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Seed Research of Oregon Improving Turfgrass through Research Choosing a Bentgrass Dr. Leah A. Brilman Director of Research and Technical Services Seed.

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Presentation on theme: "Seed Research of Oregon Improving Turfgrass through Research Choosing a Bentgrass Dr. Leah A. Brilman Director of Research and Technical Services Seed."— Presentation transcript:

1 Seed Research of Oregon Improving Turfgrass through Research Choosing a Bentgrass Dr. Leah A. Brilman Director of Research and Technical Services Seed Research of Oregon

2 Seed Research of Oregon Improving Turfgrass through Research Choosing a Bentgrass Old and New Choices in Cultivars and Species

3 Seed Research of Oregon Improving Turfgrass through Research Bentgrass decisions Greens or fairways Wear - Amount, type and season Environmental stresses - heat, cold, humidity Budget and equipment for maintenance Type of course Private or public Clientele expectations and competition Water quality and quantity Environmental concerns

4 Seed Research of Oregon Improving Turfgrass through Research Bentgrass breeding goals Disease resistance –Dollar spot –Brown patch –Anthracnose –Snow mold –Take-all resistance High density for greens - resist weed invasion Winter active growth - winter color retention Salt tolerance Wear tolerance Dense types without excessive thatch

5 Seed Research of Oregon Improving Turfgrass through Research Bentgrass breeding goals Greens Ballmark repair and recovery Speed of greens Stress tolerance Fairways Divot repair and recovery Stress tolerance Both Thatch control Poa annua control

6 Seed Research of Oregon Improving Turfgrass through Research Bentgrass trials Combine different species and types one trial Differential herbicide/fungicide response Different requirements for thatch control NTEP Trials at Universities Most not managed as on golf course Less mowing, mowing height different No traffic Fungicide/no fungicide split but often only fungicide side reported New NTEP - no split. More trials with reduced fungicides

7 Seed Research of Oregon Improving Turfgrass through Research Bentgrass trials NTEP/GCSAA On site trials Putting Green only High end courses - intensive management Thatch control often geared to heavy thatch producers Preventative fungicide Only four disease ratings in all trials Best trials on golf courses - often no feedback

8 Seed Research of Oregon Improving Turfgrass through Research Bentgrass trials Management influences - Four sands / One cultivar

9 Seed Research of Oregon Improving Turfgrass through Research Creeping bentgrass Traditional varieties - Penncross, Seaside Lower density, horizontal growth Standard improved varieties for greens and fairways : SR 1119, SR 1120 (Brighton), Sandhill, Ninety- six two, L-93, Providence, SR 1020, Crenshaw, Seaside II, Pennlinks, Penneagle, Trueline, Backspin, Putter, Cato, Century, Princeville, Cobra, Viper, Grand Prix, Bengal Moderate density, more upright, versatile Less thatch for fairways, disease and stress resistance important characterstics

10 Seed Research of Oregon Improving Turfgrass through Research Creeping bentgrass High density varieties - greens Penn G-2, G-6, A-1, A-4, G-1 - all from selections at Augusta, GA - very similar genetics High thatch producers - must have budget and equipment to control Slower repair aerification holes, ball marks Use smaller diameter holes, topdress frequently Upright, dense growth - good at low height Good wear tolerance

11 Seed Research of Oregon Improving Turfgrass through Research Creeping bentgrass New moderate density improved varieties SR 1150 (SRX 1PDH), LS-44, Alpha, Independence, Penneagle II, Pennlinks II, Benchmark DSR, Memorial, Kingpin Intermediate versatile varieties - greens, tees and fairways 007 (DSB), MacKenzie (SRX 1GPD) New high density varieties Tyee (SRX 1GD), Declaration, T-1, Authority, Shark

12 Seed Research of Oregon Improving Turfgrass through Research Creeping bentgrass Divot repair rate Traditional > Improved >Versatile> High Density Cover may be greater but not fully repaired Higher density varieties sometimes ballmark less but recover slower All bentgrasses - use sand/seed repair mix Add Chewings fescue for faster germination Green speed and smoothness Some Improved cultivars faster than High Density. Dependent on health of plant and management practices. l

