Presentation on theme: "Fuels and LubricantsLecture Notes1 FUELS AND LUBRICANTS."— Presentation transcript:
Fuels and LubricantsLecture Notes1 FUELS AND LUBRICANTS
Fuels and LubricantsLecture Notes2 Each substance which gives energy after burning is called fuel. Fuels are classification by sources; a.Natural b.Artificial Fuels are classification by phases; a.Solid – coal, wood etc. b.Liquid – petroleum products, alcohol, biofuel etc. c.Gas – methane, buthane, hydrogen, biogas etc.
Fuels and LubricantsLecture Notes3 Generally Liquid fuels are preferential 1.Energy per gram is too high 2.Fast conversion of chemical energy to thermal energy 3.Easy mix with oxygen 4.No ash after combustion 5.Easy transport and storage Every liquid substance which provides the sufficient thermal energy can be used as a fuel for internal combustion engines.
Fuels and LubricantsLecture Notes4 Industry demands; Qualified Similar specifications, Confidential fuels are required. Best efficiency, Engine protection, High standards, Extensive guarantee
Fuels and LubricantsLecture Notes5 American Petroleum Institute APIABD American Society for Testing And Materials ASTMABD Association Francaise de Normalisation AFNORFrance Deutsche Institut für Normung DINGermany Institute of Petroleum IPEngland International Organization for Standardization ISOInternational International Japan Institute of Standards JISJapan Institutions for Standardizations
Fuels and LubricantsLecture Notes6 PETROLEUM AND PRODUCTION Petrolem = Petra + Oleum Rock + Oil Petroleum is often called crude oil, fossil fuel or oil. It is called a fossil fuel because it was formed from the remains of tiny sea plants and animals that died millions of years ago. When the plants and animals died, they sank to the bottom of the oceans. Here, they were buried by thousands of kms of sand and sediment, which turned into sedimentary rock. As the layers increased, they pressed harder and harder on the decayed remains at the bottom. The heat and pressure changed the remains and, eventually, petroleum was formed.
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Fuels and LubricantsLecture Notes8 Composition by weight ElementPercent range Carbon83 to 87% Hydrogen10 to 14% Nitrogen0.1 to 2% Oxygen0.05 to 1.5% Sulfur0.05 to 6.0% Metals< 0.1% Composition by weight HydrocarbonAverageRange Paraffins30%15 to 60% Naphthenes49%30 to 60% Aromatics15%3 to 30% Asphaltics6%remainder
Fuels and LubricantsLecture Notes9 Petroleum is defined by 4 physical categories historically; 1.Boiling point 2.Density 3.Odour 4.Viscosity Light-heavy : Low boiling point and relative density Heavy-heavy : High boiling point, viscous. Because crude oil has Fe, Mg, Ca, P, V, S, Zn, Co, clay, water and other residuals, it has to distillate for internal combustion engines.
Fuels and LubricantsLecture Notes10 Petroleum Production (2009):2,4 m.ton Production Companies (2009):%69 TPAO %18 Private Co. %13 Private Co. + TPAO Partnership Petroleum Consumption(2009):32,3 m.ton Production/Consumption Ratio:%7,4 Total Productive Reserves:172,5 m.ton Petroleum in TURKEY
Fuels and LubricantsLecture Notes11 Middle East
Fuels and LubricantsLecture Notes12 1World United States European Union China Japan India Russia Germany Brazil Canada Mexico Korea, South France United Kingdom Italy Spain Iran Indonesia Saudi Arabia Netherlands Turkey Oil consumption bbl/day
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Fuels and LubricantsLecture Notes14 From the Field to the Refinery Oil drilling occurs both at sea and on land, depending on the size and profitability of the oil deposits located. The first step is the transport of the crude oil from its natural location to the refinery. Once obtained from the ground, the oil is transported by ship, truck or pipeline to the refinery.
Fuels and LubricantsLecture Notes15 At the Refinery To separate it into useful products begins. Have complex stages and each part have several processes. The very first step is to break up the crude oil.
