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Test You have 15 minutes to finish your test! 1

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2 Chapter 8- Stoichiometry Big, Scary name…. Just calculations chemists do!

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3 Quantitative Analysis Composition stoichiometry- mass relationships of elements in compounds. Reaction Stoichiometry- involves mass relationships between the reactants and products in reactions

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4 What do the coefficients mean? Mole Ratios Coefficients indicate the amount of each material (Moles or molecules) present in a reaction. C 6 H 12 O 6 + 6O 2 6CO 2 + 6H 2 O So… when looking at a balanced equation we can derive a whole set of conversion factors!

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5 Mole Ratio- The Definition… A conversion factor that relates the amounts in moles of any two substances involved in a chemical reaction.

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6 Go to the WS Finish the back for HW

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7 You will be working in groups of 3- be sure to exchange contact info and be sure to communicate if you will be absent. Jobs Rotate- Write you job at the top of each lab. 1. Leader- Keeps all on task and makes sure directions are followed. 2. Scientist- Follows directions and is in charge of making sure no mistakes occur. 3. Mathematician- insures calculations are correct. I will pick one lab per group to grade-- you get whatever score they get…make sure everyone in your group is completing the lab!

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8 Copper Series- Lab Concerns Use the same scales for each lab… they mass slightly different. Be sure to record any lab mistakes… too much reactant, lost product, other booboos. You will be calculating percent error and trying to explain the errors. You may never say that you made a mistake in your calculations-- there are 3 of you working, there should be no mistakes!

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9 Copper Series- Lab 1 Write and balance the equation for the reaction of copper (Cu) plus nitric acid (HNO 3 ) to produce Copper (II) nitrate (Cu(NO 3 ) 2 ) plus water (H 2 O) and nitrogen dioxide (NO 2 ).

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Procedure- Using the sharpie.. Put your period and lab station on the beaker. Ex: Determine the mass of your empty beaker. 2. Determine the mass of the copper. 3. Send your scientist to the stock room to put 20mL of HNO 3 into the beaker 4. Put on the watch glass and place on the hot plate in the fume hood. 10

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11 Warm Up: Mole to Mole Calculations…. Fe 2 O 3 + 3CO2Fe + 3CO 2 1. How many mol CO are necessary to react with 2.2 mol Fe 2 O 3 ? 2. How many mol Fe are produced if 1.8 mol CO is used?

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12 Fe 2 O 3 + 3CO2Fe + 3CO 2 1. How many mol CO are necessary to react with 2.2 mol Fe 2 O 3 ?

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13 Mole Ratios Fe 2 O 3 + 3CO2Fe + 3CO 2 b) How many mol Fe are produced if 1.8 mol CO is used?

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How did you do on HW? 14

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15 Moles of AMoles of BMass of AMass of B Number of particles of ANumber of particles of B Volume of gaseous AVolume of gaseous B The following chart summarizes the conversions we can do:

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16 So, can we use stoichiometry to determine the amount of product made in types of reactions lab? We used 0.2 g of CuCO 3 in the decomposition reaction. How much CuO was produced? CuCO 3 CuO + CO 2

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17 Can we calculate how many grams of carbon dioxide gas was produced? CuCO 3 CuO + CO 2

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18 Can we determine the amount of magnesium oxide (g) were produced in the synthesis reaction? We used about 0.5 g of Mg. Mg + O 2 MgO a. Balance the equation. b. Place the mass of Mg used in the upper left. c. Use DA to determine the theoretical mass of MgO.

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19 Important Vocabulary Terms Theoretical yield- the maximum amount of product that can be produced from a given amount of reactant. Actual Yield- measured amount of a product obtained from a reaction (in lab).

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20 What is the theoretical yield (in grams) of both products in the following reaction if 2.5 g of HCl is used? Zn + HCl ZnCl 2 + H 2 a. Balance the equation b. Put 2.5g HCl in the upper left c. Solve for g of zinc chloride. d. Solve for g of hydrogen.

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Lets make sure you are doing the lab calculations correctly. 21

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On your copper lab, #5 asks you to determine the theoretical yield for Cu(NO 3 ) 2. Do the calculation using the mass determined in #1. 22

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Copper Lab- Series 2 1. Obtain the mass of your Cu(NO 3 ) 2 2. Add about 20 ml of distilled water. 3. Add 30 ml of NaOH 4. Obtain the mass of your filter paper!!! 5. Filter the mixture- rinse it well with distilled water. 6. Wash out your original beaker (check to be sure it is still marked with your period and lab station.) 23

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Warm Up- Friday 2/8 Sodium reacts with Magnesium carbonate. a. Write the reactants and predict the products. b. How much magnesium is produced when 3.6 g of sodium reacts with excess MgCO 3 ? c. How much MgCO 3 is needed to react with exactly 3.6g of Na? 24

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25 There are a bunch of other calculations we can do using the flow chart… Moles of AMoles of BMass of AMass of B Number of particles of ANumber of particles of B Volume of gaseous AVolume of gaseous B

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26 Stoichiometric Conversions How many grams of oxygen are produced when 17.5g of H 2 O 2 decompose according to the following equation? H 2 O 2 H 2 O + O 2 (Dont forget to balance the equation!)

