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Chemical Stoichiometry The determination of the quantities of materials consumed or produced in chemical reactions

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Mass Spectrometer A devise that accurately compares the mass of atoms Peaks represent the relative abundance of the atom. P.85

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The mole A quantity that is equal to the number of carbon atoms in exactly 12 grams of carbon-12. Avogadros number x g. = x amu

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Determine the mass in grams of 8 atoms of Americium. 3.2 x grams

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A silicon chip from a microcomputer has a mass of 5.38 mg. How many silicon atoms does it contain? 1.15 x atoms

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Molar mass The mass in grams of one mole of a substance.

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Juglone, a dye made from black walnuts, has the formula C 10 H 6 O 3. What is its molar mass? How many moles are present in a 1.52 x g sample? Molecules?

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Calculate the % composition of penicillin, C 14 H 20 N 2 SO 4

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Determining the Formula of a Compound Convert from mass ratios to mole ratios. Find the lowest whole number ratio for empirical. Compare to molar mass for molecular.

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Determine the empirical and molecular formulas for a compound that is 71.65% Cl, 24.27%C, and 4.07%H. It has a molar mass of 98.96g/mol.

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When g of a compound made of carbon, hydrogen and nitrogen is burned, g of CO 2, and g of water are formed. Determine the formula.

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Balanced Chemical Equations In a chemical reaction atoms are not created or destroyed. All atoms in the reactants must be accounted for in the products.

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Remember Subscripts on correctly written chemical compounds do not change to balance the equation Change only the coefficients.

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Balance the following: Ca(OH) 2 + H 3 PO 4 H 2 O+ Ca 3 (PO 4 ) 2 Al(OH) 3 + HCl AlCl 3 + H 2 O AgNO 3 + H 2 SO 4 Ag 2 SO 4 + HNO 3 Cr + S 8 Cr 2 S 3 NaHCO 3 Na 2 CO 3 + CO 2 + H 2 O KClO 3 KCl + O 2 Eu + HF EuF 3 + H 2

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Steps in Reaction Stoichiometry Balance equation for the reaction. Convert known mass of reactant or product to moles. Use balanced equation to set up appropriate mole ratios. Use mole ratios to calculate moles of desired reactant or product. Convert from moles to mass or volume as required.

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Solve Lithium hydroxide is used in space vehicles. to remove exhaled carbon dioxide from the environment, forming lithium carbonate and water. What mass of carbon dioxide can be absorbed by 1.00kg of lithium hydroxide?

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Solve Baking soda (NaHCO 3 ) and milk of magnesia [Mg(OH) 2 ] are both used as antacids to neutralize excess HCl in the stomach. Which is more effective per gram

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Limiting Reactant The reactant that gets used up first. Limits the amount of products that can form.

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Nitrogen gas can be prepared by passing ammonia gas over solid copper(II) oxide. Solid copper and water are also produced. If 18.1g NH 3 reacts with 90.4g CuO, what is the limiting reactant? How much N 2 can be made and how much excess reactant is left over?

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Theoretical yield The maximum amount of product that can be made in a perfect world. The actual yield is always less than the theoretical yield.

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Percent(%) yield %yield= actual yield x 100 theoretical yield

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Methanol(CH 3 OH) can be produced by a combination reaction between carbon monoxide and hydrogen gas. If 68.5kg of CO reacts with 8.60kg H kg of methanol is produced. Calculate the % yield.

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