ab Penn G-6 27 e 33 cd Dominant 34 a-e 46 a

15 Mean % dollar spot on greens 1999-2002 data, 3 locations
Creeping bentgrass Dollar spot - most fungicides used to control. Variability in resistance in trials by location and management Mean % dollar spot on greens data, 3 locations Cutlivar % DS Cultivar % DS Providence Penn A Sandhill Ninety-six two Penn G Penncross Penn G Backspin Bengal Penn A Pennlinks Crenshaw 11.2 Brighton Imperial Penn A Century 16.8 L SR

16 Dollar spot ratings grown on green 1999-2002, Mean of 12 location
Creeping bentgrass Dollar spot - most fungicides used to control. Variability in resistance in trials by location and management Dollar spot ratings grown on green , Mean of 12 location Cutlivar Mean Cultivar Mean Penncross SR L Imperial Pennlinks Brighton Penn A Providence Penn A Backspin Penn G Ninety-six two Sandhill Century Penn G Crenshaw Bengal Penn A

17 Dollar spot ratings grown on green 1993 - 97, Mean of 12 location
Creeping bentgrass Dollar spot - most fungicides used to control. Variability in resistance in trials by location and management Dollar spot ratings grown on green , Mean of 12 location Cutlivar Mean Cultivar Mean L Penn A Penn A Mariner Pennlinks Imperial Providence SR Penncross Backspin Seaside Century Penn G th Green Penn G Crenshaw Trueline Southshore

18 Creeping bentgrass Dollar spot resistance
Two to three major genes involved - only one strain used to determine. Additional genes may be necessary for resistance to other strains. Density of grass important, leaf to leaf transmission. Penncross sometimes shows less due to low density Reduce hours of moisture - mowing, irrigation, rolling Nitrogen management - low levels currently used for faster greens increase levels Usually good resistance - Providence, SR 1119, L-93, Cato, Sandhill, Penn A-1, G-1, G-2, G-6, Pennlinks New cultivars with promise - Declaration, 007, Pennlinks II, Memorial, SR 1150, 13-M, Benchmark DSR, Kingpin

19 Brown patch ratings grown on green 1999-2002, Mean of 7 locations
Creeping bentgrass Brown patch - Variability in resistance in trials by location and management Brown patch ratings grown on green , Mean of 7 locations Cutlivar Mean Cultivar Mean Ninety-six two Century Penn G Penn A Sandhill Bengal SR Backspin Brighton Imperial L Penn A Pennlinks Providence Penn G Penn A Crenshaw Penncross

20 Thatch in mm grown on green 1999, 2000, Mean of 2 locations
Creeping bentgrass Thatch Development - measured after 1 and 2 years Thatch in mm grown on green 1999, 2000, Mean of 2 locations Cutlivar Mean Cultivar Mean Penn A Sandhill 12.1 Penn A Crenshaw 12.0 Penn A L Century Pennlinks 12.0 Penn G Providence 11.9 Penn G Imperial 11.9 Ninety-six two SR Bengal Penncross 11.6 Brighton 12.2 Backspin

21 Creeping bentgrass Thatch Control Critical in newer bentgrasses
Thatch development dependent on cultivar, environment, nitrogen, irrigation, mowing height, traffic Topdressing weekly or bimonthly most critical. Irrigate to integrate during heat stress rather than brushing. Hollow-tine aeration most critical in maintaining reduced organic matter, high saturated hydraulic conductivity, high root oxygen content - reduces quality short term Hydojet, solid tines, spiker should start 5-8 weeks after hollow-tine to maintain SHC during summer Vertical mowing, grooming can help reduce OM - can influence quality.