Fuels and LubricantsLecture Notes16 Fractional distillation of crude oil is the first step in the production of many of the materials we have come to rely on in modern life. All our fossil fuels, virtually all our plastics, detergents and commercial alcohols are made from products of this process. In order to separate the different length chains in the crude mix, it is heated to a very high temperature. The temperature cannot be set higher than this as there is a risk that the lighter fractions will ignite. Fractional Distillation Of Crude Oil
Fuels and LubricantsLecture Notes17 Distillation is the most common form of separation technology used in petroleum refineries, petrochemical and chemical plants, natural gas processing. Industrial distillation is typically performed in large, vertical cylindrical columns known as "distillation or fractionation towers" or "distillation columns" with diameters ranging from about 65 centimetres to 6 metres and heights ranging from about 6 metres to 60 metres or more. The distillation towers have liquid outlets at intervals up the column which allow for the withdrawal of different fractions or products having different boiling points or boiling ranges. By increasing the temperature of the product inside the columns, the different hydrocarbons are separated. The "lightest" products (those with the lowest boiling point) exit from the top of the columns and the "heaviest" products (those with the highest boiling point) exit from the bottom of the column.
Fuels and LubricantsLecture Notes18 Major products of oil refineries Liquid petroleum gas (LPG) Gasoline (also known as petrol) Naphtha Kerosene and related jet aircraft fuels Diesel fuel Fuel oils Lubricating oils Asphalt and Tar Petroleum coke
Fuels and LubricantsLecture Notes19 Fractional distillation is used in oil refineries to separate crude oil into useful substances (or fractions) having different hydrocarbons of different boiling points
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Fuels and LubricantsLecture Notes23 Product Definitions The products refined from the liquid fractions of crude oil can be placed into ten main categories Asphalt Asphalt is commonly used to make roads. It is a colloid of asphaltenes and maltenes that is separated from the other components of crude oil by fractional distillation. Once asphalt is collected, it is processed in a de-asphalting unit, and then goes through a process called blowing where it is reacted with oxygen to make it harden. Asphalt is usually stored and transported at around 150 C.
Fuels and LubricantsLecture Notes24 Diesel Diesel is any fuel that can be used in a diesel engine. Diesel is produced by fractional distillation between 250° Fahrenheit and 350° Fahrenheit. Diesel has a higher density than gasoline and is simpler to refine from crude oil. It is most commonly used in transportation. Fuel Oil Fuel oil is any liquid petroleum product that is burned in a furnace to generate heat. Fuel oil is also the heaviest commercial fuel that is produced from crude oil.
Fuels and LubricantsLecture Notes25 Gasoline It is mainly used as fuel in internal combustion engines, like the engines in cars. Gasoline is a mixture of paraffins, naphthenes, and olefins, although the specific ratios of these parts depends on the refinery where the crude oil is processed. Gasoline refined beyond fractional distillation is often enhanced with iso-octane and ethanol so that it is usable in cars. Gasoline is called different things in different parts of the world. Some of these names are: petrol, petroleum spirit, gas, petrogasoline, and mogas. Kerosene Kerosene is collected through fractional distillation at temperatures between 150° Fahrenheit and 275° Fahrenheit. It is a combustible liquid that is thin and clear. Kerosene is most commonly used as jet fuel and as heating fuel.
Fuels and LubricantsLecture Notes26 Liquefied Petroleum Gas Liquefied petroleum gas is a mixture of gases that are most often used in heating appliances, aerosol propellants, and refrigerants. Different kinds of liquefied petroleum gas, or LPG, are propane and butane. At normal atmospheric pressure, liquefied petroleum gas will evaporate, so it needs to be contained in pressurized steel bottles. Lubricating Oil Lubricating oils consist of base oils and additives. Different lubricating oils are classified as paraffinic, naphthenic, or aromatic. Lubricating oils are used between two surfaces to reduce friction and wear. The most commonly-known lubricating oil is motor oil, which protects moving parts inside an internal combustion engine.
Fuels and LubricantsLecture Notes27 Paraffin Wax Paraffin wax is a white, odorless, tasteless, waxy solid at room temperature. The melting point of paraffin wax is between 47° C and 65° C, depending on other factors. It is an excellent electrical insulator, second only to Teflon®, a specialized product of petroleum. Paraffin wax is used in drywall to insulate buildings. It is also an acceptable wax used to make candles. Bitumen Bitumen, commonly known as tar, is a thick, black, sticky material. Refined bitumen is the bottom fraction obtained by the fractional distillation of crude oil. This means that the boiling point of bitumen is very high, so it does not rise in the distillation chamber. The boiling point of bitumen is 525° C. Bitumen is used in paving roads and waterproofing roofs and boats. Bitumen is also made into thin plates and used to soundproof dishwashers and hard drives in computers.
Fuels and LubricantsLecture Notes28 Petrochemicals Petrochemicals are the chemical products made from the raw materials of petroleum. These chemicals include: ethylene, used to make anesthetics, antifreeze, and detergents; propylene, used to produce acetone and phenol; benzene, used to make other chemicals and explosives; toluene, used as a solvent and in refined gasoline; xylene is used as a solvent and cleaning agent.