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27 Volume to Volume Calculations How many liters of water are produced when 3.0L of Hydrogen react with excess oxygen? H 2(g) + O 2(g) H 2 O (g) (Dont forget to balance the equation!)

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28 Volume to Volume Calculations How many liters of oxygen are necessary to make 5.6L of water? H 2(g) + O 2(g) H 2 O (g) (Dont forget to balance the equation!)

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Now you try CH 4(g) + O 2(g) H 2 O (g) + CO 2(g) a. Balance the equation. b. If 5.62L of methane react with excess oxygen, determine the theoretical yield (L) of both products. 29

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Try one on the Volume/Volume WS This is homework…. Dont forget!! 30

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31 Molecule to molecule calculations How many molecules of H 2 O 2 are needed to make 3.5 x molecules of water? 2H 2 O 2 2H 2 O + O 2

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32 What if you dont start with molecules… use the flow chart! How many molecules of H 2 O 2 are needed to make 5.00 g of water? 2H 2 O 2 2H 2 O + O 2

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33 Try these! CaCO 3 + Mg MgCO 3 + Ca a) How many molecules of Ca are produced if 39.4g of MgCO 3 are also produced? b) How many grams of Mg are necessary to react with 0.97 mol CaCO 3 ?

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Warm Up- Monday/Tuesday 34

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Mixed Stoichiometry Problems CaCO 3 + Mg MgCO 3 + Ca a. How many molecules of calcium carbonate are needed to react with 5.2g of Magnesium? b. How many grams of Ca are produced when 7.6 x atoms of magnesium react? 35

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36 Percent Yield In a perfect world, every student would get a perfect score on every test. Alas, we do not live in a perfect world How do we determine the score you got on the test?

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37 Percent Yield (contd) In a perfect world, every reaction would produce the amount of material it is supposed to. Alas, we do not live in a perfect world. Percent yield = the ratio comparing the amount of material actually generated in a reaction to the maximum amount possible. Percent Yield = Actual Yield x 100 Theoretical Yield l

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38 Percent Yield (contd) The theoretical yield is calculated using stoichiometry. The actual yield is found by experimentation. Key Point: You can never predict the actual yield or the percent yield.

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Percent Yield 2Mg + O 2 2MgO 3.2 g of Magnesium reacted with excess oxygen. 4.9g of MgO was produced in the lab. Calculate the percent yield. 1. Balance Equation 2. Calculate Theoretical Yield 3. Calculate % Yield 39

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40 You Try! Sb 2 S 3 (s) + 3Fe(s) 2Sb(s) + 3FeS(s) When 22.3g of Sb 2 S 3 reacts with excess of Fe, 12.7g Sb is produced in the lab. What is the percent yield?

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Copper- Series 3 1. Determine the mass of the Cu(OH) 2. Dont forget to subtract the mass of the beaker and filter paper! 2. Open up the filter paper containing your product and transfer as much of the copper hydroxide as you can into the large beaker. Put the filter paper in too. 3. Add 100 ml of distilled water. 4. Put the large beaker on the hot plate and heat to a gentle boil. 5. Use forceps to remove the filter paper 6. Use the squirt bottle to rinse the filter paper. 7. Decant as much water as possible. 8. Transfer back into your beaker. 9. Allow product to settle and decant more water. 41

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Warm Up 42

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43 Limiting Reagent Lets think about a peanut butter sandwich… The recipe calls for 2 pieces of bread and 2 Tsp. of peanut butter. Write the reaction:

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Now, we only have so much of each reactant… Huge tube o Skippy12 pieces of bread How many sandwiches can we make? 44

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45 Limiting Reagent (contd) Chemical reactions are much the same way. The balanced chemical equation is the recipe, telling you how much of each thing you need. Often, chemicals are not mixed in the correct amounts, implying that one chemical will run out before the others. The chemical that runs out first is called the limiting reagent.

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46 Limiting Reagent (contd) Ex: 5.00g of HCl is mixed with 4.00g of NaOH according to the following reaction: HCl (aq) + NaOH (aq) NaCl (aq) + H 2 O (l) a)What is the limiting reagent? b) How much of the other reactant is left over?

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Limiting/Excess You react 54.8g of silver nitrate with 22.2g of calcium chloride according to the following rxn. AgNO 3 + CaCl 2 AgCl + Ca(NO 3 ) 2 1. Balance the equation. 2. Determine the limiting. 3. Calculate the maximum amount of AgCl 4. Calculate the excess. 47

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