22 Creeping bentgrass Cultivars that develop more thatch. Recommended primarily for greens only. Higher budget for maintenance. Penn A-2 Penn A-4 Penn G-1 Penn G-2 Penn G-6 New cultivars that develop more thatch Declaration (Bentgrass bloat) Tyee (SRX 1GD) T-1 Authority (235050) Kingpin Shark

23 Why Blends/Mixtures Increased genetic diversity
Strengths and weaknesses matched Natural Selection for microenvironments Match color, growth form carefully

24 Science and nonscience of blends
Kentucky bluegrass (Vargas and Turgeon, Proc. Third ITRC ) Melting-out resistance of blend of two cultivars intermediate between same cultivars in monostands Inoculum from susceptible cultivar reduced resistance of resistant cultivar Blends of two cultivars generally show resistance intermediate between each alone

25 Science and nonscience of blends
Creeping bentgrass (Abernathy et al Crop Sci 41: ) Dollar spot resistance among blends of creeping bentgrass cultivars Penn A-4, Crenshaw, L-93, Mariner and Penncross, monostands and two or three-way blends L-93 suppressed dollar spot in blends, Crenshaw increased Blending Crenshaw with any reduced dollar spot centers 46 to 67% and blighted areas 71 to 98%

26 Science and nonscience of blends

27 Example:Dominant X-treme Creeping Bentgrass Blend
Blend of SR 1119 and Providence Excellent for northern areas to transition zone Combines heat tolerance and cold tolerance Disease resistance Similar in color, texture Little segregation

28 Stress tolerance in bents
One month with no water 2002 NJ drought

29 Science and nonscience of blends
Color and density should be matched Large variability in colors - blue-green to true greens Variability in density makes for uneven surface

30 Science and nonscience of blends
Color and density should be matched Large variability in colors - blue-green to true greens Variability in density makes for uneven surface Penncross Tyee

31 Creeping bentgrass Additional characteristics important in choosing cultivars or making blends Winter-active growth - critical in Southern areas where bent is used for resorts, CA, PNW Snow mold resistance Heat / drought resistance Salinity tolerance - most studies do not properly evaluate since not mown or in sand medium Primarily monitor top growth Recent study in Colorado better - repeat with more cultivars

32 Bentgrass Conversion From Poa - Trials at Rutgers University
Poa aerated, topdressed, verticut before overseeding, seed broadcast No effect from PGRs Seeding date influenced establishment with July 1, Aug. 17 dates best one study, June 19, Aug. 20 another study. SR 7200 velvet best, A-4, L-93, Providence all better than Penncross Can use water injection for placement Velocity can provide better, safer, faster conversion

33 Bentgrass Conversion From one bent to another
More difficult if original bent is healthy More difficult under fairway conditions Prepare as for Poa conversion Verticut, aerate, top dress. The aim is to weaken existing bent to give seedlings a chance. Further reduce growth with PGR or Roundup Multiple seedings needed Dormant seedings useful in some locations Seeding in late spring, summer more competitive

34 Roundup Ready Bentgrass
Scotts and Monsanto USDA Application was refiled , Environmental Impact Assessment currently underway Currently fairway variety, greens type later Parents used in backcross have high dollar spot resistance, excellent agronomic characterstics Poa annua control - must rotate with other herbicides Stewardship program to prevent escape Available USA (?)

35 New Creeping Bentgrasses
007 (DSB) MacKenzie Tyee (SRX 1GD) Benchmark DSR SR 1150 (SRX 1PDH) Alpha T M Declaration Kingpin Authority(235050) Pennlinks II Memorial (A03-ED1) CY-2 Independence Cobra II (ISI-AP 9) LS-44

36 Tyee Creeping Bentgrass (SRX 1GD)
Dr. Leah Brilman + Rutgers Stress tolerant germplasm Very high density for greens High summer density, no bloat Bright medium green color High turf quality Dollar Spot resistance level similar to L-93 High Brown Patch resistance High fall color retention Tyee Photo Puyallup, WA November, 2004

37 Tyee Creeping Bentgrass
Rutgers Univ. July, 2004 Greens Trial High stress environment Tyee rated a 9 by supers Germination in 4 days Tyee

