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1 Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved. ResourcesChapter menu How to Use This Presentation To View the presentation as a slideshow with effects select View on the menu bar and click on Slide Show. To advance through the presentation, click the right-arrow key or the space bar. From the resources slide, click on any resource to see a presentation for that resource. From the Chapter menu screen click on any lesson to go directly to that lessons presentation. You may exit the slide show at any time by pressing the Esc key.

2 Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved. ResourcesChapter menu Chapter Presentation Transparencies Image and Math Focus Bank Bellringers Standardized Test Prep CNN Videos Visual Concepts Resources

3 Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved. ResourcesChapter menu Rocks: Mineral Mixtures Section 1 The Rock Cycle Section 2 Igneous Rock Section 3 Sedimentary Rock Section 4 Metamorphic Rock Chapter 4 Table of Contents

4 Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved. ResourcesChapter menu Section 1 The Rock Cycle Bellringer Most of us try to recycle the items we use in our daily lives to minimize the pollution we cause. In a way, the Earth also recycles through the rock cycle. How can a rock be recycled? How long would recycling a rock take? What would a rock look like before, during, and after the process of recycling? Record your thoughts about these questions in your science journal. Chapter 4

5 Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved. ResourcesChapter menu Describe two ways rocks have been used by humans. Describe four processes that shape Earths features. Describe how each type of rock changes into another type as it moves through the rock cycle. List two characteristics of rock that are used to help classify it. Objectives Section 1 The Rock Cycle Chapter 4

6 Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved. ResourcesChapter menu The Rock Cycle A rock is a naturally occurring solid mixture of one or more minerals or organic matter. New rock forms from old rock material constantly. The series of processes in which a rock forms, changes from one type to another, is destroyed, and forms again by geological processes is called the rock cycle. Section 1 The Rock Cycle Chapter 4

7 Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved. ResourcesChapter menu Section 1 The Rock Cycle Chapter 4

8 Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved. ResourcesChapter menu The Value of Rock Rock has been an important natural resource for as long as humans have existed. Ancient and modern civilizations have used granite, limestone, marble sandstone, slate and other rocks as construction materials. Rock is also an important ingredient in concrete and plaster, both of which are commonly used in construction. Section 1 The Rock Cycle Chapter 4

9 Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved. ResourcesChapter menu Resources Processes That Shape the Earth Certain geological processes make and destroy rock. These processes shape the features of our planet. These processes also influence the type of rock that is found in certain areas. Section 1 The Rock Cycle Chapter 4

10 Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved. ResourcesChapter menu Processes That Shape the Earth, continued Weathering, Erosion, and Deposition The process in which water, wind, ice, and heat break down rock is called weathering. Weathering is important because it breaks down rock into fragments of which sedimentary rock is made. Section 1 The Rock Cycle Chapter 4

11 Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved. ResourcesChapter menu Processes That Shape the Earth, continued The process by which wind, water, ice, or gravity transports soil and sediment from one location to another is called erosion. The process in which sediment moved by erosion is dropped and comes to rest is called deposition. Section 1 The Rock Cycle Chapter 4

12 Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved. ResourcesChapter menu Processes That Shape the Earth, continued Heat and Pressure Sedimentary rock can also form when buried sediment is squeezed by the weight of overlaying layers of sediment. If the temperature and pressure are high enough, the rock can change into metamorphic rock. If the rock gets hot enough to melt, this creates the magma that eventually cools to form igneous rock. Section 1 The Rock Cycle Chapter 4

13 Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved. ResourcesChapter menu Processes That Shape the Earth, continued How the Cycle Continues Buried rock is exposed at the Earths surface by a combination of uplift and erosion. Uplift is the movement within the Earth that causes rocks inside the Earth to be moved to the surface. When uplifted rock reaches the Earths surface, weathering, erosion, and deposition begin. Section 1 The Rock Cycle Chapter 4

14 Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved. ResourcesChapter menu Illustrating the Rock Cycle The rock cycle is the continual process by which new rock forms from old rock material. Round and Round It Goes Rocks may follow various pathways in the rock cycle. The following Visual Concepts presentation show the different ways rock may change when it goes through the rock cycle. Section 1 The Rock Cycle Chapter 4