13 Seed Research of Oregon Improving Turfgrass through Research Creeping bentgrass Ball mark repair study Bakalyar, Honors Course, Tennessee. Ball mark created as a hole. –Sunny and shady plots healed differently –Repair rate related to growth pattern of cultivar - heat tolerant cultivars better in summer, Winter-active types better in October –No consistent pattern in type Mean % repair after 28 days over 4 dates SR Penn G Pennlinks41.0Crenshaw38.0 L Penncross36.5 Penn A-139.0

14 Seed Research of Oregon Improving Turfgrass through Research Creeping bentgrass Damage control study Clemson, University –Repair of damage from 2 inch hole in June and August –Repair rate differed by type - standard and improved typically better than dense. Percent repair after 6 weeks 1998 CultivarJuneAug.CultivarJuneAug. Penncross43 a33 cdCrenshaw33 b-e45 ab Southshore41 ab36 a-dPenn G-232 b-e36 a-d Putter41 ab39 abcCrens/Cato31 cde37 a-d Pennlinks41 ab33 cdCato30 cde37 a-d Mariner39 abc28 dPenn A-130 cde35 a-d Viper38 a-d37 a-dPenn G-130 cde30 cd SR a-d35 a-dProvidence29 de35 a-d SR a-d34 bcdPenn A-429 de35 a-d L-9336 a-e45 abPenn G-627 e33 cd Dominant34 a-e46 a

15 Seed Research of Oregon Improving Turfgrass through Research Creeping bentgrass Dollar spot - most fungicides used to control. Variability in resistance in trials by location and management Mean % dollar spot on greens data, 3 locations Cutlivar% DSCultivar% DS Providence 3.0Penn A Sandhill 3.4Ninety-six two 6.8 Penn G-6 3.4Penncross 7.6 Penn G-1 3.8Backspin 7.8 Bengal 4.3Penn A Pennlinks 4.4Crenshaw11.2 Brighton 4.7 Imperial 11.4 Penn A-1 4.8Century16.8 L SR 1119

16 Seed Research of Oregon Improving Turfgrass through Research Creeping bentgrass Dollar spot - most fungicides used to control. Variability in resistance in trials by location and management Dollar spot ratings grown on green , Mean of 12 location CutlivarMeanCultivarMean Penncross 7.9SR L Imperial 6.5 Pennlinks 7.7Brighton 6.5 Penn A-1 7.6Providence 6.2 Penn A-2 7.6Backspin 5.9 Penn G-6 7.2Ninety-six two 5.6 Sandhill 7.2 Century 5.4 Penn G-1 7.1Crenshaw 5.2 Bengal 7.1 Penn A-4

17 Seed Research of Oregon Improving Turfgrass through Research Creeping bentgrass Dollar spot - most fungicides used to control. Variability in resistance in trials by location and management Dollar spot ratings grown on green , Mean of 12 location CutlivarMeanCultivarMean L Penn A Penn A-1 7.4Mariner 6.1 Pennlinks 7.4Imperial 5.7 Providence 7.2SR Penncross 7.1Backspin 5.5 Seaside 7.0Century 4.9 Penn G th Green 4.5 Penn G-6 6.8Crenshaw 4.5 Trueline 6.6 Southshore

18 Seed Research of Oregon Improving Turfgrass through Research Creeping bentgrass Dollar spot resistance Two to three major genes involved - only one strain used to determine. Additional genes may be necessary for resistance to other strains. Density of grass important, leaf to leaf transmission. Penncross sometimes shows less due to low density Reduce hours of moisture - mowing, irrigation, rolling Nitrogen management - low levels currently used for faster greens increase levels Usually good resistance - Providence, SR 1119, L-93, Cato, Sandhill, Penn A-1, G-1, G-2, G-6, Pennlinks New cultivars with promise - Declaration, 007, Pennlinks II, Memorial, SR 1150, 13-M, Benchmark DSR, Kingpin

