Presentation on theme: "Mutations. A C CC T A A AA G G T DNA C C G G G A A U U UUU mRNA transcription nucleus Gly Ser Phe Trp PROTEIN translation Cytoplasm: ribosome."— Presentation transcript:
A C CC T A A AA G G T DNA C C G G G A A U U UUU mRNA transcription nucleus Gly Ser Phe Trp PROTEIN translation Cytoplasm: ribosome
A change in the arrangement of bases in an individual gene or in the structure of the chromosome (which changes the arrangement of genes).
Mutations can occur in gametes and somatic cells. Chance of mutation is between 2-30 x Faulty DNA can be repaired by specific enzymes. Unrepaired mutations will affect the new proteins being synthesised
Val Changes in an individual gene due to miscopying of one or more nucleotides. Deletion or insertion of a nucleotide results in a frameshift: C A T G C G T C A G A T A Codon 1Codon 2 Codon 3 Codon 4 Tyr Ala Ser Leu Arg
Substitution mutations result in a change of one base: T A C G T G A A AC G G C A T MetHisPheAlaVal T Leu
Gene deletion: AB CDE Gene duplication: ECDBA CD CDBAE
Inversion: CD BA E Translocation: BACD E WXZY
An entire chromosome is lost or repeated during cell division. Example: Downs syndrome is caused by having an extra chromosme 21.
Production of new/superior protein: Results: gain of reproductive advantage Neutral mutation: Result: No change Production of inferior or no protein: Result: Fatal and/or disease causing.
Mutagens such as: X-rays ionising radiation chemicals