15 Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved. ResourcesChapter menu Rock Cycle Click below to watch the Visual Concept. You may stop the video at any time by pressing the Esc key. Visual Concept Section 1 The Rock Cycle Chapter 4

16 Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved. ResourcesChapter menu Rock Classification Rock can be three main classes based on how the rock is formed: Igneous rock Sedimentary rock Metamorphic rock Section 1 The Rock Cycle Chapter 4

17 Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved. ResourcesChapter menu Types of Rock Click below to watch the Visual Concept. You may stop the video at any time by pressing the Esc key. Visual Concept Section 1 The Rock Cycle Chapter 4

18 Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved. ResourcesChapter menu Rock Classification, continued Each class of rock can be divided further, based on differences in the ways rocks form. Igneous rock can be divided again based on whether the magma from which it forms cools on the Earths surface or below ground. Section 1 The Rock Cycle Chapter 4

19 Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved. ResourcesChapter menu Rock Classification, continued Sedimentary and metamorphic rocks are also divided into smaller groups. Scientists study rocks in detail using two important criteria: composition and texture. Section 1 The Rock Cycle Chapter 4

20 Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved. ResourcesChapter menu Rock Classification, continued Composition is the chemical makeup of a rock. Composition can describe either the minerals or other materials in the rock. Texture is the quality of a rock that is based on the sizes, shapes, and positions of the rocks grains. Section 1 The Rock Cycle Chapter 4

21 Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved. ResourcesChapter menu Section 2 Igneous Rock Bellringer Do you think rocks that cooled and solidified from lava on the Earths surface would look different from those that cooled and solidified from magma inside the Earth? Why? Record your response in your science journal. Chapter 4

22 Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved. ResourcesChapter menu Section 2 Igneous Rock Chapter 4 Describe three ways that igneous rock forms. Explain how the cooling rate of magma affects the texture of igneous rock. Distinguish between igneous rock that cools within the Earths crust and igneous rock that cools at the Earths surface. Objectives

23 Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved. ResourcesChapter menu Section 2 Igneous Rock Chapter 4 Origins of Igneous Rock Igneous rock forms when hot, liquid rock, or magma, cools and solidifies. There are three ways magma can form: When rock is heated When pressure is released When rock changes composition

24 Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved. ResourcesChapter menu Section 2 Igneous Rock Chapter 4 Composition and Texture of Igneous Rock Light-colored igneous rocks are called felsic rocks. Felsic rocks are rich in elements such as aluminum, potassium, silicon, and sodium. Dark-colored igneous rocks are called mafic rocks. Mafic rocks are rich in calcium, iron, and magnesium.

25 Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved. ResourcesChapter menu Section 2 Igneous Rock Chapter 4 Igneous Rock Formations When magma intrudes, or pushes, into surrounding rock below the Earths surface and cools, the rock that forms is called intrusive igneous rock. Intrusive igneous rock usually has a coarse-grained texture because it is well insulated by surrounding rocks and cools very slowly.

26 Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved. ResourcesChapter menu Chapter 4 Section 2 Igneous Rock

27 Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved. ResourcesChapter menu Section 2 Igneous Rock Chapter 4 Igneous Rock Formations, continued Igneous rock that forms from magma that erupts, or extrudes, on the Earths surface is called extrusive igneous rock. Extrusive igneous rock, commonly found around volcanoes, cools quickly on the surface and contains very small crystals or no crystals.

28 Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved. ResourcesChapter menu Section 3 Sedimentary Rock Bellringer Tree rings are formed each year of a trees life cycle. Tree rings exist because the weather changes of the seasons are reflected in the trees bark as the tree grows. How are layers in sedimentary rock alike or different from rings in a tree? What can geologists infer from examining sedimentary rock layers? Record your response in your science journal. Chapter 4

29 Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved. ResourcesChapter menu Section 3 Sedimentary Rock Chapter 4 Describe the origin of sedimentary rock. Describe the three main categories of sedimentary rock. Describe three types of sedimentary structure. Objectives

30 Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved. ResourcesChapter menu Section 3 Sedimentary Rock Chapter 4 Origins of Sedimentary Rock Wind, water, ice, sunlight, and gravity all cause rock to physically weather into fragments. Through erosion, these rock and mineral fragments, called sediment, are moved from one place to another. The sediment is deposited in layers, and eventually newer layers cover the older layers.