19 Seed Research of Oregon Improving Turfgrass through Research Creeping bentgrass Brown patch - Variability in resistance in trials by location and management Brown patch ratings grown on green , Mean of 7 locations CutlivarMeanCultivarMean Ninety-six two 7.2Century 6.2 Penn G-6 6.9Penn A Sandhill 6.7Bengal 6.1 SR Backspin 5.9 Brighton 6.5Imperial 5.7 L Penn A Pennlinks 6.4 Providence 5.6 Penn G-1 6.3Penn A Crenshaw 6.3 Penncross

20 Seed Research of Oregon Improving Turfgrass through Research Creeping bentgrass Thatch Development - measured after 1 and 2 years Thatch in mm grown on green 1999, 2000, Mean of 2 locations CutlivarMeanCultivarMean Penn A-413.9Sandhill12.1 Penn A-113.6Crenshaw12.0 Penn A-213.3L Century12.8Pennlinks12.0 Penn G-612.8Providence11.9 Penn G-112.8Imperial11.9 Ninety-six two12.8SR Bengal12.3Penncross11.6 Brighton12.2

21 Seed Research of Oregon Improving Turfgrass through Research Creeping bentgrass Thatch Control Critical in newer bentgrasses Thatch development dependent on cultivar, environment, nitrogen, irrigation, mowing height, traffic Topdressing weekly or bimonthly most critical. Irrigate to integrate during heat stress rather than brushing. Hollow-tine aeration most critical in maintaining reduced organic matter, high saturated hydraulic conductivity, high root oxygen content - reduces quality short term Hydojet, solid tines, spiker should start 5-8 weeks after hollow-tine to maintain SHC during summer Vertical mowing, grooming can help reduce OM - can influence quality.

22 Seed Research of Oregon Improving Turfgrass through Research Creeping bentgrass Cultivars that develop more thatch. Recommended primarily for greens only. Higher budget for maintenance. Penn A-2 Penn A-4 Penn G-1 Penn G-2 Penn G-6 New cultivars that develop more thatch Declaration (Bentgrass bloat) Tyee (SRX 1GD) T-1 Authority (235050) Kingpin Shark

23 Seed Research of Oregon Improving Turfgrass through Research Why Blends/Mixtures Increased genetic diversity Strengths and weaknesses matched Natural Selection for microenvironments Match color, growth form carefully

24 Seed Research of Oregon Improving Turfgrass through Research Science and nonscience of blends Kentucky bluegrass (Vargas and Turgeon, Proc. Third ITRC ) Melting-out resistance of blend of two cultivars intermediate between same cultivars in monostands Inoculum from susceptible cultivar reduced resistance of resistant cultivar Blends of two cultivars generally show resistance intermediate between each alone

25 Seed Research of Oregon Improving Turfgrass through Research Science and nonscience of blends Creeping bentgrass (Abernathy et al Crop Sci 41: ) Dollar spot resistance among blends of creeping bentgrass cultivars Penn A-4, Crenshaw, L-93, Mariner and Penncross, monostands and two or three-way blends L-93 suppressed dollar spot in blends, Crenshaw increased Blending Crenshaw with any reduced dollar spot centers 46 to 67% and blighted areas 71 to 98%

26 Seed Research of Oregon Improving Turfgrass through Research Science and nonscience of blends

27 Seed Research of Oregon Improving Turfgrass through Research Example:Dominant X-treme Creeping Bentgrass Blend Blend of SR 1119 and Providence Excellent for northern areas to transition zone Combines heat tolerance and cold tolerance Disease resistance Similar in color, texture Little segregation

28 Seed Research of Oregon Improving Turfgrass through Research Stress tolerance in bents One month with no water 2002 NJ drought

29 Seed Research of Oregon Improving Turfgrass through Research Science and nonscience of blends Color and density should be matched Large variability in colors - blue-green to true greens Variability in density makes for uneven surface

30 Seed Research of Oregon Improving Turfgrass through Research Science and nonscience of blends Color and density should be matched Large variability in colors - blue-green to true greens Variability in density makes for uneven surface Penncross Tyee