38 007 Creeping Bentgrass Developed by Dr. Rich Hurley, in cooperation with Rutgers University Excellent Dollar Spot resistant Related to L-93 High turf quality Excellent for greens, tees and fairways Moderately high density Bright dark green color 007 Picture Arkansas May 2004

39 007 Creeping Bentgrass Rutgers Univ. July, 2004 Greens Trial
High stress environment 007

40 High dollar spot resistance
Rutgers University Greens High dollar spot resistance

41 SR 1150 Creeping Bentgrass SRX 1PDH
Rutgers University – Dr. Stacy Bonos Dollar Spot resistant Moderately high density for greens and fairways Color, texture match with SR 1119, Brighton, Sandhill High turf quality High Brown Patch resistance High performance in Reduced Fungicide Trials SR 1150 Picture Rutgers Univ., Fairway Trial, July 04

42 New Creeping bentgrass
Percent dollar spot ratings of Creeping Bentgrass cultivars on a fairway or tee at Lexington, KY NTEP – Fairway or tee Data Cultivar % dollar spot Declaration Pennlinks II SR 1150 (SRX 1PDH) 5.3 Kingpin Mackenzie Penncross L SR Alpha Shark T Independence 5%

43 Mackenzie Creeping Bentgrass
Rutgers Univ. July, 2004 Fairway Trial High stress environment Dr. Jim Murphy likes this one for fairways High performer greens and fairways SR Mackenzie

44 MacKenzie Creeping Bentgrass
Utah State University July, 2005 Comparison with Kingpin Brighter color, density SR MacKenzie Kingpin Mackenzie

45 New Creeping Bentgrass
2003 NTEP grown on sand, Mean of 12 locations 2004 data, 1-9, 9 = Ideal Turf Cutlivar Mean Cultivar Mean Tyee (SRX 1GD) LS Authority (235050) MacKenzie 5.9 CY Bengal 5.9 Penn A Alpha 5.7 T Benchmark DSR 5.7 Shark (23R) M 5.7 Declaration Kingpin (9200) 5.7 007 (DSB) Pennlinks II 5.6 Memorial (A03-ED1) Penncross 5.1 Independence

46 New Creeping Bentgrass
Quality ratings of Creeping Bentgrass cultivars grown on a green at 10 locations using an 1/8 inch (3.2 mm) or lower cutting height 2003 NTEP – Putting Green Data Turfgrass Quality ratings 1-9, 9 = Ideal Turf Cultivar Quality Cultivar Quality Declaration Kingpin 6.4 MacKenzie Memorial 6.4 Authority T Tyee (SRX 1GD) Benchmark DSR 6.2 CY Alpha 6.0 Penn A Pennlinks II 5.5 007 (DSB) Penncross 5.0 5% 0.2

47 New Creeping Bentgrass
2003 NTEP grown on sand, Logan, UT 2004 data, 1-9, 9 = Ideal Turf Cutlivar Mean Cultivar Mean 007 (DSB) M 6.3 Shark Alpha 6.3 Authority (235050) Benchmark DSR 6.3 T Bengal 6.1 Independence CY Penn A LS Tyee (SRX 1GD) Kingpin (9200) 6.0 MacKenzie Pennlinks II 5.5 Memorial (A03-ED1) Penncross 4.5 Declaration

48 New Creeping Bentgrass
Cultivar Mean Quality Rutgers Cultivar Mean Quality Rutgers Tyee (SRX 1GD) Century 5.0 Shark (23R) Mt. View SR CY-2 Snow Brand Pennington 13-M 4.8 Lesco Authority (ended year down) 6.6 L Penn G Simplot Alpha 4.6 MacKenzie Imperial 4.5 Penn G Kingpin ( 9200) 4.4 007 (DSB) Pennlinks II 4.4 Penn A Penneagle 4.4 Simplot T (BP, CS) Crenshaw 4.4 DLF IS AP Pennlinks 4.2 Links Seed LS TMI Benchmark DSR 3.9 Penn A Scotts Memorial Barenbrug Bengal 5.2