Fuels and LubricantsLecture Notes29 Corrosion problems and prevention Petroleum refineries run as efficiently as possible to reduce costs. One major factor that decreases efficiency is corrosion of the metal components found throughout the process line of the hydrocarbon refining process. Corrosion causes the failure of parts in addition to dictating the cleaning schedule of the refinery, during which the entire production facility must be shut down and cleaned. Sample for US: The cost of corrosion in the petroleum industry has been estimated at US$3.7 billion
Fuels and LubricantsLecture Notes30 GASOLINE Gasoline is an extremely flammable fuel source for automobiles and other vehicles and equipment. A liquid, it can be colorless, pale brown or pale pink. Gasoline is not a single substance. There is no such thing as pure gasoline. Gasoline is produced by refining petroleum, and it consists of a complex mixture of over 120 hydrocarbons.
Fuels and LubricantsLecture Notes31 The most commonly used gasoline quality guidelines are established by ASTM International (ASTM). ASTM specifications are established by consensus based on; producers of gasoline producers of ethanol manufacturers of automotive equipment users of both commodities
Fuels and LubricantsLecture Notes32 Gasoline Engines
Fuels and LubricantsLecture Notes33 Two Stroke Cycle
Fuels and LubricantsLecture Notes34 Gasoline Properties The octane number is a relative measure of knocking, or the tendency to self-ignition of a fuel in a spark-ignited internal combustion engine. In a normal cycle, the fuel-air mixture is ignited at the end of the compression stroke by a spark plug. If fuel has too low an octane number, it may spontaneously ignite during the compression stroke itself due to the temperature rise during compression or from hot spots in the engine. This kind of ignition, called pre-ignition, can quickly damage the engine. Octane Number
Fuels and LubricantsLecture Notes35 For higher compression ratio engines, gasoline with a higher octane is required The efficiency of an engine is directly proportional to its compression ratio; the higher the compression ratio, the higher the power output. Octane Number determination 1.Normal heptane is low in its resistance to knock and assigned an octane number of 0. 2.Isooctane is quite high in its resistance to knock and assigned an octane number of To measure the fuels octane, the engine is operated with test fuel at 900 r/min (revolutions per minute) and the compression ratio is increased until onset of knocking. Octane number is measured with a standard American Standard Testing Method (ASTM) Cooperative Fuel Research (CFR) single-cylinder engine with a variable compression ratio.
Fuels and LubricantsLecture Notes36 4. Next the test fuel is replaced with a mixture of isooctane and normal heptane in varying proportions until a mixture is found that matches the knocking characteristics of the test fuel. 5. The percentage of isooctane in the blend is the octane number of the fuel. Both the research octane number (RON) and the motor octane number (MON) are measured with the same test engine but with different test conditions. RON is determined as per ASTM D 2699, the test is run at 600 r/min, input air at 20 to 52°C, depending on barometric pressure. In the MON method (ASTM D 2700), the test is run at 900 r/min, input air temperature is maintained at 38°C, and ignition timing varies between 14 and 26°C depending on compression. The RON of most commercial unleaded gasoline fuels varies between 83 and 95. Motor octane (MON) is generally 5 to 10 numbers less than RON.
Fuels and LubricantsLecture Notes37 Reid Vapor Pressure A gasoline engine needs a fuel that is sufficiently volatile to allow easy formation of the fuel vapor-air mixture required for combustion. If fuel vaporizes too much, it will not flow to the engine due to vapor lock. If fuel is less volatile, it will not evaporate and will remain in liquid form. Vapor lock occurs when the automobile fuel pump, which is designed to pump liquid, has a suction pipe full of vapor instead of liquid and is thus unable to deliver gasoline to the engine, resulting in stalling. The Reid Vapor Pressure (RVP) is vapor pressure of gasoline at 100°F (37 C).
Fuels and LubricantsLecture Notes38 RVP and boiling range determine the ease of starting, the engine warm- up, and the vapor lock temperature. RVP is adjusted to a lower value during the summer and a higher value during the winter months. RVP is adjusted by increasing or lowering the volume of volatile components such as normal butane, light straight run (LSR) naphtha, or isomerate in gasoline blends.