31 Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved. ResourcesChapter menu Section 3 Sedimentary Rock Chapter 4 Sedimentary Rock Cycle Click below to watch the Visual Concept. You may stop the video at any time by pressing the Esc key. Visual Concept

32 Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved. ResourcesChapter menu Section 3 Sedimentary Rock Chapter 4 Origins of Sedimentary Rock, continued The most noticeable feature of sedimentary rock is its layers, or strata. A single, horizontal layer of rock is sometimes visible for many miles.

33 Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved. ResourcesChapter menu Section 3 Sedimentary Rock Chapter 4 Composition of Sedimentary Rock Sedimentary rock is classified by the way it forms. Clastic sedimentary rock is made of fragments of rocks cemented together by a mineral such as calcite or quartz. Clasitc sedimentary rocks can have coarse-grained, medium-grained, or fine-grained textures.

34 Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved. ResourcesChapter menu Section 3 Sedimentary Rock Chapter 4 Composition of Sedimentary Rock, continued Chemical sedimentary rock forms from solutions of dissolved mineral and water. As rainwater slowly makes its way to the ocean, it dissolves some of the rock material it passes through. Some of this dissolved material eventually crystallized and forms the mineral that make up chemical sedimentary rock.

35 Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved. ResourcesChapter menu Section 3 Sedimentary Rock Chapter 4 Composition of Sedimentary Rock, continued Organic sedimentary rock is made up of the skeletons and shells of sea animals. These remains collect on the ocean floor and eventually become cemented together. Coal is a type of organic sedimentary rock that is formed when decomposed plant material is buried beneath sediment and is changed by increasing heat and pressure.

36 Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved. ResourcesChapter menu Section 3 Sedimentary Rock Chapter 4 Sedimentary Rock Structures Many features indicate the way sedimentary rock is formed. The most important feature is stratification. Stratification is the process in which sedimentary rocks are arranged in layers. Strata differ from one another depending on the kind, size, and color of their sediment.

37 Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved. ResourcesChapter menu Section 3 Sedimentary Rock Chapter 4 Sedimentary Rock Structures, continued Sedimentary rocks sometimes record the motion of wind and water waves on lakes, oceans, rivers, and sand dunes in features called ripple marks. Structures called mud cracks form when fine- grained sediments at the bottom of a shallow body of water are exposed to the air and dry out. Even raindrop impressions can be preserved in fine-grained sediments, as small pits with raised rims.

38 Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved. ResourcesChapter menu Section 4 Metamorphic Rock Bellringer Write a brief description of how cookies are made. How is the mixture of raw ingredients like sedimentary rock? Do the raw ingredients of a cookie look the same after they are done baking? Describe how cookie dough metamorphoses when it is baked in an oven. Chapter 4

39 Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved. ResourcesChapter menu Section 4 Metamorphic Rock Chapter 4 Describe two ways a rock can undergo metamorphism. Explain how the mineral composition of rocks changes as the rocks undergo metamorphism. Describe the difference between foliated and non- foliated metamorphic rock. Explain how metamorphic rock structures are related to deformation. Objectives

40 Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved. ResourcesChapter menu Section 4 Metamorphic Rock Chapter 4 Origins of Metamorphic Rock Metamorphic rocks are rocks in which the structure, texture, or composition of the rock have changed.All three types of rock can be changed by heat, pressure, or a combination of both. A rocks texture or mineral composition can change when its surroundings change. If the temperature or pressure of the new environment is different from the one in which the rock formed, the rock will undergo metamorphism.

41 Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved. ResourcesChapter menu Section 4 Metamorphic Rock Chapter 4 Origins of Metamorphic Rock, continued Contact Metamorphism When magma moves through the crust, the magma heats the surrounding rock and changes it. Some minerals in the surrounding rock are changed into other minerals by this increase in temperature. The greatest change occurs where magma comes into direct contact with the surrounding rock.

42 Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved. ResourcesChapter menu Section 4 Metamorphic Rock Chapter 4 Origins of Metamorphic Rock, continued Regional metamorphism occurs when pressure builds up in rock that is buried deep below other rock formations, or when large pieces of the Earths curst collide with each other. The increased pressure and temperature causes rock to become deformed and chemically changed.

