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Chapter 7 Chemical Reactions.

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Presentation on theme: "Chapter 7 Chemical Reactions."— Presentation transcript:

1 Chapter 7 Chemical Reactions

2 All chemical reactions
have two parts Reactants - the substances you start with Products- the substances you end up with The reactants turn into the products. Reactants ® Products

3 In a chemical reaction The way atoms are joined is changed
Atoms aren’t created or destroyed. Can be described several ways In a sentence Copper reacts with chlorine to form copper (II) chloride. In a word equation Copper + chlorine ® copper (II) chloride

4 Symbols used in equations
the arrow separates the reactants from the products Read “reacts to form” Yields The plus sign = “and” (s) after the formula -solid (g) after the formula -gas (l) after the formula -liquid

5 Symbols used in equations
(aq) after the formula - dissolved in water, an aqueous solution. ­ used after a product indicates a gas (same as (g)) (products only) ¯ used after a product indicates a solid (same as (s)) (products only)

6 Symbols used in equations
indicates a reversible reaction (More later) shows that heat is supplied to the reaction is used to indicate a catalyst used in this case, platinum.

7 What is a catalyst? A substance that speeds up a reaction without being changed by the reaction. A catalyst lowers the activation energy Activation Energy- minimum amount of energy required by reacting particles in order to form the activated complex and lead to a reaction

8 Skeleton Equation Uses formulas and symbols to describe a reaction
doesn’t indicate how many. All chemical equations are sentences that describe reactions.

9 Balancing Chemical Equations

10 Balanced Equation Atoms can’t be created or destroyed
All the atoms we start with we must end up with A balanced equation has the same number of atoms of each element on both sides of the equation.

11 ® O + C O C O O C + O2 ® CO2 This equation is already balanced
What if it isn’t already?

12 ® C C O O C O C + C + O2 ® CO We need one more oxygen in the products.
Can’t change the formula, because it describes what actually happens

13 ® C C O C O C O + O Must be used to make another CO
But where did the other C come from? Must have started with two C 2 C + O2 ® 2 CO

14 Rules for balancing Write the correct formulas for all the reactants and products Count the number of atoms of each type appearing on both sides Balance the elements one at a time by adding coefficients (the numbers in front) Check to make sure it is balanced.

15 Never Change a subscript to balance an equation.
If you change the formula you are describing a different reaction. H2O is a different compound than H2O2 Never put a coefficient in the middle of a formula 2 NaCl is okay, Na2Cl is not.

16 Example R P H O 2 1 4 4 2 2 H2 + H2O O2 ® 2 H2 + H2O O2 ®
The equation is balanced, has the same number of each kind of atom on both sides Recount Changes the O Make a table to keep track of where you are at Need twice as much O in the product Also changes the H Need twice as much H in the reactant

17 Example R P 4 2 H 2 4 2 O 1 2 This is the answer 2 H2 + O2 ® 2 H2O
Not this 2 O 1 2

18 Examples CH4 + O2 ® CO H2O

19 Examples AgNO Cu ® Cu(NO3) Ag

20 Examples Al + N2 ® Al2N3

21 Examples P + O2 ® P4O10

22 Examples Na + H2O ® H2 + NaOH

23 Techniques If an atom appears more than once on a side, balance it last. If you fix everything except one element, and it is even on one side and odd on the other, double the first number, then move on from there. C4H10 + O2  CO2 + H2O

24 Predicting the Products
Types of Reactions Predicting the Products

25 Types of Reactions There are too many reactions to remember
Fall into categories. We will learn 5 types. Will be able to predict the products. For some we will be able to predict whether they will happen at all. Must recognize them by the reactants

26 #1 Combination Reactions
Combine - put together 2 elements, or compounds combine to make 1 compound. Ca +O2 ® CaO SO3 + H2O ® H2SO4 We can predict the products if they are two elements. Mg + N2 ®

27 Write and balance Ca + Cl2 ®

28 Write and balance Fe + O2 ® iron (II) oxide

29 Write and balance Al + O2 ®
Remember that the first step is to write the formula Then balance Also called synthesis reaction

30 Combining two compounds
If they tell you it is combination, you will make one product Two compounds will make a polyatomic ion. CO H2O → H2O + Cl2O7→

31 #2 Decomposition Reactions
decompose = fall apart one reactant falls apart into two or more elements or compounds. NaCl Na + Cl2 CaCO CaO + CO2