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Fuels and LubricantsLecture Notes40 Gasolines tendency to vaporize is also characterized by determining a series of temperatures at which various percentages of the fuel have evaporated as described in ASTM D 86. The temperatures at which 10, 50, and 90 percent evaporation occur define the volatility of gasoline. Distillation The 10 percent evaporated temperature is directly affected by the seasonal blending of gasoline. This temperature must be low enough to provide easy cold starting but also high enough to minimize vapor lock and hot weather derivability problems. Problems can occur in cool weather by the use of summer season gasoline.
Fuels and LubricantsLecture Notes41 The 50 percent evaporated temperature must be low enough to provide good warmup and cool weather drivability without being too low to cause hot weather drivability and vapor lock problems. The 90 percent and final boiling point (FBP) must be low enough to minimize crankcase and combustion chamber deposits, spark plug fouling, and dilution of engine oil.
Fuels and LubricantsLecture Notes42 Gasoline Blends MTBE can be used up to 11 vol % in the blend, and it gives an oxygen content of 2 wt % (percentage by weight) to gasoline blend. To meet the oxygen content requirement, gasoline blenders used MTBE, ethanol, and other blend components containing oxygen. Alkylate is an excellent motor gasoline and aviation gasoline blend stock because of its high octane and low volatility. Normal butane is added to gasoline to meet RVP specifications. In winter months normal butane can be blended in gasoline in a higher proportion because winter RVP specs are higher than those of summer. Tetraethyl Lead TEL was almost exclusively used in gasoline to increase its octane number. Lead is a poisonous metal that has neurotoxic effects on humans even at very low levels. Restricted by regulations.
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Fuels and LubricantsLecture Notes46 DIESEL FUEL Diesel fuel comes in several different grades, depending upon its intended use. Like gasoline, diesel fuel is not a single substance, but a mixture of various petroleum-derived components, including paraffins, isoparaffins, napthenes, olefins and aromatic hydrocarbons, each with their own physical and chemical properties. The ASTM standard for diesel fuels is ASTM D 975 – Standard Specification for Diesel Fuel Oils. This standard currently covers seven grades of diesel fuel oils.
Fuels and LubricantsLecture Notes47 These grades include numbers 1-D (S15), 1-D (S500), 1-D (S5000), 2-D (S15), 2-D (S500), 2-D (S5000) and 4-D. The grades are listed in order of increasing density and viscosity. In other words, a 2-D grade is denser and of higher viscosity than grade 1-D. The parenthetic numbers such as (S15) refer to the maximum sulfur level for the grade. Thus 2-D (S15) refers to No. 2 diesel with a maximum of 15 parts per million (ppm) sulfur. Grades designated S500 are low sulfur diesel (maximum 500 ppm sulfur), while S15 designates ultra-low sulfur diesel. The S5000 grades, as well as No. 4-D, are for off-road use only.
Fuels and LubricantsLecture Notes48 When the word diesel fuel is used, it is primarily in reference to No. 2-D grades, since that is the grade generally used in all on-road vehicles as well as the majority of off-road applications.
Fuels and LubricantsLecture Notes49 DIESEL ENGINE
Fuels and LubricantsLecture Notes50 Cetane Number Cetane number is a measure of the ignition quality of the fuel. Cetane number affects combustion roughness. Diesel cetane ratings work in the opposite Direction to the octane number. The higher the cetane rating, the more easily it ignites.
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Fuels and LubricantsLecture Notes52 Viscosity The viscosity of diesel fuel is an important property which impacts the performance of fuel injection systems. Some injection pumps can experience excessive wear and power loss due to injector or pump leakage if viscosity is too low. If fuel viscosity is too high, it may cause too much pump resistance, filter damage and adversely affect fuel spray patterns. Flash Point This is not related directly to engine performance. The flashpoint is controlled to meet safety requirements for fuel handling and storage.
Fuels and LubricantsLecture Notes53 Low temperature Ability The cloud point of a diesel fuel is the temperature at which the amount of precipitated wax crystals becomes large enough to make the fuel appear cloudy or hazy. Wax may form because normal paraffins occur naturally in diesel fuel. As the temperature of the fuel is lowered, these paraffins become less soluble in the fuel and precipitate out as wax crystals. Pour point is the lowest temperature at which the fuel will flow and is used to predict the lowest temperature at which the fuel can be pumped.
Fuels and LubricantsLecture Notes54 Ash Ash-forming materials can result in injector and fuel pump wear, as well as piston and ring wear, in the case of abrasive solids, and engine deposits may also increase. The primary concern with soluble soaps is their contribution to engine deposits.
Fuels and LubricantsLecture Notes55 Diesel Fuel Properties
Fuels and LubricantsLecture Notes56 Diesel Additive Functions