43 Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved. ResourcesChapter menu Chapter 4 Section 4 Metamorphic Rock

44 Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved. ResourcesChapter menu Section 4 Metamorphic Rock Chapter 4 Composition of Metamorphic Rock As rocks undergo metamorphism, original minerals in a rock change into new minerals that are more stable within the new pressure and temperature conditions. Many of these new minerals form only in meta- morphic rock. These are known as index minerals, and are used to estimate the temperature, depth, and pressure at which a rock undergoes meta- morphism.

45 Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved. ResourcesChapter menu Section 4 Metamorphic Rock Chapter 4 Texture of Metamorphic Rock All metamorphic rock has one of two textures. Foliated Metamorphic Rock Nonfoliated Metamorphic Rock

46 Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved. ResourcesChapter menu Section 4 Metamorphic Rock Chapter 4 Texture of Metamorphic Rock, continued Foliated Metamorphic Rock The texture of metamorphic rock in which the mineral grains are arranged in planes or band is called foliated. Foliated metamorphic rock usually contains aligned grains of flat minerals, such as biotite mica or chlorite Metamorphic rocks can become other metamorphic rocks if the environment changes again.

47 Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved. ResourcesChapter menu Section 4 Metamorphic Rock Chapter 4 Texture of Metamorphic Rock, continued Nonfoliated Metamorphic Rock The texture of metamorphic rock in which the mineral grains are not arranged in planes or band is called nonfoliated. Nonfoliated metamorphic rocks are commonly made of one or only a few minerals. During metamorphism, crystals of these minerals may change in size or the mineral may change in composition in a process called recrystallization.

48 Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved. ResourcesChapter menu Section 4 Metamorphic Rock Chapter 4 Metamorphic Rock Structures Metamorphic rock has features that indicates its history. These features are caused by deformation. Deformation is a change in the shape of a rock caused by a force placed on it. These forces may cause a rock to be squeezed or stretched. Folds, or bends, in metamorphic rock are structures that indicate a rock has been deformed.

49 Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved. ResourcesChapter menu Rocks: Mineral Mixtures Concept Map Use the terms below to complete the concept map on the next slide. Chapter 4 sedimentary clastic extrusive rocks metamorphic regional igneous intrusive

50 Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved. ResourcesChapter menu Rocks: Mineral Mixtures Chapter 4

51 Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved. ResourcesChapter menu Rocks: Mineral Mixtures Chapter 4

52 Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved. ResourcesChapter menu End of Chapter 4 Show

53 Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved. ResourcesChapter menu Reading Read each of the passages. Then, answer the questions that follow each passage. Chapter 4 Standardized Test Preparation

54 Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved. ResourcesChapter menu Passage 1 The texture and composition of a rock can provide good clues about how and where the rock formed. Scientists use both texture and composition to understand the origin and history of rocks. For example, marble is a rock that is made when limestone is metamorphosed. Only limestone contains the mineralcalcitethat can change into marble. Therefore, wherever scientists find marble, they know the sediment that created the original limestone was deposited in a warm ocean or lake environment. Chapter 4 Standardized Test Preparation

55 Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved. ResourcesChapter menu 1. In the passage, what does the word origin mean? A size or appearance B age C location or surroundings D source or formation Chapter 4 Standardized Test Preparation

56 Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved. ResourcesChapter menu 1. In the passage, what does the word origin mean? A size or appearance B age C location or surroundings D source or formation Chapter 4 Standardized Test Preparation

57 Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved. ResourcesChapter menu 2. Based on the passage, what can the reader conclude? F Marble is a sedimentary rock. G Limestone is created by sediments deposited in warm ocean or lake environments. H Marble is a rock that is made when sandstone has undergone metamorphism. I In identifying a rock, the texture of a rock is more important than the composition of the rock. Chapter 4 Standardized Test Preparation

58 Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved. ResourcesChapter menu 2. Based on the passage, what can the reader conclude? F Marble is a sedimentary rock. G Limestone is created by sediments deposited in warm ocean or lake environments. H Marble is a rock that is made when sandstone has undergone metamorphism. I In identifying a rock, the texture of a rock is more important than the composition of the rock. Chapter 4 Standardized Test Preparation

59 Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved. ResourcesChapter menu 3. What is the main idea of the passage? A Scientists believe marble is the most important rock type to study. B Scientists study the composition and texture of a rock to determine how the rock formed and what happened after it formed. C Some sediments are deposited in warm oceans and lakes. D When limestone undergoes metamorphism, it creates marble. Chapter 4 Standardized Test Preparation

