2EnergyEnergy is crucial to an ecosystem but organisms need more than energy to survive.95% of the body is made up of oxygen, carbon, hydrogen, and nitrogen.These elements are common on Earth but unless the elements are in a chemical form that cells can use, organisms cannot use them.
3RecyclingEnergy and matter move through the biosphere very differently.
4RecyclingMatter is recycled within and between ecosystems from one organism to another and from one part to another
6Nitrogen Cycle Where is nitrogen found? The atmosphere is the largest sink and is 78% nitrogenThe soilIn plants & animals as amino acids
7Nitrogen CycleFree Nitrogen in the atmosphere must be “fixed” from a gas (N2)to a useable substance.
8NitrogenThe process by which nitrogen is “fixed” to a useable form is called Nitrogen Fixation.Nitrogen fixation is a complicated process that can happen by:bacteria in plant rootsdecomposers in soil (bacteria)lightningforest fires.
9Nitrogen is being “fixed” in both of these photos
10Nodules (clumps) of bacteria hard at work “fixing” nitrogen into plant roots…
11OTHER SNEAKY STEPSAnimal wastegives off nitrogen gas…Decomposing bacteriarelease nitrogen as theybreakdown dead things.
12HOW THE NITROGEN CYCLE WORKS Denitrification: The escape of nitrogen into the atmosphere.
16Carbon Cycle Four Processes involved: Biological (photosynthesis and respiration)Geochemical (volcanoes)Mixed biogeochemical (fossil fuels)Human activity (mining, burning fossil fuels)
17Carbon Sinks Most of the carbon is stored underground The largest active sink for Carbon dioxide is the oceans. They absorb most manmade carbon dioxide.The Carbon dioxide concentration of the Earth’s atmosphere is 387 ppmv or %.
20Carbon DioxideCarbon will combine with oxygen to form carbon dioxide
21PlantsTake in Carbon Dioxide (CO2) and release oxygen gas (O2) in the process of photosynthesis
22Photosynthesis Remember that in a chemical reaction that… Reactants → ProductsIn photosynthesis, carbon dioxide and water react in the presence of sunlight to form oxygen and glucose.
23Photosynthesis The formula for photosynthesis is Carbon dioxide + water → oxygen gas + glucoseWe can balanced the equation and substitute the correct chemical symbols and it looks like…6 CO2 + 6 H2O → 6 O2 + C6H12O6
24Cellular Respiration How do we get the energy that our cells need? We eat to provide energy for our cells which in turn use that energy to carry out their jobs.When the cells “burn” glucose for energy, the process is called cellular respiration.
25Cellular RespirationOur cells take in oxygen and glucose from the blood stream to use as energy and produce carbon dioxide and water as products.We can balanced the equation and substitute the correct chemical symbols and it looks like…6 O2 + C6H12O6 → 6 CO2 + 6 H2ODoes this look familiar?
26Paired processesWhy do you think Photosynthesis and cellular respiration are considered paired processes?Photosynthesis6 CO2 + 6 H2O → 6 O2 + C6H12O6Cellular Respiration6 O2 + C6H12O6 → 6 CO2 + 6 H2O