2 History of Selective Service Conscription 1st used in Civil War, 1863Law authorized release to anyone who furnished a substitute, orPaid $300 (at first)WWI21-30, later 18-45, had to registerExemptions to men with dependent families, indispensable duties, physical disabilitiesConscientious objector status for pacifist religious organizations, alternative service2.8M inductedFirst “peacetime” draft,In preparation for WWIINot more than 900K in training at one time, 12 months service (1941, 18 months)18-65 register; liable; termination of service was 6 months after war ended75% of men born ; 10M inductedMost of the rest exempted by physical/mental handicaps
3 History of Selective Service Cold War18-26 register; liable for 21 months active followed by 5 years reserveKorea,18-26 register; liable for 24 months active followed by 5 years reserveCold War,Strengthen reserve forces and National Guard18-26 register; liable for 24 months active followed by 6 years reserveCold War,Allowed for educational defermentsLottery added, 1969
4 History of Selective Service Vietnam,Opposition to war was largeEspecially college campusesBoiled over in 1970Kent State, 5 students killed by National GuardJackson State, 2 students killed by Mississippi policeProtests closed close to 500 campuses in response“Discriminatory, undemocratic and resulted in the war being fought by the poor man’s son.” Gen William WestmorelandPhysically fit, 18.5 to 25, oldest firstLottery, 1969, by birthday, first 195 birthdays called to report for possible induction, each year a new lotteryBorn 1944 – 1950 were eligible27M men eligible; 2.2M drafted; 8.7M enlisted; 16M deferments, exemptions, or disqualificationsRight connections, right occupations, college or physical problemsFull time student making satisfactory progress towards a degree500K resisted or evaded by declaring themselves conscientious objectors, hiding or going to CanadaPoor, both black and white, and Hispanic twice as likely to be drafted and twice as likely to be assigned combat units (1:4) wealthy/educated: poorRegistration requirement suspended 1975In 1971, local draft boards were required to be as representative as possible of the racial and economic demographics of registrants in the area served by the board
5 History of Selective Service TodayPresident Jimmy Carter, 1980, registration resumedIn response to Soviet invasion of Afghanistan18-25In 30 days of their 18th birthdayNone have been drafted since 1973Lottery, 1 year in 1st priority, calendar year he turns 20 or his deferment ends; each year after that his draft status would be lowered and liability reducedCollege students can have induction postponed until the end of the current semester or if a senior to the end of the academic yearAll volunteer force60% white; 40% otherWealthy and very poor underrepresentedOther alternatives or uneducated/drugs/legal
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