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Mutations. A C CC T A A AA G G T DNA C C G G G A A U U UUU mRNA transcription nucleus Gly Ser Phe Trp PROTEIN translation Cytoplasm: ribosome.

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Presentation on theme: "Mutations. A C CC T A A AA G G T DNA C C G G G A A U U UUU mRNA transcription nucleus Gly Ser Phe Trp PROTEIN translation Cytoplasm: ribosome."— Presentation transcript:

1 Mutations

2 A C CC T A A AA G G T DNA C C G G G A A U U UUU mRNA transcription nucleus Gly Ser Phe Trp PROTEIN translation Cytoplasm: ribosome

3 A change in the arrangement of bases in an individual gene or in the structure of the chromosome (which changes the arrangement of genes).

4 Mutations can occur in gametes and somatic cells. Chance of mutation is between 2-30 x 10 -7 Faulty DNA can be repaired by specific enzymes. Unrepaired mutations will affect the new proteins being synthesised

5 Val Changes in an individual gene due to miscopying of one or more nucleotides. Deletion or insertion of a nucleotide results in a frameshift: C A T G C G T C A G A T A Codon 1Codon 2 Codon 3 Codon 4 Tyr Ala Ser Leu Arg

6 Substitution mutations result in a change of one base: T A C G T G A A AC G G C A T MetHisPheAlaVal T Leu

7 Gene deletion: AB CDE Gene duplication: ECDBA CD CDBAE

8 Inversion: CD BA E Translocation: BACD E WXZY

9 An entire chromosome is lost or repeated during cell division. Example: Downs syndrome is caused by having an extra chromosme 21.

10 Production of new/superior protein: Results: gain of reproductive advantage Neutral mutation: Result: No change Production of inferior or no protein: Result: Fatal and/or disease causing.

11 Mutagens such as: X-rays ionising radiation chemicals

12 Define the term: somatic mutation deletion insertion duplication inversion translocation Downs syndrome mutagen

13 www.clickbiology.com


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