31 Seed Research of Oregon Improving Turfgrass through Research Creeping bentgrass Additional characteristics important in choosing cultivars or making blends Winter-active growth - critical in Southern areas where bent is used for resorts, CA, PNW Snow mold resistance Heat / drought resistance Salinity tolerance - most studies do not properly evaluate since not mown or in sand medium –Primarily monitor top growth –Recent study in Colorado better - repeat with more cultivars

32 Seed Research of Oregon Improving Turfgrass through Research Bentgrass Conversion From Poa - Trials at Rutgers University Poa aerated, topdressed, verticut before overseeding, seed broadcast No effect from PGRs Seeding date influenced establishment with July 1, Aug. 17 dates best one study, June 19, Aug. 20 another study. SR 7200 velvet best, A-4, L-93, Providence all better than Penncross Can use water injection for placement Velocity can provide better, safer, faster conversion

33 Seed Research of Oregon Improving Turfgrass through Research Bentgrass Conversion From one bent to another More difficult if original bent is healthy More difficult under fairway conditions Prepare as for Poa conversion Verticut, aerate, top dress. The aim is to weaken existing bent to give seedlings a chance. Further reduce growth with PGR or Roundup Multiple seedings needed Dormant seedings useful in some locations Seeding in late spring, summer more competitive

34 Seed Research of Oregon Improving Turfgrass through Research Roundup Ready Bentgrass Scotts and Monsanto USDA Application was refiled, Environmental Impact Assessment currently underway Currently fairway variety, greens type later Parents used in backcross have high dollar spot resistance, excellent agronomic characterstics Poa annua control - must rotate with other herbicides Stewardship program to prevent escape Available USA (?)

35 Seed Research of Oregon Improving Turfgrass through Research New Creeping Bentgrasses 007 (DSB)MacKenzie Tyee (SRX 1GD)Benchmark DSR SR 1150 (SRX 1PDH)Alpha T-113-M DeclarationKingpin Authority(235050)Pennlinks II Memorial (A03-ED1)CY-2 IndependenceCobra II (ISI-AP 9) LS-44

36 Seed Research of Oregon Improving Turfgrass through Research Tyee Creeping Bentgrass (SRX 1GD) Dr. Leah Brilman + Rutgers Stress tolerant germplasm Very high density for greens High summer density, no bloat Bright medium green color High turf quality Dollar Spot resistance level similar to L-93 High Brown Patch resistance High fall color retention Tyee Photo Puyallup, WA November, 2004

37 Seed Research of Oregon Improving Turfgrass through Research Tyee Creeping Bentgrass Rutgers Univ. July, 2004 Greens Trial High stress environment Tyee rated a 9 by supers Germination in 4 days Tyee

38 Seed Research of Oregon Improving Turfgrass through Research Creeping Bentgrass Developed by Dr. Rich Hurley, in cooperation with Rutgers University Excellent Dollar Spot resistant Related to L-93 High turf quality Excellent for greens, tees and fairways Moderately high density Bright dark green color Picture Arkansas May

39 Seed Research of Oregon Improving Turfgrass through Research Creeping Bentgrass Rutgers Univ. July, 2004 Greens Trial High stress environment 007

40 Seed Research of Oregon Improving Turfgrass through Research Rutgers University Greens High dollar spot resistance

41 Seed Research of Oregon Improving Turfgrass through Research SR 1150 Creeping Bentgrass SRX 1PDH Rutgers University – Dr. Stacy Bonos Dollar Spot resistant Moderately high density for greens and fairways Color, texture match with SR 1119, Brighton, Sandhill High turf quality High Brown Patch resistance High performance in Reduced Fungicide Trials Picture Rutgers Univ., Fairway Trial, July 04 SR 1150

42 Seed Research of Oregon Improving Turfgrass through Research Percent dollar spot ratings of Creeping Bentgrass cultivars on a fairway or tee at Lexington, KY NTEP – Fairway or tee 2004 Data Cultivar % dollar spot Declaration0.6 Pennlinks II3.4 SR 1150 (SRX 1PDH)5.3 Kingpin5.4 Mackenzie7.4 Penncross8.6 L SR Alpha9.1 Shark9.3 T Independence17.1 5%4.5 New Creeping bentgrass

