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Petroleum and Gas Processing(TKK-2136) 14/15 Fall semester Instructor: Rama Oktavian Office Hr.: M.13-15, Tu. 13-15, W.

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Presentation on theme: "Petroleum and Gas Processing(TKK-2136) 14/15 Fall semester Instructor: Rama Oktavian Office Hr.: M.13-15, Tu. 13-15, W."— Presentation transcript:

1 Petroleum and Gas Processing(TKK-2136) 14/15 Fall semester Instructor: Rama Oktavian Office Hr.: M.13-15, Tu , W , Th , F

2 Outlines 1. Crude oil: Introduction and sources 2. Crude oil: Properties 3. The overview of refinery process 4. Crude oil products uses

3 Crude oil: Introduction Crude oil?? Crude oil is a mixture of different sized hydrocarbons. The exact composition depends upon where the oil comes from but typically it contains a lot of big molecules

4 Crude oil: Introduction Crude oil composition Crude oil is a mixture of different sized hydrocarbons. The exact composition depends upon where the oil comes from but typically it contains a lot of big molecules Crude oil is composed of the following groups: 1.Hydrocarbon compounds 2.Non-hydrocarbon compounds 3.Organometallic compound and inorganic salt (metallic compound) The most common metal impurities found in crude oils are nickel, vanadium, and sodium

5 Crude oil: Introduction Crude oil composition

6 Crude oil: Introduction Crude oil composition

7 Crude oil: Introduction Crude oil composition Paraffins

8 Crude oil: Introduction Crude oil composition Aromatics and napthenes

9 Crude oil: Introduction Crude oil composition Olefins

10 Crude oil: Introduction Type of crude oil

11 Crude oil: Introduction Crude oil properties

12 Crude oil: Introduction Crude assay a compilation of laboratory and pilot plant data that define the properties of the specific crude oil At minimum, it should contain distillation curve and specific gravity curve Crude properties The true boiling point curve a plot of the boiling points of almost pure components, contained in the crude oil or fractions of the crude oil

13 Crude oil: Properties The true boiling point (TBP) D.S. Jones, P.R. Pujady, Handbook of Petroleum Processing, pp. 21

14 Crude oil: Properties API Gravity an expression of the density of an oil refers to density at 60 ◦ F (15.6 ◦ C) relationship with specific gravity

15 Crude oil: Properties Flash point the temperature at which the vapor above the oil will momentarily flash or explode. Testing using ASTM Standards Part 7, Petroleum products and Lubricants Octane number a measure of a gasoline’s resistance to knock or detonation in a cylinder of a gasoline engine that percentage of isooctane in a blend of isooctane and normal heptane that exactly matches the knock behavior of the gasoline

16 Crude oil: Properties Cloud point The temperature at which the oil becomes hazy or cloudy Pour point The temperature at which the oil ceases to flow altogether Cut point The temperature on the whole crude TBP curve that represents the limits (upper and lower) of a fraction to be produced End point The actual terminal temperatures of a fraction produced commercially

17 Crude oil: Properties

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19 The overview of refinery process Oil refinery process history in Indonesia The Indonesia government authority began to inventory the sources of state revenue, including oil and gas PT PERMINA was restructured into a state-owned company known as PN PERMINA the Indonesian government issued Law No. 8/ 1971, which positioned Pertamina as the only state owned enterprise tasked with managing the oil and gas business

20 The overview of refinery process Oil refinery process history in Indonesia

21 The overview of refinery process PT. Pertamina refinery Pertamina also has 2 (two) operating companies i.e. PT Arun LNG operating LNG plant in Arun (12.5Mton per year) and PT Badak LNG operating LNG plant in Bontang (22.5 Mton per year).

22 The overview of refinery process Oil reserves in Indonesia

23 The overview of refinery process Oil reserves in Indonesia

24 The overview of refinery process Block diagram

25 The overview of refinery process Crude distillation unit (CDU) 1.Atmospheric crude distillation unit 2.Vacuum distillation unit Atmospheric Crude distillation unit (CDU) -Process objectives: To distill and separate valuable distillates (naphtha, kerosene, diesel) and atmospheric gas oil (AGO) from the crude feedstock. -Process steps: 1. Preheat the crude feed utilizing recovered heat from the product Streams 2. Desalt and dehydrate the crude using electrostatic enhanced liquid/liquid separation (Desalter) 3. Heat the crude to the desired temperature using fired heaters 4. Flash the crude in the atmospheric distillation column 5. Utilize pump around cooling loops to create internal liquid reflux 6. Product draws are on the top, sides, and bottom

26 The overview of refinery process Atmospheric Crude distillation unit (CDU) -Typical product:

27 The overview of refinery process Atmospheric Crude distillation unit (CDU)

28 The overview of refinery process Vacuum Crude distillation unit (CDU) -Process objectives: To recover valuable gas oils from reduced crude via vacuum distillation -Process steps: 1. Heat the reduced crude to the desired temperature using fired Heaters 2. Flash the reduced crude in the vacuum distillation column 3. Utilize pumparound cooling loops to create internal liquid reflux 4. Product draws are on the top, sides, and bottom

29 The overview of refinery process Vacuum Crude distillation unit (CDU) -Typical product:

30 The overview of refinery process Vacuum Crude distillation unit (CDU)

31 Oil refinery products list Products -Petroleum gas - used for heating, cooking, making plastics -Naphtha or Ligroin - intermediate that will be further processed to make gasoline -Gasoline - motor fuel -Kerosene - fuel for jet engines and tractors; starting material for making other products -Gas oil or Diesel distillate - used for diesel fuel and heating oil; starting material for making other products -Lubricating oil - used for motor oil, grease, other lubricants -Heavy gas or Fuel oil - used for industrial fuel; starting material for making other products -Residuals - coke, asphalt, tar, waxes; starting material for making other products

32 Oil refinery products list Products Cylinder of LPGSample of gasoline Sample of kerosene Sample of diesel fuel


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