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Selective Service (Draft). History of Selective Service Conscription 1 st used in Civil War, 1863 –Law authorized release to anyone who furnished a substitute,

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Presentation on theme: "Selective Service (Draft). History of Selective Service Conscription 1 st used in Civil War, 1863 –Law authorized release to anyone who furnished a substitute,"— Presentation transcript:

1 Selective Service (Draft)

2 History of Selective Service Conscription 1 st used in Civil War, 1863 –Law authorized release to anyone who furnished a substitute, or –Paid $300 (at first) WWI –21-30, later 18-45, had to register –Exemptions to men with dependent families, indispensable duties, physical disabilities –Conscientious objector status for pacifist religious organizations, alternative service –2.8M inducted First peacetime draft, 1940-1945 –In preparation for WWII –Not more than 900K in training at one time, 12 months service (1941, 18 months) –18-65 register; 18-45 liable; termination of service was 6 months after war ended –75% of men born 1919-1926; 10M inducted –Most of the rest exempted by physical/mental handicaps

3 History of Selective Service Cold War –1948-1951 –18-26 register; 19-26 liable for 21 months active followed by 5 years reserve Korea, 1950-1953 –18-26 register; 18.5-26 liable for 24 months active followed by 5 years reserve Cold War, 1955-1967 –Strengthen reserve forces and National Guard –18-26 register; 18.5-26 liable for 24 months active followed by 6 years reserve Cold War, 1967-1975 –Allowed for educational deferments –Lottery added, 1969

4 History of Selective Service Vietnam, 1964-1973 –Opposition to war was large –Especially college campuses Boiled over in 1970 Kent State, 5 students killed by National Guard Jackson State, 2 students killed by Mississippi police Protests closed close to 500 campuses in response –Discriminatory, undemocratic and resulted in the war being fought by the poor mans son. Gen William Westmoreland –Physically fit, 18.5 to 25, oldest first –Lottery, 1969, by birthday, first 195 birthdays called to report for possible induction, each year a new lottery Born 1944 – 1950 were eligible –27M men eligible; 2.2M drafted; 8.7M enlisted; 16M deferments, exemptions, or disqualifications Right connections, right occupations, college or physical problems Full time student making satisfactory progress towards a degree –500K resisted or evaded by declaring themselves conscientious objectors, hiding or going to Canada –Poor, both black and white, and Hispanic twice as likely to be drafted and twice as likely to be assigned combat units (1:4) wealthy/educated: poor –Registration requirement suspended 1975 –In 1971, local draft boards were required to be as representative as possible of the racial and economic demographics of registrants in the area served by the board

5 History of Selective Service Today –President Jimmy Carter, 1980, registration resumed In response to Soviet invasion of Afghanistan 18-25 –In 30 days of their 18 th birthday –None have been drafted since 1973 –Lottery, 1 year in 1 st priority, calendar year he turns 20 or his deferment ends; each year after that his draft status would be lowered and liability reduced –College students can have induction postponed until the end of the current semester or if a senior to the end of the academic year All volunteer force –60% white; 40% other –Wealthy and very poor underrepresented Other alternatives or uneducated/drugs/legal


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