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The First Generals 1970 Elizabeth Hoisington, Director WAC Anna Mae Hays, Chief Army Nurses.

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Presentation on theme: "The First Generals 1970 Elizabeth Hoisington, Director WAC Anna Mae Hays, Chief Army Nurses."— Presentation transcript:

1 The First Generals 1970 Elizabeth Hoisington, Director WAC Anna Mae Hays, Chief Army Nurses

2 Some A, B, Cs Eighty-five per cent of the military are men and eighty-five per cent of military women are enlisted. Thus, women officers are a little over two per cent of those in uniform. Every officer starts as an O-1 and moves through the ranks. It takes more than 20 years to even become eligible for a star Evaluation for promotion follows a schedule and is an up or out system

3 Rules Change and Differ The rules change over time. Women who enter at different times have different opportunities and different demands, e.g. sea duty rotation The services offer different opportunities –Army –Navy……Marines –Air Force –Coast Guard

4 Civilian Influences Civil Rights Act of 1964 Equal Pay Act 1963 ERA passes Congress 1972 Concurrent majority ends the draft 1973 Court decisions –1973 Frontiero v Richardson –1976 Crawford v Cushman –1978 Owens v Brown

5 Equality Norm and Use The military knows it needs to respond to the new equality norm The end of the draft means a new pool (women) for recruiting is welcomed But how are women to be used if combat remains off the table

6 The Brass Ceiling The giant step is colonel/captain (O-6)to general/admiral (O-7,8,9,10) Percent of active duty officers who are women Army 15%, Navy 15%, Air Force 18%, Marines 6% Percent of women officers who are O-6s.(Many are nurses) Army 12%, Navy 12%, Air Force 12%, Marines 3%

7 Small Numbers Total Authorized Generals and Admirals About 880 Total Women Generals or Admiral About 55 or about 6% Big fall off from roughly 12% Particular rank goes with particular jobs; if not eligible for top jobs, not eligible for top rank

8 Intersectionality? Women Officers White 69% Black 17% Hispanic 5% Others 9% Women Generals and Admirals White 87%, 9% Black, Others 4%

9 Promotion System Central board considers whole officer based on fitness reports (and a picture) Reviews are regular and based on time in service and time in rank Some are promoted below the zone Total number of generals and admirals set by lawa vacancy is required Recommendations for senior rank are reviewed by the President and then go to the Senate for confirmation

10 Difficulties for Women Navy and Air Force women eligible for combat less than 20 years Ground combat still officially prohibited for Army and Marine women Deployments--Always ready Family –Majority of senior women have been or are married and around 30% have given birth

11 Conclusion Nurses distort the picture. They are numerous but only the heads of each corps is likely to win a star More and more women have the experience to be eligible for a star Getting the right assignments and mentors are important Women officers have supportive networks

12 Ann Dunwoody First Four Star 2009 Every Day Special Day


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