60 Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved. ResourcesChapter menu 3. What is the main idea of the passage? A Scientists believe marble is the most important rock type to study. B Scientists study the composition and texture of a rock to determine how the rock formed and what happened after it formed. C Some sediments are deposited in warm oceans and lakes. D When limestone undergoes metamorphism, it creates marble. Chapter 4 Standardized Test Preparation

61 Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved. ResourcesChapter menu Passage 2 Fulgurites are a rare type of natural glass found in areas that have quartz-rich sediments, such as beaches and deserts. A tubular fulgurite forms when a lightning bolt strikes material such as sand and melts the quartz into a liquid. The liquid quartz cools and solidifies quickly, and a thin, glassy tube is left behind. Fulgurites usually have a rough outer surface and a smooth inner surface. Continued on the next slide Chapter 4 Standardized Test Preparation

62 Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved. ResourcesChapter menu Passage 2, continued Underground, a fulgurite may be shaped like the roots of a tree. The fulgurite branches out with many arms that trace the zigzag path of the lightning bolt. Some fulgurites are as short as your little finger, but others stretch 20 m into the ground. Chapter 4 Standardized Test Preparation

63 Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved. ResourcesChapter menu 1. In the passage, what does the word tubular mean? A flat and sharp B round and long C funnel shaped D pyramid shaped Chapter 4 Standardized Test Preparation

64 Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved. ResourcesChapter menu 1. In the passage, what does the word tubular mean? A flat and sharp B round and long C funnel shaped D pyramid shaped Chapter 4 Standardized Test Preparation

65 Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved. ResourcesChapter menu 2. From the information in the passage, what can the reader conclude? F Fulgurites are formed above ground. G Sand contains a large amount of quartz. H Fulgurites are most often very small. I Fulgurites are easy to find in sandy places. Chapter 4 Standardized Test Preparation

66 Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved. ResourcesChapter menu 2. From the information in the passage, what can the reader conclude? F Fulgurites are formed above ground. G Sand contains a large amount of quartz. H Fulgurites are most often very small. I Fulgurites are easy to find in sandy places. Chapter 4 Standardized Test Preparation

67 Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved. ResourcesChapter menu 3. Which of the following statements best describes a fulgurite? A Fulgurites are frozen lightning bolts. B Fulgurites are rootlike rocks. C Fulgurites are glassy tubes found in deserts. D Fulgurites are natural glass tubes formed by lightning bolts. Chapter 4 Standardized Test Preparation

68 Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved. ResourcesChapter menu 3. Which of the following statements best describes a fulgurite? A Fulgurites are frozen lightning bolts. B Fulgurites are rootlike rocks. C Fulgurites are glassy tubes found in deserts. D Fulgurites are natural glass tubes formed by lightning bolts. Chapter 4 Standardized Test Preparation

69 Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved. ResourcesChapter menu Interpreting Graphics Use the diagram below to answer the questions that follow. Chapter 4 Standardized Test Preparation

70 Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved. ResourcesChapter menu 1. According to the rock cycle diagram, which of the following statements is true? A Only sedimentary rock gets weathered and eroded. B Sedimentary rocks are made from metamorphic, igneous, and sedimentary rock fragments and minerals. C Heat and pressure create igneous rocks. D Metamorphic rocks are created by melting and cooling. Chapter 4 Standardized Test Preparation

71 Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved. ResourcesChapter menu 1. According to the rock cycle diagram, which of the following statements is true? A Only sedimentary rock gets weathered and eroded. B Sedimentary rocks are made from metamorphic, igneous, and sedimentary rock fragments and minerals. C Heat and pressure create igneous rocks. D Metamorphic rocks are created by melting and cooling. Chapter 4 Standardized Test Preparation

72 Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved. ResourcesChapter menu 2. A rock exists at the surface of the Earth. What would be the next step in the rock cycle? F cooling G weathering H melting I metamorphism Chapter 4 Standardized Test Preparation

73 Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved. ResourcesChapter menu 2. A rock exists at the surface of the Earth. What would be the next step in the rock cycle? F cooling G weathering H melting I metamorphism Chapter 4 Standardized Test Preparation