32 #2 Decomposition Reactions
Can predict the products if it is a binary compound Made up of only two elements Falls apart into its elements H2O

33 #2 Decomposition Reactions

34 #2 Decomposition Reactions
If the compound has more than two elements you must be given one of the products The other product will be from the missing pieces NiCO NiO + H2CO3(aq)® CO2 +

35 #3 Single Replacement One element replaces another
Reactants must be an element and a compound. Products will be a different element and a different compound. Na + KCl ® K + NaCl F2 + LiCl ® LiF + Cl2

36 Na + KCl ® K + NaCl Cl K Na

37 F2 + 2 LiCl ® 2 LiF + Cl2 Cl Li Li F F Cl Li Li

38 #3 Single Replacement Metals replace metals (and hydrogen)
Al + CuSO4 ® Zn + H2SO4 ® Think of water as HOH Metals replace one of the H, combine with hydroxide. Na + HOH ®

39 #3 Single Replacement We can tell whether a reaction will happen
Some are more active than other More active replaces less active There is a list on page 333

40 #3 Single Replacement There is a list on page 333
Higher on the list replaces lower. If the element by itself is higher, it happens, if element by itself is lower, it doesn’t

41 #3 Single Replacement Note the *
H can be replaced in acids by everything higher Only the first 4 (Li - Na) react with water.

42 #3 Single Replacement Al + HCl ®

43 #3 Single Replacement Fe + CuSO4 ®

44 #3 Single Replacement Pb + KCl ®

45 #3 Single Replacement Al + H2O ®

46 #3 Single Replacement What does it mean that Ag is on the bottom of the list?

47 #3 Single Replacement Nonmetals can replace other nonmetals
Limited to F2 , Cl2 , Br2 , I2 The order of activity is that on the table. Higher replaces lower. F2 + HCl ® Br2 + KCl ®

48 #4 Double Replacement Two things replace each other.
Reactants must be two ionic compounds or acids. Usually in aqueous solution NaOH + FeCl3 ® The positive ions change place. NaOH + FeCl3 ® Fe3+OH- + Na+Cl- NaOH + FeCl3 ® Fe(OH)3 + NaCl

49 3NaOH + FeCl3 ® Fe(OH)3 + 3NaCl

50 #4 Double Replacement Will only happen if one of the products
doesn’t dissolve in water and forms a solid or is a gas that bubbles out. or is a covalent compound usually water. Polyatomic ions don’t change from side to side

51 Complete and balance assume all of the reactions take place.
CaCl2 + NaOH ® CuCl2 + K2S ® KOH + Fe(NO3)3 ®

52 Complete and balance KOH + Fe(NO3)3 ® H3PO4 + Ca(OH)2 ®

53 How to recognize which type
Look at the reactants E for element C for compound E + E Combination C Decomposition E + C Single replacement C + C Double replacement

54 Last Type Combustion A compound composed of only C H and maybe O is reacted with oxygen If the combustion is complete, the products will be CO2 and H2O. If the combustion is incomplete, the products will be CO and H2O. or just C and H2O. O2 will always be the second reactant

55 Examples Complete combustion of C4H10 Incomplete combustion of C4H10

56 Examples Complete combustion of C6H12O6 Incomplete combustion of C2H6O

57 Ionic Compounds and acids
Fall apart into ions when they dissolve That’s why they conduct electricity when dissolved. So when we write them as (aq) they are really separated NaCl(aq) is really Na+(aq) and Cl-(aq) K2SO4 (aq) is really K+(aq) and SO42-(aq)

58 Reactions in aqueous solutions
Many reactions happen in solution Makes it so the ions separate so they can interact. Solids, liquids, and gases are not separated, only aqueous

59 Chapter 7 Summary

60 An equation Describes a reaction Must be balanced to follow the
Law of Conservation of Mass Can only be balanced by changing the coefficients. Has special symbols to indicate state, and if catalyst or energy is required.

61 Reactions Come in 5 types.
Can tell what type they are by the reactants. Single Replacement happens based on the activity series Double Replacement happens if the product is a solid, water, or a gas.

62 The Process 1. Determine the type by looking at the reactants.
2. Put the pieces next to each other based on type 3. Use charges to write the formulas Elements get 2? 4. Use coefficients to balance the equation.

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