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This multimedia product and its contents are protected under copyright law. The following are prohibited by law: any public performance or display, including transmission of any image over a network; preparation of any derivative work, including extraction, in whole or in part, of any images; any rental, lease, or lending of the program. Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2007 Sensation and Perception: How the World Enters the Mind
Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2007 Sensation and Perception Sensation Sensation The awareness of properties of an object or event when a sensory receptor is stimulated The awareness of properties of an object or event when a sensory receptor is stimulated Perception Perception The act of organizing and interpreting sensory input as signaling a particular object or event The act of organizing and interpreting sensory input as signaling a particular object or event
Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2007 Illusions When perception does not accurately represent the world When perception does not accurately represent the world
Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2007 Psychophysics Study of the relationship between physical events and the corresponding experience of those events Study of the relationship between physical events and the corresponding experience of those events Thresholds Thresholds Absolute threshold Absolute threshold Just-noticeable difference (JND) Just-noticeable difference (JND) Webers law Webers law
Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2007 Psychophysics: Detecting Signals HitMiss False alarm Correct rejection YesNo Reported signal? Signal? Yes No Signal detection theory Signal detection theory A signal is always embedded in noise A signal is always embedded in noise Sensitivity Sensitivity Threshold level for distinguishing signal from noise Threshold level for distinguishing signal from noise Bias Bias Willingness to report noticing a stimulus Willingness to report noticing a stimulus
Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2007 Detecting Light Properties of light Properties of light Amplitude Amplitude Frequency Frequency Wavelength Wavelength
Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2007 Structures of the Eye Pupil Pupil Iris Iris Cornea Cornea Retina Retina Fovea Fovea Optic nerve Optic nerve
Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2007 Rods and Cones Rods ( million) Rods ( million) Very sensitive to light Very sensitive to light Only register shades of gray Only register shades of gray Not in fovea Not in fovea Cones (5-6 million) Cones (5-6 million) Sensitive to particular wavelengths Sensitive to particular wavelengths Produce color vision Produce color vision Denser near fovea Denser near fovea
Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2007 Visual Processes Transduction Transduction Accommodation Accommodation Dark adaptation Dark adaptation Filling in the blanks Filling in the blanks Do the blind spot demo in Figure 4.6 Do the blind spot demo in Figure 4.6
Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2007 Detecting Color Properties of color Properties of color Hue Hue Differing wavelengths Differing wavelengths Saturation Saturation Purity of input (amount of white that is mixed in) Purity of input (amount of white that is mixed in) Lightness Lightness Amplitude of waves Amplitude of waves
Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2007 Color Vision Trichromatic theory Trichromatic theory Opponent process theory Opponent process theory Afterimage Afterimage Opponent cells Opponent cells Color blindness Color blindness
Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2007 Seeing Afterimages In the following slide, fix your eyes on the dot in the center of the flag
Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2007
Vision Problems Common visual problems Common visual problems Myopia (nearsightedness) Myopia (nearsightedness) Hypermetropia (farsightedness) Hypermetropia (farsightedness) Astigmatism Astigmatism Cataract Cataract Macular degeneration Macular degeneration
Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2007 Organizing the Visual World Perceptual organization Perceptual organization Figure-ground Figure-ground
Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2007 Gestalt Laws of Organization Proximity Proximity XXX XXX vs. XX XX XX XXX XXX vs. XX XX XX Continuity Continuity _ _ _ _ vs. _ _ _ _ _ _ _ vs. _ _ _ Similarity Similarity XXXxxx XXXxxx Closure Closure Good form Good form [ ] vs. [ _ [ ] vs. [ _
Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2007 Ambiguous Figures
Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2007 Perceptual Constancies Size constancy Size constancy Shape constancy Shape constancy Color constancy Color constancy
Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2007 Knowing the Distance Problem: The 3-D world is projected onto a 2-D retina. Problem: The 3-D world is projected onto a 2-D retina. How do you construct a 3-D perception based on 2-D retinal images? How do you construct a 3-D perception based on 2-D retinal images? Visual cues Visual cues
Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2007 Knowing the Distance Visual cues Visual cues Static cues Static cues Binocular cues Binocular cues Retinal disparity Retinal disparity Convergence Convergence Monocular cues Monocular cues Texture gradient Texture gradient Motion cues Motion cues Motion parallax Motion parallax
Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2007 Visual Perception: Pathways Where pathway – parietal lobe What pathway – temporal lobe
Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2007 Knowing More Than You Can See Top-down processing Top-down processing Bottom-up processing Bottom-up processing Perceptual set Perceptual set B E F R
Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2007 Faces and Gazes Identifying faces Identifying faces Prosopagnosia Prosopagnosia Fusiform face area Fusiform face area Evolution-based specific face mechanism? Evolution-based specific face mechanism? Identifying gaze direction Identifying gaze direction Identification of direction of gaze may be automatic Identification of direction of gaze may be automatic Looking in that direction is voluntary Looking in that direction is voluntary
Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2007 Selective Attention On the next slide, locate the red T
Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2007 TTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTT
Selective Attention On the next slide, locate the red T (Again)
Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2007 TLTLTLTLTLTLTLTLTTLTTLTTTTLTTLTTLTLTLTTLLTLTLTTLTLTLTTLLTLTLTTLLTTLTLTTTTTLTLTTTLTTLTTTLLTTLTTTLTLTLTLTLTLTLTLTLTTLTTLTTTTLTTLTTLTLTLTTLLTLTLTTLTLTLTTLLTLTLTTLLTTLTLTTTTTLTLTTTLTTLTTTLLTTLTTTL
Divided Attention 1 On the next slide, name the colors of the ink as quickly as possible
Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2007 XXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXX XXXXX
Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2007 Divided Attention 2 On the next slide, name the colors of the ink as quickly as possible
Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2007 REDBLACKPINKGREENREDPINKBLUEBLUE BLUE PINK RED BLACK BLUE RED GREEN BLUE BLACK PINK RED BLUE GREEN PINK
Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2007 Divided Attention 3 On the next slide, name the colors of the ink as quickly as possible
Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2007 GREENBLUEREDBLUEBLACKREDGREENBLACK RED GREEN BLACK BLUE RED PINK GREEN RED BLUE RED BLUE GREEN BLACK PINK RED BLUE
Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2007 Seeing Without Awareness Blindsight Blindsight Change blindness Change blindness Repetition blindness Repetition blindness Attentional blink Attentional blink Subliminal perception Subliminal perception
Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2007 Hearing Sound waves Sound waves Pitch Pitch Loudness Loudness Decibel Decibel
Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2007 Structures of the Ear Eardrum Eardrum Hammer Hammer Anvil Anvil Stirrup Stirrup Cochlea Cochlea Basilar membrane Basilar membrane Hair cells Hair cells
Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2007 Auditory Processing Hair cells Hair cells Frequency theory Frequency theory Place theory Place theory Tonotopic organization Tonotopic organization
Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2007 Deafness Nerve deafness Nerve deafness Hair cells destroyed by loud sounds Hair cells destroyed by loud sounds Tinnitus Tinnitus Constant ringing Constant ringing Conduction deafness Conduction deafness
Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2007 Organizing the Auditory World Speech segmentation problem Speech segmentation problem Categorical perception Categorical perception Locating sounds: two ears Locating sounds: two ears Difference in phase Difference in phase Difference in loudness Difference in loudness Onset difference Onset difference Locating sounds: one ear Locating sounds: one ear
Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2007 Auditory Recognition and Identification Phonemic restoration effect Phonemic restoration effect Cocktail party phenomenon Cocktail party phenomenon Dichotic listening Dichotic listening Music Music Absolute pitch Absolute pitch
Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2007 The Olfactory System Chemical senses Chemical senses Olfactory bulb Olfactory bulb Receptors Receptors Lock and key Lock and key Pheromones Pheromones Synchronized menstrual cycles Synchronized menstrual cycles
Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2007 Taste Taste buds Taste buds Sweet, sour, salty, bitter Sweet, sour, salty, bitter Smell affects taste Smell affects taste
Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2007 Somasthetic Senses Kinesthetic sense Kinesthetic sense Vestibular sense Vestibular sense Touch Touch Temperature Temperature Pain Pain
Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2007 Other Senses? Magnetic sense Magnetic sense Extrasensory perception (ESP) Extrasensory perception (ESP) Telepathy, clairvoyance Telepathy, clairvoyance Problems Problems Failure to replicate Failure to replicate Lack of brain mechanism Lack of brain mechanism Lack of signals Lack of signals Alternative explanations Alternative explanations
Copyright © Allyn and Bacon 2007 Chapter 4 Sensation & Perception This multimedia product and its contents are protected under copyright law. The following.
Table of Contents OBJECTIVES: EXPLAIN THE DIFFERENCE BETWEEN SENSATION AND PERCEPTION COMPARE AND CONTRAST THE JND AND WEBERS LAW; AND THE ABSOLUTE THRESHOLD.
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