49 New Creeping Bentgrasses
Alpha and T-1 T-1 dark blue-green color T-1 high density

50 New Creeping Bentgrasses
Kingpin and MacKenzie MacKenzie brighter green, Kingpin blue-green.

51 New Creeping Bentgrasses
Kingpin and MacKenzie LS-44 - developed from L-93 germplasm Density not as great as 007 Benchmark DSR - moderate density, good dollar spot resistance

52 New Creeping Bentgrasses
Declaration - Developed for improved dollar spot resistance. Fertility may need to be watched. Develops Bentgrass Bloat - summer scalping Memorial - Improved dollar spot resistance. Authority and Shark (23R) - Developed from same material. High dollar spot resistance, quality CY-2 - developed in Japan for dollar spot resistance

53 SRO Creeping Bentgrasses
All developed for high performance with lower nitrogen use. Levels similar to what is being used by superintendents Less summer bentgrass bloat so reduced summer scalping potential High summer density for wear tolerance Little or no winter purpling High density can dominate Poa

54 Velvet Bentgrass Agrostis canina
Best putting surface Wear tolerant - better than any creeping Excellent drought and heat resistance Best shade tolerance Low fertility (after established) Best in acid sands or soils - needs acid fertilizer and iron in alkaline conditions Reduced water requirements - 40 to 60% ET

55 Velvet Bentgrass Puyallup, Washington Greens Trials Color difference
between velvets and creepers

56 Velvet Bentgrass Thatch control important Ball marks
Less than creeping bents, repair similar to high density creeping bents Fairway usage Thatch control, holds ball upright, wear tolerant, dollar spot resistant

57 Velvet Bentgrass Eagle’s Nest Golf Course Ontario, Canada
Greens, tees, and fairways velvet bentgrass

58 Colonial bentgrass Agrostis capillaris
Fairway usage Dollar spot resistant against most strains More brown patch susceptible than creepers Less thatch than creepers Best at low fertility Better wear resistance than creepers Hold ball upright Low water use - in Utah maintain density 50% ET

59 Colonial bentgrass In fairway or tee usage best combined with
Chewings and/or creeping red fescue Use fine fescues in divot repair mixes More sensitive to ethofumesate Varieties - SR 7150, SR 7100, Bardot, Egmont, Tiger, Tiger II, Alistair, Glory, Heriot, Revere, Viter Use low fertility

60 SR 7150 Colonial bentgrass Darkest green colonial bentgrass
Color similar to other turf species High dollar spot resistance Improved brown patch resistance Best at low fertility Blend with Chewings or other fine fescues Fairways or home lawns Overseeding on greens

61 Colonial bentgrass Low Input Trial Oregon State Univ. 1lb. N Preplant
Irrigated for Establishment No fertilizers/pesticides Mown at 1/2”, Clippings removed Irrigation only if severely stressed

62 Colonial bentgrass Best Performers after 7 years Mix #9 Mix #7 Mix # 4
90% SR % SR % SR 3100 10% SR % SR % SR % SR 7100 Upright, dense, high quality turf with few weeds, not segregated. Colonial/Chewings Fescue also tested at URI for 5 years. SR 5100 is Chewings fescue SR 3100 is hard fescue

63 Dryland Colonial ‘Highland’
A. castellana A. capillaris blue-green true green stolons stolons long rhizomes usually no rhizomes scalp/false crown more upright

64 Choosing your bentgrass
Decide which species will meet your needs best Define your budget Which management options, diseases, other characteristics are your primary concerns Do you want a cultivar with a track record or willing to look at newest options Resources and people available to help in your decision New construction, renovation or conversion 2003 Fairway Trial many top ranked heavy thatch

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