43 Seed Research of Oregon Improving Turfgrass through Research Mackenzie Creeping Bentgrass Rutgers Univ. July, 2004 Fairway Trial High stress environment Dr. Jim Murphy likes this one for fairways High performer greens and fairways SR 1119 Mackenzie

44 Seed Research of Oregon Improving Turfgrass through Research MacKenzie Creeping Bentgrass Utah State University July, 2005 Comparison with Kingpin Brighter color, density SR 1119 MacKenzie Kingpin Mackenzie

45 Seed Research of Oregon Improving Turfgrass through Research New Creeping Bentgrass 2003 NTEP grown on sand, Mean of 12 locations 2004 data, 1-9, 9 = Ideal Turf CutlivarMeanCultivarMean Tyee (SRX 1GD)6.3LS Authority (235050)6.2MacKenzie5.9 CY-26.1Bengal5.9 Penn A-16.1Alpha5.7 T-16.1Benchmark DSR5.7 Shark (23R)6.113-M5.7 Declaration6.1Kingpin (9200) (DSB)6.0Pennlinks II5.6 Memorial (A03-ED1)6.0Penncross5.1

46 Seed Research of Oregon Improving Turfgrass through Research New Creeping Bentgrass Quality ratings of Creeping Bentgrass cultivars grown on a green at 10 locations using an 1/8 inch (3.2 mm) or lower cutting height 2003 NTEP – Putting Green 2005 Data Turfgrass Quality ratings 1-9, 9 = Ideal Turf CultivarQualityCultivarQuality Declaration6.8Kingpin6.4 MacKenzie6.7Memorial6.4 Authority6.7T-16.3 Tyee (SRX 1GD)6.6Benchmark DSR6.2 CY-26.6Alpha6.0 Penn A-16.5Pennlinks II (DSB)6.5Penncross5.0 5%0.2

47 Seed Research of Oregon Improving Turfgrass through Research New Creeping Bentgrass 2003 NTEP grown on sand, Logan, UT 2004 data, 1-9, 9 = Ideal Turf CutlivarMeanCultivarMean 007 (DSB)7.713-M6.3 Shark7.1Alpha6.3 Authority (235050)6.8Benchmark DSR6.3 T-16.8Bengal6.1 Independence6.6CY-26.1 Penn A-16.6LS Tyee (SRX 1GD)6.6Kingpin (9200)6.0 MacKenzie6.6Pennlinks II5.5 Memorial (A03-ED1)6.4Penncross4.5

48 Seed Research of Oregon Improving Turfgrass through Research New Creeping Bentgrass CultivarMean Quality RutgersCultivarMean Quality Rutgers Tyee (SRX 1GD)7.5Century5.0 Shark (23R) Mt. View6.6SR CY-2 Snow Brand6.6Pennington 13-M4.8 Lesco Authority (ended year down)6.6L Penn G-26.6Simplot Alpha4.6 MacKenzie6.4Imperial4.5 Penn G-66.1Kingpin ( 9200) (DSB)6.0Pennlinks II4.4 Penn A-26.0Penneagle4.4 Simplot T-15.8 (BP, CS)Crenshaw4.4 DLF IS AP 95.7Pennlinks4.2 Links Seed LS-445.6TMI Benchmark DSR3.9 Penn A-45.4 Scotts Barenbrug Bengal5.2

49 Seed Research of Oregon Improving Turfgrass through Research New Creeping Bentgrasses Alpha and T-1 T-1 dark blue-green color T-1 high density

50 Seed Research of Oregon Improving Turfgrass through Research New Creeping Bentgrasses Kingpin and MacKenzie MacKenzie brighter green, Kingpin blue- green.