74 Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved. ResourcesChapter menu 3. Which of the following processes brings rocks to Earths surface, where they can be eroded? A burial B deposition C uplift D weathering Chapter 4 Standardized Test Preparation

75 Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved. ResourcesChapter menu 3. Which of the following processes brings rocks to Earths surface, where they can be eroded? A burial B deposition C uplift D weathering Chapter 4 Standardized Test Preparation

76 Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved. ResourcesChapter menu Chapter 4 Standardized Test Preparation

77 Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved. ResourcesChapter menu 4. Which of the following is the best summary of the rock cycle? F Each type of rock gets melted. Then the magma turns into igneous, sedimentary, and metamorphic rock. G Magma cools to form igneous rock. Then, the igneous rock becomes sedimentary rock. Sedimentary rock is heated and forms metamorphic rock. Metamorphic rock melts to form magma. Choices continued on next slide Chapter 4 Standardized Test Preparation

78 Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved. ResourcesChapter menu Continued from previous slide H All three rock types weather to create sedimentary rock. All three rock types melt to form magma. Magma forms igneous rock. All three types of rock form metamorphic rock because of heat and pressure. I Igneous rock is weathered to create sedimentary rock. Sedimentary rock is melted to form igneous rock. Metamorphic rock is weathered to form igneous rock. Chapter 4 Standardized Test Preparation

79 Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved. ResourcesChapter menu 4. Which of the following is the best summary of the rock cycle? F Each type of rock gets melted. Then the magma turns into igneous, sedimentary, and metamorphic rock. G Magma cools to form igneous rock. Then, the igneous rock becomes sedimentary rock. Sedimentary rock is heated and forms metamorphic rock. Metamorphic rock melts to form magma. Choices continued on next slide Chapter 4 Standardized Test Preparation

80 Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved. ResourcesChapter menu Continued from previous slide H All three rock types weather to create sedimentary rock. All three rock types melt to form magma. Magma forms igneous rock. All three types of rock form metamorphic rock because of heat and pressure. I Igneous rock is weathered to create sedimentary rock. Sedimentary rock is melted to form igneous rock. Metamorphic rock is weathered to form igneous rock. Chapter 4 Standardized Test Preparation

81 Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved. ResourcesChapter menu Math Read each question, and choose the best answer. Chapter 4 Standardized Test Preparation

82 Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved. ResourcesChapter menu 1. Eric has 25 rocks he has collected as a science project for class. Nine rocks are sedimentary, 10 are igneous, and 6 are metamorphic. If Eric chooses a rock at random, what is the probability that he will choose an igneous rock? A 1/2 B 2/5 C 3/8 D 1/15 Chapter 4 Standardized Test Preparation

83 Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved. ResourcesChapter menu 1. Eric has 25 rocks he has collected as a science project for class. Nine rocks are sedimentary, 10 are igneous, and 6 are metamorphic. If Eric chooses a rock at random, what is the probability that he will choose an igneous rock? A 1/2 B 2/5 C 3/8 D 1/15 Chapter 4 Standardized Test Preparation

84 Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved. ResourcesChapter menu 2. At a mineral and fossil show, Elizabeth bought two quartz crystals that cost $2.00 each and four trilobite fossils that cost $3.50 each. Which equation can be used to describe c, the total cost of her purchase? F c (2 4) ( ) G c (2 2.00) (4 3.50) H c (4 2.00) (2 3.50) I c (2 2.00) (4 3.50) Chapter 4 Standardized Test Preparation

85 Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved. ResourcesChapter menu 2. At a mineral and fossil show, Elizabeth bought two quartz crystals that cost $2.00 each and four trilobite fossils that cost $3.50 each. Which equation can be used to describe c, the total cost of her purchase? F c (2 4) ( ) G c (2 2.00) (4 3.50) H c (4 2.00) (2 3.50) I c (2 2.00) (4 3.50) Chapter 4 Standardized Test Preparation

86 Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved. ResourcesChapter menu Section 3 Sedimentary Rock Chapter 4

87 Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved. ResourcesChapter menu Chapter 4 Standardized Test Preparation

88 Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved. ResourcesChapter menu Chapter 4 There is no CNN video correlated to this chapter. Check the One-Stop Planner for a complete listing of CNN videos. The World of Earth Science


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