51 Seed Research of Oregon Improving Turfgrass through Research New Creeping Bentgrasses Kingpin and MacKenzie LS-44 - developed from L-93 germplasm Density not as great as 007 Benchmark DSR - moderate density, good dollar spot resistance

52 Seed Research of Oregon Improving Turfgrass through Research New Creeping Bentgrasses Declaration - Developed for improved dollar spot resistance. Fertility may need to be watched. Develops Bentgrass Bloat - summer scalping Memorial - Improved dollar spot resistance. Authority and Shark (23R) - Developed from same material. High dollar spot resistance, quality CY-2 - developed in Japan for dollar spot resistance

53 Seed Research of Oregon Improving Turfgrass through Research SRO Creeping Bentgrasses All developed for high performance with lower nitrogen use. Levels similar to what is being used by superintendents Less summer bentgrass bloat so reduced summer scalping potential High summer density for wear tolerance Little or no winter purpling High density can dominate Poa

54 Seed Research of Oregon Improving Turfgrass through Research Velvet Bentgrass Agrostis canina Best putting surface Wear tolerant - better than any creeping Excellent drought and heat resistance Best shade tolerance Low fertility (after established) Best in acid sands or soils - needs acid fertilizer and iron in alkaline conditions Reduced water requirements - 40 to 60% ET

55 Seed Research of Oregon Improving Turfgrass through Research Velvet Bentgrass Puyallup, Washington Greens Trials Color difference between velvets and creepers

56 Seed Research of Oregon Improving Turfgrass through Research Velvet Bentgrass Thatch control important Ball marks Less than creeping bents, repair similar to high density creeping bents Fairway usage Thatch control, holds ball upright, wear tolerant, dollar spot resistant

57 Seed Research of Oregon Improving Turfgrass through Research Velvet Bentgrass Eagle’s Nest Golf Course Ontario, Canada Greens, tees, and fairways velvet bentgrass

58 Seed Research of Oregon Improving Turfgrass through Research Colonial bentgrass Agrostis capillaris Fairway usage Dollar spot resistant against most strains More brown patch susceptible than creepers Less thatch than creepers Best at low fertility Better wear resistance than creepers Hold ball upright Low water use - in Utah maintain density 50% ET

59 Seed Research of Oregon Improving Turfgrass through Research Colonial bentgrass In fairway or tee usage best combined with Chewings and/or creeping red fescue Use fine fescues in divot repair mixes More sensitive to ethofumesate Varieties - SR 7150, SR 7100, Bardot, Egmont, Tiger, Tiger II, Alistair, Glory, Heriot, Revere, Viter Use low fertility

60 Seed Research of Oregon Improving Turfgrass through Research SR 7150 Colonial bentgrass Darkest green colonial bentgrass Color similar to other turf species High dollar spot resistance Improved brown patch resistance Best at low fertility Blend with Chewings or other fine fescues Fairways or home lawns Overseeding on greens

61 Seed Research of Oregon Improving Turfgrass through Research Colonial bentgrass Low Input Trial Oregon State Univ. 1lb. N Preplant Irrigated for Establishment No fertilizers/pesticides Mown at 1/2”, Clippings removed Irrigation only if severely stressed

62 Seed Research of Oregon Improving Turfgrass through Research Colonial bentgrass Best Performers after 7 years Mix #9Mix #7Mix # 4 90% SR % SR % SR % SR % SR % SR % SR 7100 Upright, dense, high quality turf with few weeds, not segregated. Colonial/Chewings Fescue also tested at URI for 5 years. SR 5100 is Chewings fescue SR 3100 is hard fescue

63 Seed Research of Oregon Improving Turfgrass through Research DrylandColonial ‘Highland’ A. castellanaA. capillaris blue-greentrue greenstolons long rhizomesusually no rhizomes scalp/false crownmore upright

64 Seed Research of Oregon Improving Turfgrass through Research Choosing your bentgrass Decide which species will meet your needs best Define your budget Which management options, diseases, other characteristics are your primary concerns Do you want a cultivar with a track record or willing to look at newest options Resources and people available to help in your decision New construction, renovation or conversion 2003 Fairway Trial many top ranked heavy thatch


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